Recent Submissions

  • Evolution of marine organisms under climate change at different levels of biological organisation.

    Harvey, Ben P.; Al-Janabi, Balsam; Broszeit, Stefanie; Cioffi, Rebekah; Kumar, Amit; Aranguren-Gassi, Maria; Bailey, Allison; Green, Leon; Gsottbauer, Carina M.; Hall, Emilie F.; et al. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2014)
    Research to date has suggested that both individual marine species and ecological processes are expected to exhibit diverse responses to the environmental effects of climate change. Evolutionary responses can occur on rapid (ecological) timescales, and yet studies typically do not consider the role that adaptive evolution will play in modulating biological responses to climate change. Investigations into such responses have typically been focused at particular biological levels (e.g., cellular, population, community), often lacking interactions among levels. Since all levels of biological organisation are sensitive to global climate change, there is a need to elucidate how different processes and hierarchical interactions will influence species fitness. Therefore, predicting the responses of communities and populations to global change will require multidisciplinary efforts across multiple levels of hierarchy, from the genetic and cellular to communities and ecosystems. Eventually, this may allow us to establish the role that acclimatisation and adaptation will play in determining marine community structures in future scenarios.
  • Seawater acidification more than warming presents a challenge for two Antarctic macroalgal-associated amphipods

    Schram, Julie B.; Schoenrock, Kathryn M.; McClintock, James B.; Amsler, Charles D.; Angus, Robert A. (Inter-Research, 2016-07-08)
    Elevated atmospheric pCO2 concentrations are triggering seawater pH reductions and seawater temperature increases along the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). These factors in combination have the potential to influence organisms in an antagonistic, additive, or synergistic manner. The amphipods Gondogeneia antarctica and Paradexamine fissicauda represent prominent members of macroalgal-associated mesograzer assemblages of the WAP. Our primary objective was to investigate amphipod behavioral and physiological responses to reduced seawater pH and elevated temperature to evaluate potential cascading ecological impacts. For 90 d, amphipods were exposed to combinations of seawater conditions based on present ambient (pH 8.0, 1.5°C) and predicted end-of-century conditions (pH 7.6, 3.5°C). We recorded survival, molt frequency, and macroalgal consumption rates as well as change in wet mass and proximate body composition (protein and lipid). Survival for both species declined significantly at reduced pH and co-varied with molt frequency. Consumption rates in G. antarctica were significantly higher at reduced pH and there was an additive pH−temperature effect on consumption rates in P. fissicauda. Body mass was reduced for G. antarctica at elevated temperature, but there was no significant effect of pH or temperature on body mass in P. fissicauda. Exposure to the pH or temperature levels tested did not induce significant changes in whole body biochemical composition of G. antarctica, but exposure to elevated temperature resulted in a significant increase in whole body protein content of P. fissicauda. Our study indicates that while elevated temperature causes sub-lethal impacts on both species of amphipods, reduced pH causes significant mortality.
  • Ocean warming and acidification alter Antarctic macroalgal biochemical composition but not amphipod grazer feeding preferences

    Schram, Julie B.; Schoenrock, Kathryn M.; McClintock, James B.; Amsler1, Charles D.; Angus, Robert A. (Inter-Research, 2017-10-13)
    Increased anthropogenic atmospheric CO2 concentrations have resulted in ocean warming and alterations in ocean carbonate chemistry, decreasing seawater pH (ocean acidification). The combination of ocean warming and acidification (OWA) may alter trophic interactions in marine benthic communities along the western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Abundant and diverse macroalgae–grazer assemblages, dominated by macroalgae (e.g. chemically defended Desmarestia anceps and D. menziesii) and gammarid amphipods (e.g. Gondogeneia antarctica), occur on the nearshore benthos along the WAP. In the present study, the amphipod G. antarctica and macroalgae D. anceps and D. menziesii were exposed for 39 and 79 d, respectively, to combinations of current and predicted near-future temperature (1.5 and 3.5°C, respectively) and pH (8.0 and 7.6, respectively). Protein and lipid levels of macroalgal tissues were quantified, and 5-way choice amphipod feeding assays were performed with lyophilized macroalgal tissues collected at time zero and following exposure to the 4 temperature-pH treatments. For D. anceps, we found a significant interactive temperature-pH effect on lipid levels and significantly lower protein levels at reduced pH. In contrast, tissues of D. menziesii exhibited significantly greater lipid levels after exposure to reduced pH, but there was no temperature effect on lipid or protein levels. Despite shifts in macroalgal biochemical composition, there were no changes in amphipod feeding preferences. Our results indicate that despite altered macroalgal nutritional quality under OWA, both macroalgae retained their ability to deter amphipod feeding. This deterrent capacity could become an important contributor to net community resistance of macroalgae−mesograzer assemblages of the WAP to predicted OWA.
  • Trophic Transfer of Macroalgal Fatty Acids in Two Urchin Species: Digestion, Egestion, and Tissue Building

