Projects completed as a requirement for Master's Degree programs

Recent Submissions

  • Legacy junk: MFA thesis exhibition

    Juneau, Allison; Mollett, David; Jones, Zoe; Mehner, Da-ka-xeen (2020-12)
    I recently purchased a tract of raw land with the intention of building a cabin, and wasn't terribly surprised to find the land came with some impressive piles of junk. I was frankly enamored of these objects, abandoned but not destroyed by the previous owner. They had a potentially useful quality that resonated with other aspects of the Fairbanks community; transfer sites, the airplane graveyard behind the airport, old couches and tables and wooden spools that littered the yards of countless homes. This rural detritus represents a confluence of natural and cultural forces that Alaskans experience every day. I wish to investigate this transitional territory by abstracting and amplifying the fine line between usefulness and decay. I believe that in this modern life, it is all too easy to assume that the world of nature and the world of human culture are totally separate. For me, this assumption was repeatedly challenged after experiencing the destructive power of nature during my childhood in Tornado Alley, and more recently, the subzero temperatures of Interior Alaska. I typically draw inspiration from daily observations of my environment, and as a result my imagery changed dramatically after I moved to the far North. Despite the change of landscape, the core concept of investigating intersections of nature and culture remains the same. This is a fascinating task in the Alaskan Interior, as these intersections are clearly exposed. This community has a unique relationship to nature, as modern homes and businesses coexist with virtually untouched wilderness. These experiences have instilled in me a deep respect for the vast web of life that both supports and threatens my community, and motivates me to seek out and emphasize places where natural and artificial worlds collide using the malleable language of art and oil painting.
  • VITAS: A Visual Exhibit

    Walter, Ilisa A.; Croskrey, Wendy E.; Jones, Zoë M. (2020-12)
    VITAS is a visual exhibition that addresses the idea of a posthumous legacy. The substance of a person’s life is composed of what they’ve done, and what they become after death is determined by that substance. This exhibition is composed of 25 carved animal skulls and sculptures inspired by the concept of vitas, treating life as an opportunity to advance the next generation through life’s work. VITAS studies the idea of what happens after the passing of a being by applying embellishment, adornment, pigments, and carvings onto the skeletal remains of animals. By applying human influence to natural material, the animal’s experience becomes a vital part of the artwork. Bone density, size, condition, and abnormalities are all determined by how the animal lived. These factors are a major consideration in design and aesthetic choices in each unique piece.
  • Nome Eskimo Community Tribal Council Resource Guide

    Nichols-Takak, Kendra Kookruk; Brooks, Cathy; Stern, Charlene; Topkok, Megan (2020-12)
    The Nome Eskimo Community Tribal Council Resource is a digital manual composed of information for newly elected tribal leaders so they can provide the best guidance to the Tribe, develop leadership skills, and serve the community. The purpose of this project is to ensure that current and future tribal council members and presidents have access to information necessary to make decisions on important issues using best practices for governance and leadership. The resource guide includes roles and responsibilities as well as local and statewide resources in various areas of governance including child welfare, land, natural resources, and education. It is intended to provide a starting point for newly elected tribal members. Additionally, Nome Eskimo Community (NEC) bylaws, program information, photos and recorded interviews of current and former tribal leaders will provide newly elected officials with important NEC history. The different subjects contained within the guide are specific to the programs the Council is governing. Leaders have access to the digital resource guide via downloadable files which can be viewed on a tablet. The resource guide will include the roles and responsibilities of the tribal council and the president and will cover governance, leadership practices, and program resources. The resource guide can be further developed to include advanced information for experienced leaders in the following areas: child welfare, land, natural resources, and education.
  • Creating safety policy and procedures in an active shooter event

    Nash, Mechelle L.; Taylor, Karen; DeCaro, Peter; Hum, Richard; Heckman, Daniel (2020-12)
    School and workplace active shootings are on the rise and seem to be the norm today and there is not a working policy in place to train for an active shooter event in our organization, Golden Valley Electric Association. The purpose of this project was to develop a workable policy and procedure for the employees and to enhance the safety culture within our organization. To achieve this goal, a training presentation was created using the ALICE Training Institute’s protocol to train the workforce. The ALICE acronym stands for A=Alert, L=Lockdown, I=Inform, C=Counter, E=Evacuate. Over the course of research for this project, research indicated that a crisis management plan (CMP) and crisis management team (CMT) would be a better option for training the organization, not policies and procedures. A sample crisis management plan and outline for the crisis management team were created. The crisis management team would deal with the policies and procedures and ensure the success of training the workforce and enhancing the safety culture of the organization. The recommendations are for the organization to select the CMT, review the CMP created, and implement and maintain the plan. Following and implementing these recommendations into practice would ensure the workforce was trained and would strengthen the safety culture of the organization.
  • A Place-based study of Alaskan animals

