• Demographic and social consequences of oil and gas development in Siberia, 1960s-early 1990s

      Logunov, Eugene V.; Black, Lydia (1999)
      The main goal of this thesis is to study the demographic and social consequences of rapid oil and gas development in Siberia, to show the experience of solving or failing to solve of wide range of social and cultural issues, and to sum up the results of both the economic impact on the social-cultural processes and the social impact on industrial production. In three decades, the number of new settlers in the Tyumen province was no less than 2,000,000 people. Such a pace of settling previously uninhabited territories with extreme environmental conditions had never occurred before in world practice. This explosive growth of population, dominated by young single males, has resulted in a distorted demographic structure which is hardly capable of reproduction. The birth rate declined sharply, whereas the death rate grew because of accidents, diseases, alcoholism, narcotics addiction, etc. The situation has been aggravated by complete neglect of the development of a social infrastructure. Nearly half of population live in conditions conducive to the degradation of family, morals, health and cultural values. Oil and gas development had numerous negative effects on indigenous peoples of the North. Destruction of the environment has undermined the natural base and functioning of their traditional occupations. They were unable to adapt to the new kinds of economic activity, and social and physical problems have become aggravated. There has been growth of the disease rate and of alcoholism. The descent into poverty has been rapid, and they find themselves under threat of ethnic degeneration and extinction. It was the initial orientation toward creation of a new but permanent population, the politics of "development through settlement," that proved to be one of the main causes of the deep crisis which has affected the region. The formation of a large, heterogeneous, unstable population, taken together with all its problems, accompanied by the inability to create a favorable social environment, mismanagement of manpower resources and an inadequate social infrastructure, have become the leading causes of production failures in the oil and gas industry.
    • Spanish Exploration In The North Pacific And Its Effect On Alaska Place Names

      Luna, Albert Gregory (2000)
      Precipitated by the rapid advance of Russian fur hunters across the Aleutian Islands, the Spanish government awoke from its two hundred-year complacent slumber to define and defend its northern border. In all, seven expeditions crossed 54&deg;40<super>'</super>N in the years between 1774 and 1792. Though not obvious today, these voyages left a vestigial mark on the state's topynomy along the Gulf of Alaska. From the town of Valdez to Bucareli Bay, these names are remains of a territorial rivalry in which the Spanish lost. <p> Refusal to publish its findings, lack of private entrepreneurs, and the inability of Spain to assess Alaska for its inherent value all guaranteed that the only thing Spanish in the state would be a scattering of place names. However, the visitation and subsequent maneuvering to possess Alaska among the Russians, British, and English in this crucial period is a neglected yet fascinating area of Alaskan history. <p>
    • Contaminating space: Project West Ford and scientific communities, 1958-1965

      Levin, Tanya J. (2000-05)
      From 1958 until 1965 the MIT Lincoln Laboratory worked on a military communications experiment which involved injecting a belt of copper dipoles into earth orbit. The US Air Force and Defense Department supported this project, called West Ford, because the project promised to deliver a secure and reliable system to transmit messages. Some optical and radio astronomers protested the belt because they feared that the dipoles would interfere with research. Other astronomers and scientists looked positively upon the project primarily because of the fields in which they worked, the funding they received, and the contacts they maintained. West Ford casts light upon the struggle between different scientific communities, the way in which scientists compartmentalize state and professional responsibilities, and the nature of scientific advising during the Cold War. The project also points to a strand of environmental consciousness, different from, and earlier than, the mid-1960s popular movement.
    • The geography of isolation: nineteenth century science, exploration and the conception of the Aleutian Islands

      Watson, Annette (2000-12)
      The purpose of this thesis is threefold: first, to follow the early history of Alaska from the point of view of the Aleutian Islands; second, to follow how the history of science intersects with this history. Third, to show how nineteenth century science and scientists conceived of the Aleutians, and how their conceptions translated to public perceptions of landscape. The Aleutian Islands went from being the center of the newly-purchased Alaska in 1867--to an isolated chain of islands stretching beyond the margins of the map. Tracing the progression of this isolation demonstrates how landscape--an amalgamation of physical experience and myth--is the product of one's identity.
    • James Church McCook and American consular diplomacy in the Klondike, 1898-1901