    Schram, Julie B.; Kobelt, Julia N.; Dethier, Megan N.; Galloway, Aaron W. E. (Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, 2018-06-19)
    Sea urchins are ecosystem engineers of nearshore benthic communities because of their influence on the abundance and distribution of macroalgal species. Urchins are notoriously inefficient in assimilation of their macroalgal diets, so their fecal production can provide a nutritional subsidy to benthic consumers that cannot capture and handle large macroalgae. We studied the assimilation of macroalgal diets by urchins by analyzing the profiles of trophic biomarkers such as fatty acids (FAs). We tracked macroalgal diet assimilation in both Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis and S. purpuratus. Juvenile S. droebachiensis and adult S. purpuratus were maintained for 180 and 70 days, respectively, on one of three monoculture diets from three algal phyla: Nereocystis luetkeana, Pyropia sp., or Ulva sp. We then analyzed FA profiles of the macroalgal tissue fed to urchins as well as urchin gonad, gut, digesta, and egesta (feces) to directly evaluate trophic modification and compare nutritional quality of urchin food sources, urchin tissues, and fecal subsidies. In the S. purpuratus assay, there were significantly more total lipids in the digesta and egesta than in the algae consumed. The FA profiles of urchin tissues differed among urchin species, all diets, and tissue types. Despite these differences, we observed similar patterns in the relationships between the urchin and macroalgal tissues for both species. Egesta produced by urchins fed each of the three diets were depleted with respect to the concentration of important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), but did not differ significantly from the source alga consumed. Both urchin species were shown to synthesize and selectively retain both the precursor and resulting LCPUFAs involved in the synthesis of the LCPUFAs 20:4ω6 and 20:5ω3. S. droebachiensis and S. purpuratus exhibited consistent patterns in the respective depletion and retention of precursor FAs and resulting LCPUFAs of Pyropia and Ulva tissues, suggesting species level control of macroalgal digestion or differential tissue processing by gut microbiota. For both S. droebachiensis and S. purpuratus, macroalgal diet was a surprisingly strong driver of urchin tissue fatty acids; this indicates the potential of fatty acids for future quantitative trophic estimates of urchin assimilation of algal phyla in natural settings.
  • The Purple Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Demonstrates a Compartmentalization of Gut Bacterial Microbiota, Predictive Functional Attributes, and Taxonomic Co-Occurrence

    Hakim, Joseph A.; Schram, Julie B.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Morrow, Casey D.; Crowley, Michael R.; Watts, Stephen A.; Bej, Asim K. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2019-01-26)
    The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (order Camarodonta, family Strongylocentrotidae) can be found dominating low intertidal pool biomass on the southern coast of Oregon, USA. In this case study, three adult sea urchins were collected from their shared intertidal pool, and the bacteriome of their pharynx, gut tissue, and gut digesta, including their tide pool water and algae, was determined using targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA genes and bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut tissue demonstrated Arcobacter and Sulfurimonas (Epsilonproteobacteria) to be abundant, whereas the gut digesta was dominated by Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Propionigenium (Fusobacteria), and Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes). Alpha and beta diversity analyses indicated low species richness and distinct microbial communities comprising the gut tissue and digesta, while the pharynx tissue had higher richness, more closely resembling the water microbiota. Predicted functional profiles showed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Level-2 categories of energy metabolism, membrane transport, cell motility, and signal transduction in the gut tissue, and the gut digesta represented amino acid, carbohydrate, vitamin and cofactor metabolisms, and replication and repair. Co-occurrence network analysis showed the potential relationships and key taxa, such as the highly abundant Arcobacter and Propionigenium, influencing population patterns and taxonomic organization between the gut tissue and digesta. These results demonstrate a trend of microbial community integration, allocation, predicted metabolic roles, and taxonomic co-occurrence patterns in the S. purpuratus gut ecosystem.
  • Eelgrass pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae synthesizes essential fatty acids

