• The Extralegal Forum and Legal Power: The Dynamics of the Relationship — Other Pipelines

      Conn, Stephen (Institute of Social, Economic and Government Research, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1974-02-26)
      Diverse groups — e.g., Brazilian squatters, Navajos, village Eskimos and Indians — look to special forums to resolve disputes outside the formal legal system. These forums are employed because they accept disputes as defined by their clients and offer remedies based upon these conceptualizations. Formal agents of the law in their environments cannot do this. When these forums are extralegal (without formal legal authority to act) and are located in an environment where the formal legal process has the theoretical capacity to intervene in the disputes, they must tap into authentic lines of power to maintain their credibility with their constituents. Legal power is not usually formally delegated without defined limits upon its use. Because extralegal forums often must be free from the constraints of particular norms and processes, in order to correctly define and remedy disputes, extralegal forums seek borrowed power through special relationships with formal agents of legal power. Then they reapply it to meet the needs of their constituents. This paper describes the ways to study these relationships and their likely impact upon an informal forum. The author suggests a way of viewing extralegal dispute resolution in a given community against the larger matrix of relationships between the formal and informal legal process. He draws upon his field work in Brazilian squatter colonies, Navajo Indian communities, and rural Athabascan and Eskimo villages in Alaska.
    • Directions for Change in Police Organizations

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-04)
      Three situations serve to hamper police effectiveness under traditional police organizational arrangements First, police operations are based on an assumption that police are primarily in the "criminal apprehension" business. This concept of the police role serves to constrain many police activities that offer potential for satisfying client needs and contributing to crime prevention. Second, police managers rely almost exclusively on the tenets of Bureaucratic Theory, as promulgated by Max Weber (1947), for arranging and managing police organizations. This reliance contributes to problems in the police and community relationship, coordination and direction of police operations, and (3) motivation of police employees. Third, police agencies are basically organized as self-contained operations which are automous from other units of government. This independence reduces the potential for optimum utilization of police services. This paper elaborates on these three situations and their implications, and makes proposals about the directions that the author believes police organizational changes should take.
    • Increasing Police Utility through Organizational Design

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-11)
      Research by social scientists over the past decade provides strong evidence that American policies concerning police organizational designs have served in many instances to restrict the social usefulness, or utility, of local police operations. Substantial changes in police organizational designs are unlikely to occur unless policymakers have relatively comprehensive and complete models. To satisfy policy officials, a model must be (1) easily understood by laypersons, (2) logically related to definitions of problems acceptable to policymakers, (3) sufficiently defined to provide guidelines for systemic, incremental changes, and (4) adequate to facilitate simple, but accurate, assessment of the impact of changes consistent with the model. This paper is in pursuit of such an alternative model for improving police utility.
    • Career Mobility in Criminal Justice: An Exploratory Study of Alaskan Police and Corrections Executives

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-03-08)
      This paper provides exploratory research into the career patterns of Alaska police and correctional executives in order to assess career mobility patterns and the variables which may have had a significant influence on success. Basic data for the paper is from biographical descriptions of 78 people who have served during the past ten years in top executive positions of Alaska's police and correctional agencies, including the commissioner of the Alaska Department of Public Safety, police chiefs of the 25 largest municipal police agencies in Alaska, superintendents of Alaska correctional institutions, and directors and assistant directors within the Alaska Division of Corrections.
    • Reply Paper to ‘Multicultural Law-Related Education in the Humanities’ by Dr. Carlos E. Cortes

      Conn, Stephen (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-05)
      Multi-ethnic (or bicultural) legal education is a superior way to teach law as a social process within an everchanging American legal culture. By stepping out of one's own legal tradition or culture and into another's, it is possible to see how law really operates without blinders of ethnocentricity. Ethnic minority students can use their own legal tradition as a basis for contrast and comparison with American legal culture. Elementary school is the best place to explore the values which underlie legal traditions. Teachers must discover differences and refrain from indoctrination. Curriculum that is bicultural should focus upon common problems, borne out of relationships, and common approaches to problem solving. A team approach in curriculum development has produced instructional material which treats common problems comparatively where more than one legal tradition operates.
    • Developing Prosecutorial Charging Guidelines: A Case Study