      Jessup, David Eric; Cole, Terrence; Naske, Claus-M.; Irwin, Robert (2001-08)
      The Klondike Gold Rush saw tens of thousands of Americans pour into the Canadian Yukon. Although the unprecedented event was of marginal diplomatic significance to Washington, the United States government responded by establishing an official American presence in the Klondike boomtown of Dawson City. Congress provided for a United States consulate in Dawson in January of 1898, and the following summer, James Church McCook arrived to serve as the first consul. McCook served for three and a half years as the only U.S. government official in what was essentially an American town on Canadian soil. A retired confectionary manufacturer from Philadelphia, McCook was representative of the amateur tradition of American consular diplomacy. His State Department correspondence revealed both the hardships of consular work and the notion of devoted service, while shedding light on Washington's relationship with Canada at the time of the United State' emergence as a world power.
    • The 1951 Bristol Bay salmon strike: isolation, independence and illusion in the last frontier

      McCullough, Nicole Susan (2001-12)
      Many people consider Alaska the last frontier, isolated and independent from the rest of the United States. An analysis of the salmon industry in Bristol Bay and a strike that occurred in 1951 cast doubt upon this belief. The labor dispute and preceding events paint a vivid picture of a population clearly dependent on a fishing industry controlled by absentee owners who manipulated events from Seattle and San Francisco. The strikers included Natives and Non-Natives who joined together to fight the powerful cannery owners and west coast unions who sought to expand their membership. Some of these unions had suspected communist members, and Alaska joined in the paranoia that seized the rest of the United States in their cold war fear of Communism. The strike and the actions of participants in the strike illustrate how Alaska's isolation and independence was but an illusion in the last frontier.
    • Alcohol-affected offenders: Alaska's crime conundrum

      Harwood, Maureen Frances (2002-05)
      Offenders with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) are being inadequately identified and addressed in Alaska's criminal justice system. Without recognition of the problems associated with FAS (e.g., slow cognitive pacing, language impairments, impaired ability to deal with abstract concepts such as time) the alcohol-affected individual's ability to understand and effectively participate in the criminal justice process is compromised. This thesis examines the challenges that people with FAS and other prenatal alcohol exposure conditions present for Alaska's criminal justice system. Ways of protecting people prenatally exposed to alcohol against poor life outcomes, like trouble with the law are explained. Additionally, I present effective steps that criminal justice system entities utilize to assist people with disabilities who commit crimes and discuss their adaptation to the problems of people with FAS.
    • Local control in economic development: an urban - rural comparison in the North

      Herschleb, Anne L. (2002-05)
      This thesis examines economic development proposals in two communities in Alaska: Girdwood, a small urban community in the south-central area of the state; and Nuiqsut, a small rural community on the North Slope. Each community in located within a larger, regional government and has little formal control over economic development within its jurisdiction. The study's framework is based on an examination of contemporary urban political theories and their application to non-urban settings; inherent in the framework is an emphasis on historical, cultural, and social values to understand the political dynamics that affect decision making in communities. The study finds that the structure of local government may lead to a lack of historical, social, and cultural considerations in economic development decisions made by the more dominant government entities, unless the dominant government shares the values of the affected community. A major implication is to expand current explanations of economic development in urban and rurual communities by including the influences of historical, social, aand cultural values of affected communities, as an alternative to the market model.
    • Discoverers & possessors: symbolic acts of possession and Spain's struggle for sovereignty on the North Pacific coast

      Allan, Timo C. (2002-05)
      Until the 18th century, the North Pacific coast of North America remained one of the last territories in the world unexplored by Europeans. As terra nullius, or land unclaimed by any Christian prince, this coastline became a coveted prize as Spanish, Russian, French, and British explorers raced to establish sovereignty on behalf of their respective monarchs. The use of symbolic acts of possession in the North Pacific and the indigenous reaction to those ceremonies has never been properly examined. Often dismissed as meaningless pageantry, symbolic acts were for centuries the principl means by which European powers established claims to territories too vast to be settled or defended militarily. By reexamining the accounts of Spanish explorers and their imperial rivals, this study reveals both the power of symbolic acts in the struggle for sovereignty and their weaknesses as ritual claiming yielded to the practical realities of effective occupation and military prowess.
    • Living the frontier myth in the twenty-first century

      Tyrrell, Laurel Beach (2002-05)
      On the cusp of the millennium, a small number of people live near the community of Central, Alaska in the heart of the state that calls itself 'The Last Frontier'. On the edge of largely uninhabitated lands this group of people have chosen a way of living consistent with traditional American ideals of self-reliance, independence, solitude, and wilderness. Seeking a place to build a quality life integrating meaning and value, far from crowded situations, they have planted themselves in a wild and natural setting. Their narratives display the influence of the physical environment on their view of themselves, others, and the broadening of their inner capabilities. Their stories communicate the fear that this distinct way of living is being brought to an end through conservation efforts and government regulation. Preserving this lifeway is important as it contributes to the richness of human diversity and expresses universal themes in its stories.
    • Selling the Alaska Highway: tourism and landscape