    Yoshioka, R. M.; Schram, Julie B.; Galloway, Aaron W. E. (Inter-Research, 2019-07-25)
    Negative consequences of parasites and disease on hosts are usually better understood than their multifaceted ecosystem effects. The pathogen Labyrinthula zosterae (Lz) causes eelgrass wasting disease but has relatives that produce large quantities of nutritionally valuable long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Here we quantify the fatty acids (FA) of Lz cultured on artificial media, eelgrass-based media, and eelgrass segments to investigate whether Lz may similarly produce LCPUFA. We also assess whether fieldcollected lesions show similar FA patterns to laboratory-inoculated eelgrass. We find that Lz produces DHA as its dominant FA along with other essential FA on both artificial and eelgrass-based media. DHA content was greater in both laboratory-inoculated and field-collected diseased eelgrass relative to their respective controls. If Lz’s production scales in situ, it may present an unrecognized source of LCPUFA in eelgrass ecosystems.
  • Ghost Factors of Laboratory Carbonate Chemistry Are Haunting Our Experiments

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Dassow, G. Von; Schram, Julie B.; Klinger, T.; Hill, T. M.; Lowe, A. T.; Chan, F.; Yoshioka, R. M.; Kroeker, K. J. (The University of Chicago, 2020-10-23)
    For many historical and contemporary experimental studies in marine biology, seawater carbonate chemistry remains a ghost factor, an uncontrolled, unmeasured, and often dynamic variable affecting experimental organisms or the treatments to which investigators subject them. We highlight how environmental variability, such as seasonal upwelling and biological respiration, drive variation in seawater carbonate chemistry that can influence laboratory experiments in unintended ways and introduce a signal consistent with ocean acidification. As the impacts of carbonate chemistry on biochemical pathways that underlie growth, development, reproduction, and behavior become better understood, the hidden effects of this previously overlooked variable need to be acknowledged. Here we bring this emerging challenge to the attention of the wider community of experimental biologists who rely on access to organisms and water from marine and estuarine laboratories and who may benefit from explicit considerations of a growing literature on the pervasive effects of aquatic carbonate chemistry changes.
  • Granular decoherence precedes ice mélange failure and glacier calving at Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Cassotto, Ryan; Burton, Justin C.; Amundson, Jason M.; Fahnestock, Mark; Truffer, Martin (Springer Nature, 2021-05-27)
    The stability of the world’s largest glaciers and ice sheets depends on mechanical and thermodynamic processes occurring at the glacier–ocean boundary. A buoyant agglomeration of icebergs and sea ice, referred to as ice mélange, often forms along this boundary and has been postulated to affect ice-sheet mass losses by inhibiting iceberg calving. Here, we use terrestrial radar data sampled every 3 min to show that calving events at Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland, are preceded by a loss of flow coherence in the proglacial ice mélange by up to an hour, wherein individual icebergs flowing in unison undergo random displacements. A particle dynamics model indicates that these fluctuations are likely due to buckling and rearrangements of the quasi-two-dimensional material. Our results directly implicate ice mélange as a mechanical inhibitor of iceberg calving and further demonstrate the potential for real-time detection of failure in other geophysical granular materials.
  • Integral functions of marine vertebrates in the ocean carbon cycle and climate change mitigation