    Heslop, Emma; Hogan, Maureen; Hornig, Joan; Kardash, Diane (2020-12)
    In the spring of 2020, my second-grade class, located in Fairbanks, AK, dived into a place-based exploration of Alaskan animals. The aim of the project was to increase students’ connections and understanding of the state where they live (Alaska) and the animals that they share it with. Through a backwards design, inquiry-based instructional model, my students met state standards with an integrated-subject approach. With art, guest speakers, research, and field trips my students learned about the Animals that share Alaska with us, their environments, and their adaptations. Students used informational writing published on digital mediums to share their knowledge with others. I propose to share this unit with other educators in the form of a website with links and lesson plans so that more teachers and children have access to quality place-based materials that align to state standards.
  • Measuring the impact of cooperative rewards on AI

    Harmon, Dain; Lawlor, Orion S.; Chappell, Glenn G.; Metzgar, Jonathan B. (2020-12)
    We consider the effects of varying individualistic and team rewards on learning for a Deep Q-Network AI in a multi-agent system, using a synthetic team game ‘Futlol’ designed for this purpose. Experimental results with this game using the OpenSpiel framework indicate that mixed reward structures result in lower win rates. It is unclear if this is due to faster learning on simpler reward structures or a flaw in the nature of the reward system.
  • Review and case study of electric submersible pump performance with dispersions

    Ellexson, Dexter Bryant; Awoleke, Obadare; Ning, Samson; Dandekar, Abhijit (2020-12)
    Centrifugal pump performance is very sensitive to fluid viscosity, gas fraction, and flow pattern in impeller channels. Viscous oil reduces the head and rate capacity of the pump. High gas fraction reduces the head capacity of the pump at high rates and leads to unstable surging at low rates. If the flow pattern in the impeller transitions to an elongated bubble the pump can gas-lock causing loss of production and excessive heat buildup. The complex geometry and 3-dimensional flow in a pump stage make the analysis of flow in a pump difficult without simplifying assumptions. Empirical and mechanistic models have been developed for correcting pump performance for viscosity, gas fraction, and predicting flow pattern within the impeller with reasonable accuracy. Difficulties arise when produced fluids form stable dispersions. Foams, emulsions, and solid suspensions make the determination of viscosity, gas separation efficiency, and flow pattern more difficult. Interfacial properties between phases become important in determining the bulk fluid properties, and the presence of surfactants exacerbates the interfacial effects. The objective of this project is to describe the fundamentals of electrical submersible centrifugal pumps, ESPs, and the effects that produced fluids have on their performance. These findings are then used to evaluate a case study of an ESP installed in a well with foamy and viscous crude. The ESP exhibits reduced head and rate compared to predicted viscous and gas corrections. Including interfacial effects on the fluid viscosity allow a satisfactory performance match of pump performance to be achieved. The effect of foam on pump performance can be attributed to the increased viscosity exhibited when gas behaves as a dispersed phase in a continuous oil phase rather than a separate phase in a mixture.
  • The Ranch(er)

    Connelley, Wendy; Brashear, James; Mehner, Da-ka-xeen; Croskrey, Wendy Ernst; Jones, Zoë Marie (2020-12)
    THE RANCH(ER) is a thesis project to fulfill the requirements of an MFA degree in visual fine-arts. This project focused on exploring my connection between the land, the ranch and its tools, and generations of ancestors living and working a small family ranch. I give voice to the seldom-vocal rancher and the isolation, hardships, and tenderness of ranch life. I have chosen as subjects for this exhibition objects that are utilitarian and are items woven into the cultural fabric of ranchers and their families. They are icons of generational identity. Rather than creating purely traditional functional objects such as cups and bowls, I’ve created conceptual pieces that emphasize the intangible connection between utilitarian objects and their users, as well as the objects’ roles in its customary position. By removing the items from their original context, I point to the context of function and utility: a life of use and work. Clay is the primary material used to create this installation to tell a universal story. The ceramic and sculptural pieces were exhibited to the public as an installation in the University of Alaska Fairbanks Fine Arts Gallery in the Fine Art Complex, Room 312, from November 2-20, 2020. The artist’s public presentation was given through an open Zoom meeting on Friday, November 13, 2020. The project report summarizes the examination and investigations involved in the development of the project.
  • Automated remote security scoring engine (ARSSE): gamification of cyber security education

