• Calving ground habitat selection: Teshekpuk Lake and Western Arctic caribou herds

      Kelleyhouse, Rebecca A. (2001-12)
      Barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) exhibit relative fidelity to calving grounds each spring. The Western Arctic Herd (WAH) and Teshekpuk Lake Herd (TLH) calve separately on Alaska's north slope, each selective of the dominant vegetation type. The WAH consumed mostly sedges, though the TLH diet varied. Despite differing snow conditions between the calving grounds, both herds were selective of the lowest snow cover class. Rugged terrain was avoided by both herds. While the TLH selected a high rate of increase in biomass, the WAH selected high biomass at calving and at peak lactation. Climate trends (1985-2001) were variable. There was a warming trend on the WAH calving ground, though no significant trends were present on the TLH calving ground, as expressed by median NDVI on 21 June. These herds have similar winter ranges and population trends, yet they differ in respect to habitat composition, selection and climate patterns during calving.
    • Carbon exchange and permafrost collapse: implications for a changing climate

      Myers-Smith, Isla Heather (2005-05)
      With a warmer climate, the wetlands of Interior Alaska may experience more frequent or extensive stand-replacing fires and permafrost degradation. This, in turn may change the primary factors controlling carbon emissions. I measured carbon exchange along a moisture transect from the center of a sphagnum-dominated bog into a burned forest (2001 Survey Line Fire) on the Tanana River Floodplain. Both the bog and the surrounding burn were sinks for CO₂, and the bog was a CH₄ source in the abnormally dry summer of 2004. Thermokarst and subsiding soils were observed on the margin of the bog in the three years since the fire, increasing the anaerobic portion of the soil landscape. I observed the greatest variation in carbon fluxes in this portion of the transect. I conclude that permafrost collapse is altering the pattern of emissions from this landscape. I tracked historical changes in vegetation, hydrology and fire at this site through macrofossil, charcoal and diatom analysis of peat cores. The paleoecological record suggests that fire mediates permafrost collapse in this system. This study indicates that future changes in temperature and precipitation will alter carbon cycling and vegetation patterns across this boreal landscape.
    • Characteristics of the Sulukna River spawning population of inconnu, Yukon River drainage, Alaska

      Esse, David Andrews; Margraf, F. Joseph; Sutton, Trent M.; Brown, Randy J. (2011-12)
      Inconnu Stenodus leucichthys are large migratory whitefish harvested in subsistence and sport fisheries in Alaska. Research on the Sulukna River spawning population of inconnu was conducted in September and early October from 2007 to 2009. Samples were collected to verify maturity and spawning readiness, and to determine age distributions of mature males and females. Spawning abundance was estimated and post-spawning migration timing was identified. Otoliths were analyzed optically to determine age and chemically to determine amphidromy. Maturity sampling indicated that all sampled fish were in spawning condition or had recently spawned. Abundance estimates were 2,079 and 3,531 inconnu in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Post-spawning downstream migration timing was nearly identical between years, with the majority of fish moving downstream between September 30 and October 9. In both years, migrating inconnu displayed a nocturnal migration pattern, with 96% migrating between 10:00 pm and 9:00 am hours daily. Age estimates ranged between 6 and 26 years. Chemical analysis indicated that some Sulukna River inconnu were amphidromous, making migrations of over 1,300 km to the sea. This information indicates that the Sulukna River spawning population of inconnu has a large and variable abundance, in which amphidromy is facultative.
    • Characterization of muskox habitat in northeastern Alaska

      O'Brien, Constance Marsha (1988-12)
      In northeastern Alaska, muskoxen have been most often found in riparian habitats and proximate uplands. Vegetation was studied in nine adjacent river drainages; six of the drainages are regularly used by muskoxen. Twenty-two vegetation/land cover types were described using aerial photographs, point-intercept sampling, and ocular cover estimates. The proportion of each cover type was estimated for each drainage and compared among drainages by MANOVA. There was no significant difference among non-muskox drainages in the average proportion of cover types. A marginally significant difference was found among muskox drainages. There were no significant differences in the proportions of each vegetation type in non-muskox drainages versus muskox drainages. Five vegetation types associated with high forage quality and availability and low snow accumulation were often used by muskoxen. Four of these five vegetation types typically had <7% cover in the nine drainages and are critical habitat components in northeastern Alaska.
    • Climate, embryonic development, and potential for adaptation to warming water temperatures by Bristol Bay sockeye salmon