    Martin, A.H.; Pearson, Heidi C.; Saba, G.K.; Olsen, E.M. (Cell Press, 2021-05-21)
    In the last decade, the ocean has absorbed a quarter of the Earth’s greenhouse gas emissions through the carbon (C) cycle, a naturally occurring process. Aspects of the ocean C cycle are now being incorporated into climate change mitigation and adaptation plans. Currently, too little is known about marine vertebrate C functions for their inclusion in policies. Fortunately, marine vertebrate biology, behavior, and ecology through the lens of C and nutrient cycling and flux is an emerging area of research that is rich in existing data. This review uses literature and trusted data sources to describe marine vertebrate C interactions, provides quantification where possible, and highlights knowledge gaps. Implications of better understanding the integral functions of marine vertebrates in the ocean C cycle include the need for consideration of these functions both in policies on nature-based climate change mitigation and adaptation, and in management of marine vertebrate populations.
  • Assessing the Behavioural Responses of Small Cetaceans to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Castro, J.; Borges, F. O.; Cid, A.; Laborde, M. I.; Rosa, R.; Pearson, Heidi C. (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-01-05)
    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), or drones, have recently emerged as a relatively affordable and accessible method for studying wildlife. Vertical Take-off and Landing (VTOL) UAVs are appropriate for morphometric, behavioural, abundance and demographic studies of marine mammals, providing a stable, nonintrusive and highly manoeuvrable platform. Previous studies using VTOL UAVs have been conducted on various marine mammal species, but specific studies regarding behavioural responses to these devices are limited and scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate behavioural responses of common (Delphinus delphis) and bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) dolphins to a VTOL UAV flown at different altitudes. A multirotor (quadcopter) UAV with an attached GoPro camera was used. Once a dolphin group was located, the UAV was flown at a starting height of 50 m directly above the group, subsequently descending 5 m every 30 s until reaching 5 m. We assessed three behavioural responses to a VTOL UAV at different heights: (i) direction changes, (ii) swimming speed and (iii) diving. Responses by D. delphis (n = 15) and T. truncatus (n = 10) groups were analysed separately. There were no significant responses of T. truncatus to any of the studied variables. For D. delphis, however, there were statistically significant changes in direction when the UAV was flown at a height of 5 m. Our results indicate that UAVs do not induce immediate behavioural responses in common or bottlenose dolphins when flown at heights > 5 m, demonstrating that the use of VTOL UAVs to study dolphins has minimal impact on the animals. However, we advise the use of the precautionary principle when interpreting these results as characteristics of this study site (e.g., high whale-watching activity) may have habituated dolphins to anthropogenic disturbance.
  • Tidewater glacier response to individual calving events

    Amundson, Jason M.; Truffer, Martin; Zwinger, Thomas (Cambridge University Press, 2022-03-15)
    Tidewater glaciers have been observed to experience instantaneous, stepwise increases in velocity during iceberg-calving events due to a loss of resistive stresses. These changes in stress can potentially impact tidewater glacier stability by promoting additional calving and affecting the viscous delivery of ice to the terminus. Using flow models and perturbation theory, we demonstrate that calving events and subsequent terminus readvance produce quasi-periodic, sawtooth oscillations in stress that originate at the terminus and propagate upstream. The stress perturbations travel at speeds much greater than the glacier velocities and, for laterally resisted glaciers, rapidly decay within a few ice thickness of the terminus. Consequently, because terminus fluctuations due to individual calving events tend to be much higher frequency than climate variations, individual calving events have little direct impact on the viscous delivery of ice to the terminus. This suggests that the primary mechanism by which calving events can trigger instability is by causing fluctuations in stress that weaken the ice and lead to additional calving and sustained terminus retreat. Our results further demonstrate a stronger response to calving events in simulations that include the full stress tensor, highlighting the importance of accounting for higher order stresses when developing calving parameterizations.
  • Glacier retreat creating new Pacific salmon habitat in western North America

    Pitman, Kara J.; Moore, Jonathan W.; Huss, Matthias; Sloat, Matthew R.; Whited, Diane C.; Beechie, Tim J.; Brenner, Rich; Hood, Eran; Milner, Alexander M.; Pess, George R.; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-12-07)
    Glacier retreat poses risks and benefits for species of cultural and economic importance. One example is Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), supporting subsistence harvests, and commercial and recreational fisheries worth billions of dollars annually. Although decreases in summer streamflow and warming freshwater is reducing salmon habitat quality in parts of their range, glacier retreat is creating new streams and lakes that salmon can colonize. However, potential gains in future salmon habitat associated with glacier loss have yet to be quantified across the range of Pacific salmon. Here we project future gains in Pacific salmon freshwater habitat by linking a model of glacier mass change for 315 glaciers, forced by five different Global Climate Models, with a simple model of salmon stream habitat potential throughout the Pacific Mountain ranges of western North America. We project that by the year 2100 glacier retreat will create 6,146 (±1,619) km of new streams accessible for colonization by Pacific salmon, of which 1,930 (±569) km have the potential to be used for spawning and juvenile rearing, representing 0 to 27% gains within the 18 sub-regions we studied. These findings can inform proactive management and conservation of Pacific salmon in this era of rapid climate change.
  • Assessing the Role of Photochemistry in Driving the Composition of Dissolved Organic Matter in Glacier Runoff