    Chauhan, Arsh; Lawlor, Orion S.; Hartman, Christopher M.; Metzgar, Jonathan B. (2020-12)
    The goal of this project is to create an easy to use, extensible, and engaging method to compute scores interactively during a practical cyber security education. Gamification has been shown to be an effective teaching tool and has been used in the offensive cybersecurity education space (via Capture The Flag competitions and challenges such as hackthebox.eu) but there has not been an open-source effort to bring this idea to the defensive side (blue team) aspect of cybersecurity. The Automated Remote Security Scoring Engine (ARSSE, pronounced "Arsh") uses a combination of well maintained open-source tools and custom connectors to facilitate an easy to use, scalable, and secure system to check the state of a computer system against a desired state and award points based on passed checks. ARSSE has been released to the public with the hope that it will fill a gap in training the next generation of information security professionals.
  • Recommendations for training of substitute teachers in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough School District

    Chamblee, Lulu R.; Topkok, Sean; Hornig, Joan; Kardash, Diane (2020-12)
    With increasing importance placed on student growth and achievement scores, increasing teacher absenteeism, and increasing amounts of time students spend being taught by substitute teachers, it is surprising that the preparation of substitute teachers does not reflect the significance of the job they have in relation to these trends. Research shows that training can increase substitute teacher effectiveness, which may positively affect student growth and achievement. The purpose of this project was to determine what the substitute teacher onboarding process was, including employment requirements and required training, for substitute teachers in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough School District and to make recommendations to the district for the training of substitute teachers. Substitute teachers in the district were asked to complete a survey regarding their experience, current level of training, and perceived training needs. I found that regardless of the amount of experience and training substitute teachers already possess, they want more training not only in the programs and initiatives utilized by the district, but also in effective instructional strategies, best practices, and teaching methods in curricular areas. While the district onboarding process is fairly comprehensive, as is the available optional training, I developed recommendations to improve the onboarding process and training options for substitute teachers in the district to strengthen substitute teacher effectiveness.
  • Applying the environmental identity development model in place-based education: an online resource guide

    Blake, Margaret R.; Green, Carie; Hogan, Maureen; Conner, Laura (2020-12)
    I created an online resource guide for place-based education (PBE) informed by the Environmental Identity Development (EID) Model and research (Green et al., 2016). The EID Model provides a flexible framework for understanding how individuals develop their sense of self within and in relation to the natural world. The model is valuable as a diagnostic tool and a guide in the creation of place-based activities that support children’s play, learning, and growth in nature. The goals of this project were to create an accessible guide to understanding the EID Model and theory; to demonstrate how the EID Model and research may be used in the development of culturally relevant educational strategies; to utilize the EID Model in the creation and curation of effective and flexible PBE activities. Qualitative data from the EID research project were used to explain and contextualize the EID Model. Place-based pedagogies and land education pedagogies were utilized in the development of educational resources. The educational resources created for the website are accessible and flexible, adaptable for diverse ages and environments. The website encourages adults to support “spontaneous” child-initiated activities and explorations in the natural world. Ultimately, this guide is an accessible resource that encourages educators to utilize the EID Model in the pursuit of culturally responsive and child-centered PBE in their own context.
  • A Bayesian mixed multistate open-robust design mark-recapture model to estimate heterogeneity in transition rates in an imperfectly detected system