      Pitkanen, Laura Lynne (2002-05)
      Tourism is the fastest growing industry in the North. As a dynamic industry, tourism may exert powerful, often unforeseen pressures on the cultures, economies, resources, and landscapes of host communities. As a popular tourist corridor in the North, the Alaska Highway is enshrouded in a mythology based on frontier, hardship, and wilderness images. However, an examination of the Alaska Highway reveals that the tourism landscape contradicts this mythology. Indeed the tourism landscape is in the process of becoming commercial and homogenous in nature. While distinction in landscape is noted as a primary motivation for Alaska Highway travellers, more importantly, distinction is identified as a vital component of community and regional identity. In order for tourism to be a positive industry, it seems pertinent that Alaska Highway communities assess the long-term implications of mass tourism in this region and undertake appropriate, long-term planning initiatives based on community goals.
    • The role of Alaskan missile defense in environmental security

      Fritz, Stacey Anne (2002-12)
      In 2002, the United States abandoned the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and began constructing a missile defense system in Alaska. Questions about how missile defense will contribute to U.S. security remain. Moreover, beliefs about what constitutes security are expanding to include considerations of global environmental stability. According to environmental security theories on arms control, non-proliferation, and environmental degradation, deploying missile defense may make the U.S. and the world less secure. This analysis addresses the issue by exploring the military's role in Alaska and resulting environmental damage, followed by a history of missile defense systems and a description ofthe Alaskan project's components. Arguments for and against missile defense are explained, and the history of Kodiak Island's rocket launch facility illustrates how these issues are evolving in Alaska. The conclusion discusses why pursuing the system is seen by many as a risky policy choice in both traditional and environmental security contexts.
    • Food, sex, death, and quest: the literary legacy of Sir John Franklin

      Long, Maureen Eleanor (2003-05)
      The story of Sir John Franklin, nineteenth-century British Arctic explorer, has been reinterpreted and reworked by poets, novelists, essayists, and dramatists for more than a century and half. This thesis is an attempt to discover the character and significance of the literary legacy of Sir John Franklin by exploring authors' uses of four common tropes: food, sex, death, and quest. In analyzing these tropes, this thesis focuses primarily on five works of contemporary Canadian literature: Margaret Atwood's short story, "The Age of Lead"; Gwendolyn MacEwen's radio verse play, Terror and Erebus; Geoff Kavanagh's play, Ditch; Mordecai Richler's novel, Solomon Gursky Was Here; and Rudy Wiebe's novel, A Discovery of Strangers. In addition, other works of literature are considered. An appendix lists more than fifty creative works that incorporate Sir John Franklin.
    • Saami activism in the United Nations: an analysis of effectiveness internationally and at home

      Hicks, Christian Jakob Burmeister (2003-08)
      The Saami of Norway, Sweden, and Finland have been politically active internationally since the 1960s and 1970s. In the last fifteen years their presence has been a major force in indigenous politics and human rights. They have interacted with other indigenous groups, and in numerous national and international political arenas. The motivation for this study is based on the desire to understand the role of Nordic Saami actors in the rapidly changing world of international indigenous politics and how international indigenous politics influences national politics. This study is important to understanding not only Saami politics but also indigenous politics in the larger global perspective. The research shows that the Nordic Saami have been tremendously influential within the United Nations. In turn, Nordic Saami international influence has directly changed Nordic indigenous policy domestically. These international and in turn, national changes led to a significant and wide-reaching improvement in human rights conditions for the Scandinavian Saami people and ultimately for indigenous people world-wide. This thesis evaluates the influence of the Saami on the United Nations and in turn the United Nation's influence on Nordic indigenous policies.
    • A place for the birds: the legacy of Creamer's Field Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

      Ryan, Jessica A. (2003-12)
      This thesis details the farming history and current importance of the Creamer's Field Migratory Waterfowl Refuge in Fairbanks, Alaska. More significantly, it is the story of a grassroots effort by the community of Fairbanks, working with a kindly old farmer, to preserve open land in the heart of a rapidly expanding city for the benefit of the thousands of migrating cranes, geese and ducks that rely upon the grain fields each spring and fall. Because of their vision, Creamer's Field has become a center for environmental education, outdoor recreation, and biological research while actively providing for the needs of wildlife.
    • Adolph Murie: Denali's Wilderness Conscience