      Sparks, Morgan McKenzie; Falke, Jeffrey; Westley, Peter; Adkison, Milo; Quinn, Thomas (2016-08)
      Rapidly warming water temperatures associated with climate change represent a substantial disturbance to the habitat of aquatic ectothermic organisms. For salmonid fishes (family Salmonidae), early life history survival and timing of reproduction and development are closely tied to temperature, such that altered thermal regimes could alter patterns of survival or shift phenology into a mismatch with the environment. Because temperature is the dominant driver of developmental rates, empirical statistical models have been developed to predict the timing of hatching and fry emergence based on incubation temperature. In this thesis I explored how the timing of hatching and emergence may shift in response to warming temperatures and how spawning timing across an Alaskan landscape is shaped by incubation temperatures experienced by sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) embryos and alevin. Additionally, I quantified the relative roles of genetics and environmentally induced plasticity on the timing of hatching in two populations of sockeye salmon from the Iliamna Lake system, Alaska by rearing them in common garden conditions in the laboratory. To meet these goals I reformulated a widely cited developmental model to incorporate variability in natural regimes and use it to predict hatching timing over the course of the spawning duration for 25 populations of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon. Additionally, I hind- and forecasted lake temperature based off historical and predicted air temperatures to estimate and predict hatching for a single population. I found that predicted hatching timing for wild populations varied between 58 and 260 days, and was largely variable as a result of habitat thermal heterogeneity and parental spawn time. I also predicted a three-week decrease in hatching timing over the course of the next century for a single beach spawning population, which was just beyond historic variability. Counter to expectations, for a subset of populations hatching and emergence timing variability exceeded that of spawning timing, indicating the relationship between spawning timing and incubation temperature may be weaker than expected. The results of the common garden experiment revealed indistinguishable differences between populations in hatching timing across five temperature scenarios, but strong plasticity as timing differed between 74 and 189 days in the warmest to coolest treatment. Furthermore, I detected family-specific differences in hatching timing both within and among treatments consistent with heritable developmental rates and gene by environment interactions in days to hatch, where the interaction between treatment and family was as high as 10 days difference in hatching. Population or family-specific survival in this experiment did not differ in response to temperature suggesting a lack of thermal adaptation in this regard during this life stage in these populations. Alevin mass and length upon hatching varied little among treatments (<10%), but did significantly decrease with cooling temperatures. Taken as a whole this study indicates that the effects of climate change during the early life history stages may be buffered by phenotypic plasticity and variability in populations and habitats will be important for maintaining diversity in the face of climate change.
    • Climate-induced changes in ecological dynamics of the Alaskan boreal forest: a study of fire-permafrost interactions

      Brown, Dana Rachel Nossov; Kielland, Knut; Jorgenson, M. Torre; Euskirchen, Eugénie; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Ruess, Roger R.; Verbyla, David L. (2016-08)
      A warming climate is expected to cause widespread thawing of discontinuous permafrost, and the co-occurrence of wildfire may function to exacerbate this process. Here, I examined the vulnerability of permafrost to degradation from fire disturbance as it varies across different landscapes of the Interior Alaskan boreal forest using a combination of observational, modeling, and remote sensing approaches. Across all landscapes, the severity of burning strongly influenced both post-fire vegetation and permafrost degradation. The thickness of the remaining surface organic layer was a key control on permafrost degradation because its low thermal conductivity limits ground heat flux. Thus, variation in burn severity controlled the local distribution of near-surface permafrost. Mineral soil texture and permafrost ice content interacted with climate to influence the response of permafrost to fire. Permafrost was vulnerable to deep thawing after fire in coarse-textured or rocky soils throughout the region; low ice content likely enabled this rapid thawing. After thawing, increased drainage in coarse-textured soils caused reductions in surface soil moisture, which contributed to warmer soil temperatures. By contrast, permafrost in fine-textured soils was resilient to fire disturbance in the silty uplands of the Yukon Flats ecoregion, but was highly vulnerable to thawing in the silty lowlands of the Tanana Flats. The resilience of silty upland permafrost was attributed to higher water content of the active layer and the associated high latent heat content of the ice-rich permafrost, coupled with a relatively cold continental climate and sloping topography that removes surface water. In the Tanana Flats, permafrost in silty lowlands thawed after fire despite high water and ice content of soils. This thawing was associated with significant ground surface subsidence, which resulted in water impoundment on the flat terrain, generating a positive feedback to permafrost degradation and wetland expansion. The response of permafrost to fire, and its ecological effects, thus varied spatially due to complex interactions between climate, topography, vegetation, burn severity, soil properties, and hydrology. The sensitivity of permafrost to fire disturbance has also changed over time due to variation in weather at multi-year to multi-decadal time scales. Simulations of soil thermal dynamics showed that increased air temperature, increased snow accumulation, and their interactive effects, have since the 1970s caused permafrost to become more vulnerable to talik formation and deep thawing from fire disturbance. Wildfire coupled with climate change has become an important driver of permafrost loss and ecological change in the northern boreal forest. With continued climate warming, we expect fire disturbance to accelerate permafrost thawing and reduce the likelihood of permafrost recovery. This regime shift is likely to have strong effects on a suite of ecological characteristics of the boreal forest, including surface energy balance, soil moisture, nutrient cycling, vegetation composition, and ecosystem productivity.
    • Common ravens in Alaska's North Slope oil fields: an integrated study using local knowledge and science