    Badger, Janelle J.; McIntyre, Julie; Barry, Ron; Goddard, Scott; Breed, Greg (2020-12)
    Multistate mark-recapture models have long been used to assess ecological and demographic parameters such as survival, phenology, and breeding rates by estimating transition rates among a series of latent or observable states. Here, we introduce a Bayesian mixed multistate open robust design mark recapture model (MSORD), with random intercepts and slopes to explore individual heterogeneity in transition rates and individual responses to covariates. We fit this model to simulated data sets to test whether the model could accurately and precisely estimate five parameters, set to known values a priori, under varying sampling schemes. To assess the behavior of the model integrated across replicate fits, we employed a two-stage hierarchical model fitting algorithm for each of the simulations. The majority of model fits showed no sign of inadequate convergence according to our metrics, with 81.25% of replicate posteriors for parameters of interest having general agreement among chains (r < 1.1). Estimates of posterior distributions for mean transition rates and standard deviation in random intercepts were generally well-defined. However, we found that models estimated the standard deviation in random slopes and the correlation among random effects relatively poorly, especially in simulations with low power to detect individuals (e.g. low detection rates, study duration, or secondary samples). We also apply this model to a dataset of 200 female grey seals breeding on Sable Island from 1985-2018 to estimate individual heterogeneity in reproductive rate and response to near-exponential population growth. The Bayesian MSORD estimated substantial variation among individuals in both mean transition rates and responses to population size. The correlation among effects trended positively, indicating that females with high reproductive performance (more positive intercept) were also more likely to respond better to population growth (more positive slope) and vice versa. Though our simulation results lend confidence to analyses using this method on well developed datasets on highly observable systems, we caution the use of this framework in sparse data situations.
  • Suicide screening in medical settings screening for suicidality in medical settings: a review of best practices the culturally-grounded interpersonal model for suicide assessment

    Winters, Tomi; Gifford, Valerie; Dahl, Heather; Worrall, Michael (2020-08)
    Suicide assessment training is essential for medical providers because patients are more likely to present at medical clinics than behavioral health clinics when suffering from suicidal ideation (Ahmedani et al., 2014; Luoma, Martin, & Pearson, 2002), and the range in symptom presentation complicates suicide screening (Ghasemi, Shaghaghi, & Allahverdipour, 2015; Giddens, Sheehan, & Sheehan, 2014). Using a survey from the Fairbanks Wellness Coalition (Goldstream Group Incorporated, 2017), a literature review, and three phases of evaluation from prior presentations, this webinar project supports the training needs of medical providers in the Fairbanks North Star Borough. The results from the literature review and feedback from the presentations created the content for the training. Combining suicide risk measurements with clinical judgment is best practice when assessing patients for suicide risk (Bouch & Marshall, 2005; Chung & Jelic, 2015). Use of the C-SSRS and improving clinical judgment with the Culturally-Grounded Interpersonal model for Suicide Assessment (C-GIMS) may improve results. C-GIMS incorporates new findings in the literature after the C-SSRS was created while addressing the need for perspective-taking and cultural attunement for improved clinical judgment. The purpose of this project was to train medical providers to improve screening for suicide risk in medical settings.
  • Open-pit slope geotechnical considerations and its effects on mine planning

    Enkhbayar, Bayasgalan; Chen, Gang; Ahn, Il Sang; Arya, Sampurna (2020-08)
    In open-pit mining, a stable pit slopes design is essential for safe operation and economic performance of the mine. However, a steeper pit is more desirable from an economic standpoint due to reduced overburden removal. As the mine deepens, the open-pit walls become increasingly prone to slope failure, which causes human and economic losses. Therefore, a feasible and stable slope mine design requires a serious geotechnical investigation. The optimization of this design requires steepening the overall slope angle as much as possible while maintaining mine safety for efficient and effective mining operations. The open-pit slope geotechnical investigation calls for detailed geological and geotechnical data and advanced numerical modeling. In this study, geological and geotechnical data are collected from the Erdenet Copper Mine of Mongolia. The collected information includes data from discontinuity face mapping, geotechnical core logging, groundwater condition, geological exploration cross-sections, pit map, and rock property lab test results. The open-pit slope stability is analyzed with geotechnical numerical modeling software FLAC2D, and the variation and distribution of factors of safety (FOS) are computed and studied. The stability of Erdenet mine’s North-West open-pit is simulated by dividing the pit into ten representative cross-sections, and subsequently, FOS is calculated for each cross-section. The simulation results show that each cross-section has a higher overall FOS value than the allowable mine FOS, set at 1.5 with an earthquake magnitude of 0.165g peak ground acceleration (PGA). However, the localized high shear strain on individual benches may still occur, which can cause potential failures. Parametric studies indicate that changes in the bench angles and rock mass properties will have various degrees of impact on pit slope FOS. The effect of bench angle changes appears to be more significant. The study of pit slope design on mine planning shows that a 1° increase on slope angle will reduce excavation volume by 5 M m3 and save $15 million in excavation cost, but will also reduce FOS by 0.12. Engineering judgment and decision will have to be made regarding this tradeoff for a safe and economical mining operation. Practice and analysis indicate that the computer simulation alone is not sufficient to ensure the accurate estimation of slope stability. It is recommended to use a combination of slope monitoring and computer simulation to provide verification against each other to detect any potential hazards in mine. Mine pit slope movement monitoring program setup and monitoring procedure are analyzed and proposed in this study. The above findings allow mining engineers to optimally design pit slopes under the given geotechnical conditions and minimize the risk of slope failures while improving the stripping ratio and enhancing production profit.
  • A Framework for teachers in education for sustainable development for upper elementary grades in the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District