      Franklin, Linda S.; Gladden, James (2004)
      Denali National Park, Alaska substantially owes its stature as Alaska's premier wilderness park to Adolph Murie. Forty years after he retired as park biologist, Murie still influences the perception and management of Denali National Park. Murie's development from childhood to esteemed scientist and wilderness advocate followed a linear progression. His rural upbringing under the tutelage of his older brother, Olaus Murie, cultivated his desire to be a biologist and his appreciation for wild places. His academic training in animal ecology solidified his belief that the management of natural areas must consider all species as essential and equally valuable. His pioneering wildlife studies as one of the National Park Service's first biologists changed national opinion. He led the opposition against plans for extensive construction and development in Denali National Park during the Mission 66 era. In doing so he left the imprint of his wilderness ethic on the park.
    • Leaving King Island: The Closure Of A Bureau Of Indian Affairs School And Its Consequences

      Braem, Nicole M.; Schneider, William (2004)
      By 1966, the King Island Inupiat had moved from their island village and lived at Nome. Little has been written about the de facto relocation of the King Islanders---and how and why it happened. What follows is an ethnohistory of the relocation based on the anthropology and history of the Bering Strait region, archival records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and interviews with King Islanders in Nome. The heart of the matter was the village's school. Based on the evidence, the BIA closed the school because of the expense and inconvenience of operating at King Island. This accomplished what the BIA had been unable for decades to do by persuasion---to move the village to the mainland. The immediate result of the closure, the resettlement of the villagers in Nome, fits within the established pattern of BIA policy over time, one that had assimilation as its ultimate goal.
    • Change of heart among aboriginal Canadians toward the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project, 1970-2003

      Kirsanova, Galina V. (2004-05)
      The last three decades witnessed an astonishing change of heart among the Mackenzie Valley and Delta's aboriginal groups toward the reemerged Mackenzie Valley Pipeline project and associated industrial development. Vehement confrontation between indigenous residents of the northern Homelands and proponents of a new industrial Frontier has given way to mutually beneficial cooperation. This thesis examines the factors of this attitudinal change. First, the Berger Report and aboriginal testimonies are used to reveal the roots of the previous native opposition to the project, i.e., lack of control, inadequate capacities, and possible threats to subsistence. Next is the analysis of the current aboriginal support of industrial development, particularly anticipated revenues, business and employment opportunities, and the prospect of effective resource co-management, which are ensured by various aboriginal-industrial-governmental agreements, as well as by modem needs of the indigenous societies. This longitudinal analysis leads to the emergence of the factors which have prompted native people to change their attitudes (demographic and cultural changes) and empowered them to undertake the proposed development for the sake of their own sustainability (native legal, political, economic and informational capacity-building). The findings suggest that these same factors could contribute to a similar evolution in other Homeland- Wilderness-Frontier regions.
    • History of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest

      Fukunaga, Tatsuya (2004-05)
      From the mid 1860s to the eve of World War II, Asian workers, predominantly Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, constituted a significant part of the labor force in the Pacific Northwest cannery industry. In contrast to the prevalent notion of Asian workers' exploitation, their struggles in the industry have long been marginalized. Asian workers endured cruel working conditions and attempted to find ways to achieve their individual ambitions. Despite the hardships they faced in the course of their participation in West Coast capitalism, the Asian workers in the Pacific Northwest began adapting to the new environment, and their social status grew at the same time. Development of the labor contract system and its conflict with unionization were Asian workers' ways to sustain their places in the labor market. Outside of the cannery industry, the demographical dynamism of Asian immigrants also complexly influenced those in the industry. As Asian immigrants developed their own communities, they significantly shaped their distinctive identities in the U.S. and created ethnic solidarity, which led to ethnic labor competition in the cannery industry. Hence, history of Asian cannery workers in the Pacific Northwest demonstrated ways of Asian workers' responses toward the demands of capitalism on the West Coast.
    • Frances Anne Hopkins and the George Back connection: tracking through the Canadian landscapes of two nineteenth-century artists to find where lines converge

      MacDonald, Pamela K. (2004-08)
      My paper examines the artistic influence of the renowned British explorer and artist George Back on fellow Rupert's Land artist Frances Anne Hopkins, wife of Edward Hopkins, the man in charge of the Montreal Division of the Hudson's Bay Company in the mid-nineteenth century. The aesthetic gap between the two artists is wide in that Back's sketches depict a kind of terrifying wasteland quality best described as sublime. Hopkins' Canadian landscapes are colorful, on the other hand, and show people who are at ease with their surroundings. Other notable artists also documented nineteenth-century Canadian landscapes in visual images and may have had an indirect influence on Hopkins. I suggest, however, a more direct link may be made between the artists beyond the similarities drawn out of their sublime and beautiful images. My study proposes to show that influence may exist based on Hopkins' father and his Admiralty connection to Back. After a discussion on the important historical aspects coloring the artists' work, I will clarify the Hopkins family-tie relationship to Back, followed by a discussion of their art and potential evidence of influence.