    Holt, Amy D.; Kellerman, Anne M.; Li, Wenbo; Stubbins, Aron; Wagner, Sasha; McKenna, Amy; Fellman, Jason B.; Hood, Eran; Spencer, Robert G. M. (American Geophysical Union, 2021-11-04)
    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in glacier runoff is aliphatic-rich, yet studies have proposed that DOM originates mainly from allochthonous, aromatic, and often aged material. Allochthonous organic matter (OM) is exposed to ultraviolet radiation both in atmospheric transport and post-deposition on the glacier surface. Thus, we evaluate photochemistry as a mechanism to account for the compositional disconnect between allochthonous OM sources and glacier runoff DOM composition. Six endmember OM sources (including soils and diesel particulate matter) were leached and photo-irradiated for 28 days in a solar simulator, until >90% of initial chromophoric DOM was removed. Ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry was used to compare the molecular composition of endmember leachates pre- and post-irradiation to DOM in supraglacial and bulk runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet and Juneau Icefield (Alaska), respectively. Photoirradiation drove molecular level convergence between the initially aromatic-rich leachates and aromatic-poor glacial samples, selectively removing aromatic compounds (−80 ± 19% relative abundance) and producing aliphatics (+75 ± 35% relative abundance). Molecular level glacier runoff DOM composition was statistically indistinguishable to post-irradiation leachates. Bray-Curtis analysis showed substantial similarity in the molecular formulae present between glacier samples and post-irradiation leachates. Post-irradiation leachates contained 84 ± 7.4% of the molecular formulae, including 72 ± 17% of the aliphatic formulae, detected in glacier samples. Our findings suggest that photodegradation, either in transit to or on glacier surfaces, could provide a mechanistic pathway to account for the disconnect between proposed aromatic, aged sources of OM and the aliphatic-rich fingerprint of glacial DOM.
  • A Changing Hydrological Regime: Trends in Magnitude and Timing of Glacier Ice Melt and Glacier Runoff in a High Latitude Coastal Watershed

    Young, Joanna C.; Pettit, Erin; Arendt, Anthony; Hood, Eran; Liston, Glen E.; Beamer, Jordan (American Geophysical Union, 2021-05-20)
    With a unique biogeophysical signature relative to other freshwater sources, meltwater from glaciers plays a crucial role in the hydrological and ecological regime of high latitude coastal areas. Today, as glaciers worldwide exhibit persistent negative mass balance, glacier runoff is changing in both magnitude and timing, with potential downstream impacts on infrastructure, ecosystems, and ecosystem resources. However, runoff trends may be difficult to detect in coastal systems with large precipitation variability. Here, we use the coupled energy balance and water routing model SnowModel-HydroFlow to examine changes in timing and magnitude of runoff from the western Juneau Icefield in Southeast Alaska between 1980 and 2016. We find that under sustained glacier mass loss (−0.57 ± 0.12 m w. e. a−1), several hydrological variables related to runoff show increasing trends. This includes annual and spring glacier ice melt volumes (+10% and +16% decade−1) which, because of higher proportions of precipitation, translate to smaller increases in glacier runoff (+3% and +7% decade−1) and total watershed runoff (+1.4% and +3% decade−1). These results suggest that the western Juneau Icefield watersheds are still in an increasing glacier runoff period prior to reaching “peak water.” In terms of timing, we find that maximum glacier ice melt is occurring earlier (2.5 days decade−1), indicating a change in the source and quality of freshwater being delivered downstream in the early summer. Our findings highlight that even in maritime climates with large precipitation variability, high latitude coastal watersheds are experiencing hydrological regime change driven by ongoing glacier mass loss.
  • Specific Ion–Protein Interactions Influence Bacterial Ice Nucleation