    Wylde, Allison; Green, Carie; Spellman, Katie; Vinlove, Amy (2020-05)
    Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) is a holistic approach to education that seeks to create a better world for this generation and the next. The aim of ESD is for students to gain knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that will shape the planet for a sustainable future. The United Nations has adopted 17 Global Goals as a "universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030” (United Nations Development Program, 2020, para. 1). Models for sustainability look very different depending on where one lives. The context of this work is Alaska, and more specifically the Fairbanks North Star Borough. The purpose of this project is to build a website resource to aid teachers in developing a mindset toward ESD and provide locally relevant resources and curriculum aligned with the United Nations Global Goals. This project is guided by the question of how Indigenous Ways of Knowing & Culturally responsive practices can be incorporated into curriculum development alongside district standards and ESD competencies. The methods of this project seek to engage students by incorporating real-world challenges and authentic experiences into core subject areas allowing students to connect classroom learning to real life, and thus creating engaged citizens. The aims are for students to become environmentally aware, while developing life-skills including leadership, communication, collaboration, and management. By developing a sense of place and equipping students with environmental knowledge and skills they can excel at living lives which further humanity while caring for and respecting our planet and it's resources.
  • Ugnu pilot area - simulation model and sensitivity analysis

    Wooster, Arin J.; Dandekar, Abhijit; Ning, Samson; Zhang, Yin (2020-05)
    Collaborating with Hilcorp Alaska, LLC, the Ugnu pilot area is the subject of this project. Hilcorp Alaska is conducting field pilot test at Milne Point Field to prove commerciality with Ugnu heavy oil as well as an on-going Milne viscous oil polymer flood field pilot test in the Schrader Bluff sands. The Ugnu sand heavy oil represents much of the heavy oil on Alaska’s North Slope and has potential for future development. Typical heavy oil has a viscosity of 1,000 - 10,000 centipoise, approximately akin to viscosities of honey and molasses, respectively. North Slope heavy oil is located around 3,000-foot depths and typically overlays existing fields. The project involves a reservoir simulation model and sensitivity analysis to support developmental drilling plans from a Milne Point Unit pad. Necessary geologic and reservoir properties were provided for usage in this project by Hilcorp. Production data was provided for history matching. Field geologic background was also supplied to aid in the understanding of the reservoir. The reservoir simulation model was built using Computer Modelling Group software, namely Builder and IMEX. The first model iteration contained one producer in an 8,500-foot lateral pattern. Further iterations included additional producers and injectors for waterflood and polymer flood studies. Conclusions and recommendations were drawn upon analyzing the reservoir simulation results centering around favorable production strategies, polymer flood performance, comparison to the on-going Milne viscous oil polymer flood pilot, and future polymer flood studies. Completed objectives of this project included: 1. Developing a numerical reservoir simulation model for the Ugnu MB sand in the pilot area; 2. Evaluating the productivity of horizontal wells in the Ugnu MB sand; 3. Predicting ultimate oil recovery with waterflood and polymer flood; 4. Predicting polymer utilization, polymer injected per incremental oil barrels over waterflood.
  • Navigating ambiguous regulations: an artist's perspective on indigenous art materials and resource management in Alaska