      Backensto, Stacia Ann (2010-05)
      Common ravens (Corvus corax) that nest on human structures in the Kuparuk and Prudhoe Bay oil fields on Alaska's North Slope are believed to present a predation risk to tundra-nesting birds in this area. In order to gain more information about the history of the resident raven population and their use of anthropogenic resources in the oil fields, I documented oil field worker knowledge of ravens in this area. In order to understand how anthropogenic subsidies in the oil fields affect the breeding population, I examined the influence of types of structures and food subsidies on raven nest site use and productivity in the oil fields. Oil field workers provided new and supplemental information about the breeding population. This work in conjunction with a scientific study of the breeding population suggests that structures in the oil fields were important to ravens throughout the year by providing nest sites and warm locations to roost during the winter. The breeding population was very successful and appears to be limited by suitable nest sites. The landfill is an important food source to ravens during winter, and pick-up trucks provide a supplemental source of food throughout the year. Further research will be necessary to identify how food (anthropogenic and natural) availability affects productivity and the degree to which ravens impact tundra-nesting birds.
    • Comparative foraging ecology and social dynamics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus)

      Post, Eric Stephen; Klein, David R. (1995)
      The Southern Alaska Peninsula Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (SAPCH) and its two sub-groups were the focus of a study addressing the hypotheses: (1) food limitation during winter caused a decline in the herd; and, (2) higher calf productivity within the Caribou River group than within the Black Hill group was related to greater forage availability on the seasonal ranges of the Caribou River group. Intense, systematic range and calving surveys in 1991 and 1992 supported the hypothesis of food limitation during winter, and indicated that greater calf production in the Caribou River group was related to earlier commencement of the season of plant growth and greater forage availability on the summer range of that group, coupled with earlier parturition among females of the Caribou River herd. In a comparative study involving the two SAPCH groups and the West Greenland Caribou Herd, daily variation in sizes of foraging groups, densities of caribou within feeding sites, distances between individuals within feeding sites, distances moved by foraging groups, and frequency of group movement was modeled using the following ecological parameters: predation risk, insect harassment (by mosquitos), range patchiness, feeding-site patchiness, feeding-site area, and range-wide density of caribou. Models revealed that intraseasonal social dynamics of foraging caribou were governed in most instances by patterns of forage availability and distribution across landscapes and within feeding sites, in some instances by insect harassment and social pressures, but in no instance by levels of predation risk inherent to the ranges on which they foraged. In a study of the interrelationships between characteristics of graminoids and intensity of grazing by caribou, vegetation on each of the Black Hill and Caribou River ranges was sampled and tested for responses to clipping. Biomass density (g/m$\sp3$) of forage, shoot density (#/m$\sp2$), and nutrient and mineral densities (g/m$\sp3$) and concentrations (g/100g tissue) correlated positively with use of sites by caribou. Productivity and responses to clipping were independent of previous use, but consistent within ranges. These results indicate that caribou are sensitive to local variation in forage quantity and quality, and preferentially use sites with higher returns of nutrients and minerals.
    • Comparative patterns of winter habitat use by muskoxen and caribou in northern Alaska