    Schwidetzky, Ralph; Lukas, Max; YazdanYar, Dr. Azade; Kunert, Dr. Anna T.; Pöschl, Dr. Ulrich; Domke, Katrin F.; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Dr. Janine; Bonn, Prof Dr. Mischa; Koop, Prof. Dr. Thomas; Nagata, Dr. Yuki; et al. (European Chemical Societies Publishing, 2021-01-19)
    Ice nucleation-active bacteria are the most efficient ice nucleators known, enabling the crystallization of water at temperatures close to 0 °C, thereby overcoming the kinetically hindered phase transition process at these conditions. Using highly specialized ice-nucleating proteins (INPs), they can cause frost damage to plants and influence the formation of clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere. In nature, the bacteria are usually found in aqueous environments containing ions. The impact of ions on bacterial ice nucleation efficiency, however, has remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate that ions can profoundly influence the efficiency of bacterial ice nucleators in a manner that follows the Hofmeister series. Weakly hydrated ions inhibit bacterial ice nucleation whereas strongly hydrated ions apparently facilitate ice nucleation. Surface-specific sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations reveal that the different effects are due to specific interactions of the ions with the INPs on the surface of the bacteria. Our results demonstrate that heterogeneous ice nucleation facilitated by bacteria strongly depends upon the nature of the ions, and specific ion–protein interactions are essential for the complete description of heterogeneous ice nucleation by bacteria.
  • Sea otter effects on trophic structure of seagrass communities in southeast Alaska

    Raymond, Wendel W.; Schram, Julie B.; Eckert, Ginny L.; Galloway, Aaron W. E. (Inter-Research, 2021-09-16)
    Previous research in southeast Alaska on the effects of sea otters Enhydra lutris in seagrass Zostera marina communities identified many but not all of the trophic relationships that were predicted by a sea otter-mediated trophic cascade. To further resolve these trophic connections, we compared biomass, carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope (SI), and fatty acid (FA) data from 16 taxa at 3 sites with high and 3 sites with low sea otter density (8.2 and 0.1 sea otters km−2, respectively). We found lower crab and clam biomass in the high sea otter region but did not detect a difference in biomass of other seagrass community taxa or the overall community isotopic niche space between sea otter regions. Only staghorn sculpin differed in δ13C between regions, and Fucus, sugar kelp, butter clams, dock shrimp, and shiner perch differed in δ15N. FA analysis indicated multivariate dissimilarity in 11 of the 15 conspecifics between sea otter regions. FA analysis found essential FAs, which consumers must obtain from their diet, including 20:5ω3 (EPA) and 22:6ω3 (DHA), were common in discriminating conspecifics between sea otter regions, suggesting differences in consumer diets. Further FA analysis indicated that many consumers rely on diverse diets, regardless of sea otter region, potentially buffering these consumers from sea otter-mediated changes to diet availability. While sea otters are major consumers in this system, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the differences in biomarkers between regions with and without sea otters
  • A unified dataset of colocated sewage pollution, periphyton, and benthic macroinvertebrate community and food web structure from Lake Baikal (Siberia)

    Meyer, Michael F.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Shchapov, Kirill; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Schram, Julie B.; Snow, Daniel D.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Karnaukhov, Dmitry Yu.; Brousil, Matthew R.; et al. (Wiley Periodicals LLC, 2021)
    Sewage released from lakeside development can introduce nutrients and micropollutants that can restructure aquatic ecosystems. Lake Baikal, the world’s most ancient, biodiverse, and voluminous freshwater lake, has been experiencing localized sewage pollution from lakeside settlements. Nearby increasing filamentous algal abundance suggests benthic communities are responding to localized pollution. We surveyed 40-km of Lake Baikal’s southwestern shoreline from 19 to 23 August 2015 for sewage indicators, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and microplastics, with colocated periphyton, macroinvertebrate, stable isotope, and fatty acid samplings. The data are structured in a tidy format (a tabular arrangement familiar to limnologists) to encourage reuse. Unique identifiers corresponding to sampling locations are retained throughout all data files to facilitate interoperability among the dataset’s 150+ variables. For Lake Baikal studies, these data can support continued monitoring and research efforts. For global studies of lakes, these data can help characterize sewage prevalence and ecological consequences of anthropogenic disturbance across spatial scales.
  • Assessing prevalence and correlates of blue‑colored fesh in lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) across their geographic range