    Woldstad, Theresa M.; Mehner, Da-ka-xeen; Croskrey, Wendy Ernst; Mason, Charles; Jones, Zoe Marie; Simpson, Glen (2020-03)
    Alaska Native art is legally defined as art created by a member of a state or federally-recognized tribe of Alaska Natives or a certified non-member artisan (Indian Arts and Crafts Act). Yet this legal definition does not reference the cultural expression and application of creative skill that makes Alaska Native Art a strategic expressive resource. Alaska Native Art is a cultural resource that impacts indigenous economies, cultural social networks, natural resource utilization, and political engagement. Through the creation of native art, an individual not only expresses their culture but also becomes engaged in the natural resource utilization and management in Alaska. However, the link between natural resource management and customary material harvest and utilization has been historically underappreciated primarily due to regulatory ambiguity and broad nature of artistic creation. The harvest and use of these customary materials are governed by multiple state and federal laws across diverse management agencies. State and federal natural resource management agencies possess different interpretations for who may harvest natural resources for art, definitions of significant modifications of natural materials to create art, and priorities governing urban and rural access. Each agency applies different administrative codes to determine proper permitting for both personal artistic creation and the manufacture of marketplace authentic Alaska Native Handicrafts. However, this ambiguous labyrinth of regulation is constantly changing and adapting to new federal and state laws, treaties, and court rules. It is the responsibility of the native artist to navigate this complicated mosaic of regulatory authority to harvest natural materials for art. Yet the foundation from which an artist begins navigating regulatory authority is often inadequately defined. It is the purpose of this MFA thesis is to provide an artist’s perspective on native art materials and resource management in Alaska
  • School counselor's role in recognizing and addressing eating disorders in the Fairbanks Northstar Borough School District

    Widman, Joyce A.; Gifford, Valerie; Cook, Christine R.; McMorrow, Samantha (2020-05)
    Eating disorders are recognized as the deadliest mental-health illness. Eating disorder symptoms frequently appear in adolescents in middle school and high school, which is a time when school counselors are part of a teenager’s life. School counseling offers a solid platform to educate and collaborate with stakeholders such as parents, other school staff, and coaches. Fairbanks, Alaska, like other small communities, lacks resources for the treatment of eating disorders. However, there are dieticians, counselors, and doctors in the local community who are able and willing to work together on behalf of a student struggling with an eating disorder or eating disorder symptoms. They can help with treatment for mild cases and with locating an appropriate venue for in treatment care. Based on an examination of current literature on eating disorders and the roles that school counselors can play in recognition of and treatment for young people with eating disorders, a website and booklet have been developed specifically for school counselors in the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District.
  • A modular LoRaWAN inspired Internet of Things approach to collecting sensor data via Software Defined Radio

    Van Cise, Tristan; Genetti, Jon; Lawlor, Orion; Metzgar, Jonathan (2020-05)
    The emergence of simple Internet of Things (IoT) devices has habituated the ability to efficiently collect data and communicate information between devices with ease. Similarly, Software Defined Radio (SDR) has compacted radio communication into a USB dongle capable of receiving radio signals from most radio transmitters. In this approach, the ease of IoT device communication and versatility of SDR data collection and transmission techniques is combined to monitor building thermal decay. The system developed to collect thermal decay data is adapted from the Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) IoT architecture and is designed to facilitate variable size collection environments and real-time data visualization. This paper will outline the implementation and capabilities of the collection system and highlight alternate applications and hardware implementations of the underlying framework.
  • King on ice: history of the Alaska Gold Kings and the transformation of Fairbanks into a hockeytown

    Urban, Samuel Fox; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Boylan, Brandon M.; Speight, Jeremy S. (2020-05)
    Wanting a higher level of hockey for local youth to aspire to, city hockey officials created the semi-professional Teamsters hockey team in 1975. The team was initially comprised of the best local recreational players, many of whom relocated to Fairbanks to work on the TransAlaska Pipeline from the upper Midwest and Seattle. Two years later the team took on the name Fairbanks Gold Kings (later changed to the Alaska Gold Kings), and quickly began proving itself against teams from Anchorage and the Pacific Northwest. From 1975 to 1995 the Gold Kings were an amateur senior men’s team, and from 1995-1997 they spent their last two Fairbanks years in the professional minor league West Coast Hockey League. Between its inception in 1975 as the Teamsters, and in spite of its relocation to Colorado Springs in 1998 as the Alaska Gold Kings, Fairbanks’ team was a huge success. The Gold Kings won five national championships, played 16 different international and Olympic teams, played overseas in Asia and Europe on multiple occasions, and laid the foundation for the level of hockey found in Fairbanks today.

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