      Biddlecomb, Mark Edward (1992-09)
      Snow depth and hardness strongly influenced selection of feeding zones, (i.e., those areas used for foraging), in late winter by both muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus grand) in northern Alaska. Snow in feeding zones was shallower and softer than in surrounding zones. Depth of feeding craters was less than the average snow depth in feeding zones. Moist sedge tundra types were used most often by muskoxen, and their diet, based on microhistological analysis of feces, was dominated by graminoids. Moist sedge and Dryas tundra types were most often used by caribou; lichens and evergreen shrubs were the major constituents of their diet. Despite selection of moist sedge tundra types by both muskoxen and caribou in late winter, dietary and spatial overlap was minimal.
    • Controls on ecosystem respiration of carbon dioxide across a boreal wetland gradient in Interior Alaska

      McConnell, Nicole A.; McGuire, A. David; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Harden, Jennifer W. (2012-08)
      Permafrost and organic soil layers are common to most wetlands in interior Alaska, where wetlands have functioned as important long-term soil carbon sinks. Boreal wetlands are diverse in both vegetation and nutrient cycling, ranging from nutrient-poor bogs to nutrient- and vascular-rich fens. The goals of my study were to quantify growing season ecosystem respiration (ER) along a gradient of vegetation and permafrost in a boreal wetland complex, and to evaluate the main abiotic and biotic variables that regulate CO₂ release from boreal soils. Highest ER and root respiration were observed at a sedge/forb community and lowest ER and root respiration were observed at a neighboring rich fen community, even though the two fens had similar estimates of root biomass and vascular green area. Root respiration also contributed approximately 40% to ER at both fens. These results support the conclusion that high soil moisture and low redox potential may be limiting both heterotrophic and autotrophic respiration at the rich fen. This study suggests that interactions among soil environmental variables are important drivers of ER. Also, vegetation and its response to soil environment determines contributions from aboveground (leaves and shoots) and belowground (roots and moss) components, which vary among wetland gradient communities.
    • Daily heterogeneity in habitat selection by the Porcupine Caribou Herd during calving

      Jones, Rachel Rands (2005-08)
      Caribou exhibit scale-dependent habitat selection, but variance in daily habitat selection by the Porcupine Caribou Herd (PCH) has not been examined. Investigating temporal variance in habitat selection may clarify the time period when managers may accurately estimate calving-related habitat selection. Annually, 1992-1994, approximately 70 calves were radio-collared within 2 days of birth and relocated daily until departing the calving grounds. We used daily 99% fixed kernel utilization distributions (UD's) to estimate caribou distributions, then estimated daily habitat selection using logistic regression. Habitat variables included relative vegetation greenness, greening rate, landcover class, and elevation. Spatial scales of investigation included concentrated vs. peripheral use within daily UD's, daily use within the merged extent of all daily UD's, and daily use within the historical extent of calving, 1983-2001. We used linear regression of logistic regression parameter estimates on sequential sampling days to estimate temporal habitat selection trends during the 3 weeks following capture. Overall, caribou exhibited habitat selection at multiple scales, without temporal trends, suggesting that the 21-day period following capture constituted a single domain and that managers may accurately estimate calving-related habitat selection at any point during this period.
    • Demographic components of philopatry and nest-site fidelity of Pacific black brant

      Lindberg, Mark Steven; Sedinger, James S. (1996)
      I investigated demographic components of nest-site fidelity and philopatry of Pacific black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans). My analyses included data I collected during summer 1990-1993, and also incorporated data obtained between 1986-1989. My studies of nest-site fidelity were limited to the Tutakoke River colony, Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta, Alaska. Studies of philopatry and dispersal among colonies included observations at 7 breeding colonies of brant marked with tarsal tags (n = 20,147). I observed strong evidence that philopatry of brant was female biased. Probability of breeding philopatry, which was estimated with multi-state modeling techniques, was high (>0.9) and dispersal of adults among breeding colonies was rare. I developed an ad hoc estimator for natal philopatry that was unbiased by a confounding of homing, survival, and detection probabilities. Probability of natal philopatry for females was both age and density dependent. The density-dependent decline in natal philopatry may result from increased rate of permanent nonbreeding or increased probability of dispersal. Observed probability of natal philopatry for males was approximately equivalent to the relative size of their natal colony, suggesting that males pair at random with females from other colonies. Gene flow among populations of brant is largely male mediated, and I predict populations of brant will exhibit distinct mitochondrial DNAs if populations have been reproductively isolated for an adequate period of time. Probability of fidelity to previous nest sites for adults was high (>0.7). Probability of nest-site fidelity was affected by previous nesting success, age, and availability of nest sites. Phenology of nesting, nest-site selection, and clutch size of brant was affected by spring snowmelt. Dispersal of brant from traditional nest sites in years with late springs may represent a tradeoff between site fidelity and timing of nest initiation. Movement of young females from natal nest sites was a mechanism for colony expansion. I observed little evidence that site fidelity was advantageous, and concluded that quality of individual bird, environmental conditions, and demographic status may be more important determinants of breeding performance.
    • Description and identification of larval fishes in Alaskan freshwaters