      Ring, Peter Smith (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-03-14)
      In July 1975, Alaska's attorney general announced his intention to end plea bargaining by assistant attorneys in all criminal cases involving violations of Alaska criminal law. While the major thrust of this policy change was intended to halt negotiations over sentencing, the policy also dealt — albeit less intensely — with charge bargaining. This paper describes efforts ot the Alaska Department of Law's Criminal Division to enhance the effectiveness of plea bargaining policy through the development of uniform, statewide charging guidelines, including the development of Project PROSECUTOR (PROSecutor Enhanced Charging Using Tested Options and Research), and presents preliminary findings from the project's prosecutorial screening intake component.
    • Crime and the Justice System in Rural Alaskan Villages

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-03-15)
      Approximately 20 percent of Alaska's population live in small remote Native villages. Very little factual data regarding contemporary criminal justice operations has been compiled. For example, comprehensive data concerning present crime rates, policing methods, and local deviancy control mechanisms in rural Alaska simply do not exist. The research underlying this paper was an exploratory effort to begin the collection of crime and justice information which can be used in criminal justice policy development in rural areas of the state by the State of Alaska.
    • Police: An Agenda for the 80's

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-03)
      Arguing that the police field suffers from excessively narrow frames of reference and perspectives, this paper asserts that a top priority for the 1980s police agenda must be on establishing a broader perspective for the development of theory and study of policing and explores the implications of those values and trends which the author contends will shape policing for the remainder of the 20th century, identified as (1) demographic changes, (2) the diminishing quantity of fossil fuels, (3) the accelerating rate of monetary inflation, (4) rapid developments in technology (5) changing attitudes toward the acceptance of a conflict model for achieving social change objectives, (6) continuing democratization and equalization of human society and its institutions, (7) increased danger and damaging consequences from natural and manmade disasters, and (8) need for higher levels of knowledge and skill for performing future police responsibilities.
    • Crisis Intervention: The Challenge of Stress

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-10)
      Most people agree that the stress connected with police work affects the way police officers relate to the people they contact and serve. While many assume the primary source of stress on police officers lies in factors related to police job activities, the author argues that the primary factors creating stress for police officers are related to traditional police organizational and management philosophy and related practices.
    • Police Organization and Community Relations

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-10-22)
      Police scholars approached the decade of the 1970s with optimistic expectations that the use of alternative organizational designs could improve the responsiveness and effectiveness of American policing. These expectations were not fulfilled. The 1970s ended with the traditional bureaucratic philosophy more firmly entrenched in the police managerial psyche than it was in the 1960s. The author argues that this is not because the traditional bureaucratic arrangements are superior, and proposes specific changes to police organization to improve community relations and the effectiveness of the police function.
    • The Resilience of Indigenous Law in Alaska and the New States of Africa South of the Sahara

      Opolot, James S. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-03)
      Comparative analysis of not only criminal justice administration, but also efforts to modify existing legal systems, are informative to the extent that they allow readers to broaden their perspectives and to learn lessons from other countries. This paper seeks to elaborate on this statement by comparison of the ways in which customary law in Alaska and the young nations of sub-Saharan Africa has been become living law, that is, law which dominates life itself even though it has not been written into the official law of the state.
    • The Social Context of Pinball: The Making of a Setting and Its Etiquette

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-04-01)
      Pinball and the settings in which it is played are perceived by the public as having an aura of deviance. The perception derives in part from behavior observed in pinball parlors, but goes beyond the reality of the pinball setting. Public labeling of pinball, with its taint of illegitimacy, molds the etiquette of pinball and acts to repel or attract potential players. Recent efforts by industry to improve the image of pinball aim to dispel negative attitudes toward pinball, thereby widening the social acceptance and use of pinball in public settings.
    • Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • A Socialist System of Justice: Observations from a Visit to the U.S.S.R.