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Beaudreau, Anne H.; Thomas, Michael D.; Basnett, Bonnie L.; Lam, Laurel S.; Hamilton, Scott L.; Andrews, Kelly S.; Schram, Julie B.; Watson, Jessica; Samhouri4, Jameal F. (Springer, 2021-08-17)
    Intraspecific variation in external and internal pigmentation is common among fishes and explained by a variety of biological and ecological factors. Blue-colored flesh in fishes is relatively rare but has been documented in some species of the sculpin, greenling, and perch families. Diet, starvation, photoprotection, and camouflage have all been suggested as proximate mechanisms driving blue flesh, but causal factors are poorly understood. We evaluated the relative importance of biological and spatial factors that could explain variation in blue coloration in 2021 lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus) captured across their range in the northeastern Pacific, from southeast Alaska to southern California. The probability of having blue flesh was highest for fish that were female, caught in shallower water, and smaller in body size. The incidence of blueness varied by region (4–25% of all fish) but was also confounded by differences in sex ratios of fish caught among regions. We analyzed the multivariate fatty acid composition of a subset of 175 fish from across the sampling range to test for differences in trophic biomarkers in blue lingcod. Lingcod fatty acid composition differed between regions and flesh colors but not between sexes. Blue-fleshed fish had lower concentrations of total fatty acids, 18:1ω-9, 16:1ω-7, 18:1ω-7, and ω-6 fatty acids, suggesting differences in energetics and energy storage in blue fish. While our data indicate potential links between diet and blue flesh in lingcod, important questions remain about the physiological mechanisms governing blueness and its biological consequences.
  • Ice thickness estimates of Lemon Creek Glacier, Alaska, from active-source seismic imaging

    Veitch, Stephen A.; Karplus, Marianne; Kaip, Galen; Gonzalez, Lucia F.; Amundson, Jason M.; Bartholomaus, Timothy C. (Cambridge University Press, 2021-03-26)
    Lemon Creek Glacier, a temperate valley glacier in the Juneau Icefield of Southeast Alaska, is the site of long running (>60 years) glaciological studies. However, the most recent published estimates of its thickness and subglacial topography come from two ∼50 years old sources that are not in agreement and do not account for the effects of years of negative mass balance. We collected a 1-km long active-source seismic line on the upper section of the glacier parallel and near to the centerline of the glacier, roughly straddling the equilibrium-line altitude. We used these data to perform joint reflection-refraction velocity modeling and reflection imaging of the glacier bed. We find that this upper section of Lemon Creek Glacier is as much as 150 m (∼65%) thicker than previously suggested with a large overdeepening in an area previously believed to have a uniform thickness. Our results lead us to reinterpret the impact of basal motion on ice flow and have a significant impact on expectations of subglacial hydrology. We suggest that further efforts to develop a whole-glacier model of subglacial topography are necessary to support studies that require accurate models of ice thickness and subglacial topography.
  • Scaling of maneuvering performance in baleen whales: larger whales outperform expectations

    Segre, Paolo S.; Gough, William T.; Roualdes, Edward A.; Cade, David E.; Czapanskiy, Max F.; Fahlbusch, James; Kahane-Rapport, Shirel R.; Oestreich, William K.; Bejder, Lars; Bierlich, K.C.; et al. (Journal of Experimental Biology, 2022-03)
    Despite their enormous size, whales make their living as voracious predators. To catch their much smaller, more maneuverable prey, they have developed several unique locomotor strategies that require high energetic input, high mechanical power output and a surprising degree of agility. To better understand how body size affects maneuverability at the largest scale, we used bio-logging data, aerial photogrammetry and a high-throughput approach to quantify the maneuvering performance of seven species of free-swimming baleen whale. We found that as body size increases, absolute maneuvering performance decreases: larger whales use lower accelerations and perform slower pitch-changes, rolls and turns than smaller species. We also found that baleen whales exhibit positive allometry of maneuvering performance: relative to their body size, larger whales use higher accelerations, and perform faster pitch-changes, rolls and certain types of turns than smaller species. However, not all maneuvers were impacted by body size in the same way, and we found that larger whales behaviorally adjust for their decreased agility by using turns that they can perform more effectively. The positive allometry of maneuvering performance suggests that large whales have compensated for their increased body size by evolving more effective control surfaces and by preferentially selecting maneuvers that play to their strengths.

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