      Sturm, Elizabeth Anne (1988-05)
      Identification of larval fish is important for assessing fish populations and human impact on fish ecosystems but is difficult due to subtle differences between larvae of different species. A key to larval fishes is valuable for successful population studies. This thesis is a preliminary study towards the development of a key to the larval stages of Alaskan freshwater fishes. Early life history information on 23 of approximately 40 Alaskan freshwater species was obtained from the literature. Six of these species (sheefish, Stenodus leucichthys; Arctic grayling, Thymallus arcticus; Arctic char, Salvelinus alpinus; Dolly Varden, S. malma; longnose sucker, Catostomus catostomus; and slimy sculpin, Cottus coqnatus) were laboratory-reared or collected near Fairbanks for additional information. Technical illustrations and morphometric data were prepared for each of the six species. This study indicates that follow-up research on several whitefishes will be critical for developing a comprehensive larval fish key to Alaskan freshwater species.
    • Duckling survival and incubation behaviors in common goldeneyes in Interior Alaska

      Schmidt, Joshua Harold (2004-08)
      The lack of research on the common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) in Interior Alaska prompted this study. My objectives were to estimate duckling survival relative to several explanatory variables and to characterize incubation behaviors in a subset of females nesting in the Chena River State Recreation Area. My estimates of duckling survival were higher than previously reported for this species: 0.65 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.82) and 0.68 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.79) for 2002 and 2003 respectively. Seasonally, duckling survival increased linearly throughout 2002, remained nearly constant in 2003, and was negatively related to daily precipitation in both years. Nest attendance patterns and incubation behaviors were not related to weather, female experience, clutch size, or day of incubation. Average number of recesses per day (2.9 ± 0.05), length of recesses (100.7 ± 1.5 min), and incubation constancy (79.8 ± 0.3%) were similar to values previously reported for this species (mean ± SE). I observed nocturnal recesses in this population. Although not previously reported for this species, these recesses may occur due to extended daylight hours during the incubation period.
    • Ecological and physiological aspects of caribou activity and responses to aircraft overflights

      Maier, Julie Ann Kitchens (1996)
      I investigated the use of remote-sensing of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) activity to assess disturbance of low-altitude overflights by jet aircraft. Resource management agencies are concerned about the potential effects of these overflights on important species of ungulates. I hypothesized that low-altitude overflights would affect activity and movements of caribou, and thereby constitute a disturbance with negative consequences on energetics. I used caribou of the Delta Herd (DCH) and captive animals at the Large Animal Research Station (LARS) to address the hypotheses: caribou (1) exhibit equal activity day and night; (2) do not time activity to light; and (3) activity patterns do not change seasonally in response to daylength. Caribou were nychthemeral and exhibited uniform activity with no apparent timing to light. DCH caribou responded to seasonal changes in the environment by modifying activity (increased activity in response to insect harassment), whereas LARS caribou altered activity in response to fluctuating physiological variables (increased activity during rut). Changes in daylength did not affect activity. Data on activity from LARS and DCH caribou were compared with extant data on caribou of the Denali and Porcupine herds. Poor quality forage in winter was inferred from long resting bouts, and low availability of forage was inferred from long active bouts of post-calving caribou of the DCH. In midsummer, caribou of the DCH exhibited significantly longer active and shorter resting bouts than did LARS caribou, consistent with a moderate level of insect harassment. Responses of caribou to overflights were mild in late winter and, thus, overflights did not constitute a disturbance. Post-calving caribou responded to overflights by increasing daily activity, linear movements, incremental energy cost, and average daily metabolic rate. Energetic responses and movements were significantly related to the loudest overflight of the day. In the insect season, activity levels increased significantly in response to overflights but with no corresponding increase in linear movements or energetics. My recommendations are to prohibit aircraft overflights of caribou during calving and post-calving periods and during key feeding times in insect harassment seasons. Research indicates the possibility of more severe effects in nutritionally stressed animals.
    • Ecological effects of invasive European bird cherry (Prunus padus) on salmonid food webs in Anchorage, Alaska streams