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-03-28)
      This paper presents observations of the Soviet system of justice, including the courts, the procuracy (described as a combination of a prosecutor or district attorney and a police investigator), criminal trials, sentencing, and corrections. The paper is based upon a three-week visit by the author to the USSR as one of 24 American participants in a criminal justice study program. In all, just over three weeks were spent in the Soviet Union including lengthy visits in Leningrad, Moscow, and Tallin (then-capital of Soviet Estonia). The opportunity of first hand observation and direct interaction with Soviet policy and law makers and Soviet academicians has done much toward destroying myths about Soviet justice practices.
    • Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [1982 revision]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Town Law and Village Law: Satellite Villages, Bethel and Alcohol Control in the Modern Era — The Working Relationship and Its Demise

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-11-04)
      In southwestern Alaska the underpinning of the working relationship between official law and village social control was tied to alcohol control. This paper examines the breakdown of this relationship in the 1960s and its impact on village law. It also assesses the role of town liquor policy and town police and treatment resources on alcohol-related violence in the villages in the 1970s. It argues that a recent movement to reinstitute prohibition of importation and sale in many villages must be understood as a desire for renewal of a working relationship between two centers of legal authority.
    • Converging Science and Practice in Analyzing Evaluation Data

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-03)
      A strategy is presented for converging science and practice which focuses on the needs of scientists and policymakers in analyzing evaluation data. Emphasis is placed on employing powerful statistical techniques that maximize the evaluators' confidence in their results. Attention is also drawn to the need for producing results which can be easily communicated to and interpreted by policymakers. In regard to these requirements, the discussion concerns application of four statistical techniques: factor analysis, Guttman scalogram analysis, multiple classification analysis and cross-break analysis. Each statistical analysis technique is described as to its value in evaluation research for dealing with problems known to inhibit the convergence of science and practice. The application of these techniques is demonstrated by illustrations taken from previous evaluation studies. The paper concludes with implications for stimulating the extent and quality of evaluation use.
    • An Analysis of Outpatient Accident Trends in Two Dry Eskimo Towns as a Measure of Alternative Police Responses to Drunken Behavior

      Conn, Stephen; Boedeker, Bonnie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-03-24)
      Two rural Eskimo towns of approximately 3,000 persons each have banned the sale but not the use of alcoholic beverages in their communities. In the town of Bethel, police pick up intoxicated persons and transport them to a sleep-off and treatment center. In the town of Barrow, police take intoxicated persons into protective custody. Each town uses its police practice as an alternative to arrests for drunken behavior, decriminalized by the 1972 Alaska State Legislature. At least half of the adult population is picked up in each place. The authors seek to measure the impact of these differing approaches on violence related to alcohol use by employing Indian Health Service data in lieu of poorly maintained police data.
    • Law Enforcement Selection Practices in the U.S.A. and Canada

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-04)
      Selection practices in law enforcement have been said to be one of the most complex facets of personnel management. In an effort to document the state of this complexity internationally, the study presented provides state of the art information about police personnel practices in the USA and Canada.
    • Utilization of Research in Combating Violence in Alaska: An Ecological Perspective

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-09)
      Research diffusion and use has increasingly become an interest of social scientists and policymakers. This interest on the part of policymakers is evidenced by the results of this study. In particular, high level administrators in 268 human service agencies of Alaska reported moderate to high use of statistics, evaluation studies and other social science research in making pol icy decisions about combating violence. Findings are also presented that point to specific facilitators and inhibitors of research use. The conclusions and policy implications highlight how the results of this research utilization study can direct the formulation of a research and development agenda at the agency and state level.