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dc.contributor.authorRahilly, Kristen E.
dc.date.accessioned2014-11-04T19:17:05Z
dc.date.available2014-11-04T19:17:05Z
dc.date.issued2014-08
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11122/4654
dc.descriptionThesis (M.S.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2014
dc.description.abstractAlaska is a natural laboratory for the study of how active volcanism interacts with underlying seasonal snow, perennial snow, and glacial ice cover. While over half of the historically active volcanoes in Alaska have some degree of perennial snow or glacial ice, all Alaskan volcanoes have a covering of seasonal snow for a period of time throughout the year. Previous research has centered on how volcanic deposits erode away the underlying snow/ice cover during an eruption, producing volcanic mudflows called lahars. Less emphasis has been placed on how variations in the snow/ice cover substrate effect the efficiency of meltwater generation during a volcanic eruption. Glacial ice, perennial snow, and seasonal snow can all contribute significantly to meltwater, and therefore the variations in the types of snow/ice cover present at Alaskan volcanoes must be analyzed. By examining the changing spatial extent of seasonal snow present at a volcano during multiple Alaskan summers, the approximate boundaries of perennial snow and ice can be mapped as the snow/ice cover consistently present at the end of each ablation season. In this study, two methods of snow/ice cover mapping for Redoubt and Pavlof volcanoes are analyzed for efficiency and accuracy. Identification of the best method allows for mapping of the snow/ice cover consistently present during each Alaskan summer month over at least two different years. These maps can serve as approximations for the snow/ice cover likely to be present at both volcanoes during each summer month. Volcanic deposits produced during the 2009 Redoubt and 2013 Pavlof eruptions are spatially linked to these snow/ice cover maps so that future research can focus on the interaction between deposits and type of snow/ice substrate. Additional observations and conclusions are made regarding how the visible snow/ice cover varies during and after each eruption.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsChapter 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Background -- 1.2. Comparison of snow/ice cover mapping methods for Alaskan volcanoes -- 1.3. Mapping snow/ice on Redoubt and Pavlof during quiescence and eruption -- 1.4. Summary of final outcomes -- 1.5. References -- Chapter 2. Methods for snow/ice cover mapping of Redoubt and Pavlof volcanoes using optical satellite imagery -- 2.1. Introduction -- 2.1.1. Satellite remote sensing of glaciers and snow cover in Alaska -- 2.1.2. Previous work and methods for studying snow/ice on volcanoes -- 2.1.3. Challenges of mapping snow/ice cover at Alaskan volcanoes -- 2.2. Setting of Redoubt volcano -- 2.2.1. Basic setting of Redoubt volcano -- 2.3. Setting of Pavlof volcano -- 2.3.1. Basic setting of Pavlof volcano -- 2.4. Methods -- 2.4.1. Previous work in snow/ice cover mapping using satellite imagery -- 2.4.2. Sensors used for snow/ice cover mapping -- 2.4.3. Pre-processing of satellite imagery -- 2.4.4. Methods used to map snow/ice cover at Redoubt and Pavlof -- 2.4.5. Technique 1: band ratios -- 2.4.6. Technique 2: principal component analysis -- 2.4.7. Technique 3: linear spectral unmixing -- 2.5. Results and discussion -- 2.5.1. Snow/ice cover mapping using threshold method -- 2.5.2. Snow/ice cover mapping using linear spectral unmixing method -- 2.5.3. Improvements to linear spectral unmixing method for snow/ice cover mapping -- 2.5.4. Validation of results -- 2.6. Conclusion -- 2.7. Figures -- 2.8. Tables -- 2.9. References -- Chapter 3. Observations of surficial snow/ice cover changes due to seasonal and eruptive influences on Redoubt and Pavlof volcanoes, Alaska using optical remote sensing -- 3.1. Introduction -- 3.1.1. Alaskan volcanoes -- 3.2. Volcano-snow/ice interactions -- 3.2.1. Short term interactions -- 3.2.2. Long term interactions -- 3.2.3. Lahar formation and hazards -- 3.2.4. Influence of snow/ice substrate type on lahar generation -- 3.3. Background on Redoubt volcano -- 3.3.1. Setting of Redoubt volcano -- 3.3.2. Recent eruptions at Redoubt volcano -- 3.3.3. Eruption effects on Drift Glacier -- 3.3.4. Lahar hazards at Redoubt volcano -- 3.4. Background on Pavlof volcano -- 3.4.1. Setting of Pavlof volcano -- 3.4.2. Recent eruptions at Pavlof volcano -- 3.4.3. Lahar hazards at Pavlof volcano -- 3.5. Methods -- 3.5.1. Sensors used to create Products 1, 2, and 3 -- 3.5.2. Methods used to produce Product 1: individual snow/ice cover maps -- 3.5.3. Methods used to produce Product 2: snow/ice cover summary maps -- 3.5.4. Methods used to produce Product 3: composite maps of eruptive deposits and snow/ice cover -- 3.6. Results and discussion -- 3.6.1. Product 1: individual snow/ice cover maps of Redoubt subset -- 3.6.2. Product 2: snow/ice cover summary maps of Redoubt subset -- 3.6.3. Product 3: composite maps of eruptive deposits and snow/ice cover of Redoubt subset -- 3.6.4. Product 1: individual snow/ice cover maps of Pavlof subset -- 3.6.5. Product 2: snow/ice cover maps of Pavlof subset -- 3.6.6. Product 3: composite maps of eruptive deposits and snow/ice cover of Pavlof subset -- 3.7. Conclusion -- 3.8. Figures -- 3.9. Tables -- 3.10. References -- Chapter 4. Conclusion -- 4.1. Comparison of snow/ice cover mapping methods for Alaskan volcanoes -- 4.2. Mapping snow/ice on Redoubt and Pavlof during quiescence and eruption -- 4.3. Limitations and future work -- 4.4. References.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.titleMapping methods and observations of surficial snow/ice cover at Redoubt and Pavlof volcanoes, Alaska using optical satellite imageryen_US
dc.typeThesis
dc.type.degreems
dc.identifier.departmentDepartment of Geology and Geophysics
dc.contributor.chairDehn, Jonathan
dc.contributor.committeePettit, Erin
dc.contributor.committeeWebley, Peter
refterms.dateFOA2020-02-26T01:10:37Z


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