      Roon, David A.; Wipfli, Mark; Prakash, Anupma; Wurtz, Tricia (2011-08)
      Invasive species are a concern worldwide as they can displace native species, reduce biodiversity, and disrupt ecological processes. European bird cherry (Prunus padus) (EBC) is an invasive ornamental tree that is rapidly spreading and possibly displacing native trees along streams in parts of urban Alaska. The objectives of this study were to: 1) map the current distribution of EBC along two Anchorage streams, Campbell and Chester creeks, and 2) determine the effects of EBC on selected ecological processes linked to stream salmon food webs. Data from the 2009 and 2010 field seasons showed: EBC was widely distributed along Campbell and Chester creeks; EBC leaf litter in streams broke down rapidly and supported similar shredder communities to native tree species; and EBC foliage supported significantly less terrestrial invertebrate biomass relative to native deciduous tree species, and contributed significantly less terrestrial invertebrate biomass to streams compared to mixed native vegetation, but riparian EBC did not appear to affect the amount of terrestrial invertebrate prey ingested by juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Although ecological processes did not seem to be dramatically affected by EBC presence, lowered prey abundance as measured in this study may have long-term consequences for stream-rearing fishes as EBC continues to spread over time.
    • Ecological factors influencing fish distribution in a large subarctic lake system

      Plumb, Miranda Paige (2006-05)
      The coastal climate and frequent wind storms in southwest Alaska create an atypical thermal environment (non-stratified in summer) in the remote Ugashik lakes. This study documents the distribution of lake trout 'Salvelinus namaycush, ' arctic char 'S. alpinus', Dolly Varden 'S. malma, ' arctic grayling 'Thymallus arcticus, ' round whitefish 'Prosopium cylindraceum, ' and pygmy whitefish 'P. coulterii' relative to depth, substrate particle size, food habits, length, and age in the absence of strong thermal structure. Sample sites were randomly chosen within sampling strata and gill nets were set at each site. Lake trout and round whitefish were most abundant and had the oldest individuals in the catch. In more typical thermally stratified lake systems lake trout and Arctic char usually move to colder, deeper water in summer. In the Ugashik lakes, however, both species were abundant in shallow water all summer. Prior to this study pygmy whitefish were undocumented in this system. The fish examined in the Ugashik lakes were opportunistic feeders, consuming organisms such as isopods and amphipods. Fish in the Ugashik lakes were found in locations different from what one would expect from predominant literature. Fisheries managers may need to take this into account in their fisheries management.
    • Ecology of Prince of Wales spruce grouse

      Nelson, Aleya R. (2010-12)
      Recently, spruce grouse on Prince of Wales Island (POW) in southeast Alaska have been proposed as a separate subspecies. Furthermore, life-history of spruce grouse on POW, which is temperate coastal rainforest, varies sufficiently from birds in mainland areas, mostly boreal forest, to warrant specific management. Therefore, I examined the ecology of spruce grouse on POW to determine how timber harvest influences their survival and habitat selection and ultimately to provide recommendations for their conservation. During 2007-2009, we found that the greatest variation in survival probability was attributed to breeding status. The annual survival of non-breeding birds was 0.72±0.082 (S±) while for breeding birds it was 0.08±0.099. Logging did not adequately predict survival, with no differences among habitats. Conversely, I found differences in selection among habitats. At the watershed scale, spruce grouse preferred unharvested forest. At both watershed and homerange scales, spruce grouse avoided edges and preferred roads. Road-related mortality was the largest known source of death. POW spruce grouse and mainland subspecies exhibit sufficiently different survival rates and habitat preference to warrant specific management. We recommend limited road closures during periods when POW spruce grouse are most vulnerable due to the high rates of mortality associated with this preferred habitat.