• Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [1982 revision]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • The Interrelationship between Alaska State Law and the Social Systems of Modern Eskimo Villages in Alaska: History, Present and Future Considerations

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1985-08)
      Yup'ik and Inupiat villages in Alaska (the territory and the state) experienced a process of legal socialization that was strongly influenced by serious constraints in the allocation of resources. These constraints resulted in legal socialization into what was in essence a second legal state system and provided an opportunity for cultural autonomy by Eskimo villages, even though this de facto situation did not recognize these groups as sovereign tribes. The actual implementation of a single full-blown legal system in village Alaska in the mid-1970s has resulted in a loss of control and serious efforts by Alaska villages to reinstitute village law ways as tribal legal process.
    • Smooth the Dying Pillow: Alaska Natives and Their Destruction [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-07)
      The policy for Native self-determination in Alaska developed by the Congress and the state has sought to replace a tribal model of governance with a body of legislation which confirms land rights without the direct political involvement of Alaska Native villages. However, the author argues, the absence of tribes as formal political structures has contributed to a loss of self-determination among Alaska Natives and to serious negative effects on Native village life.
    • Town Law and Village Law: Satellite Villages, Bethel and Alcohol Control in the Modern Era — The Working Relationship and Its Demise

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-11-04)
      In southwestern Alaska the underpinning of the working relationship between official law and village social control was tied to alcohol control. This paper examines the breakdown of this relationship in the 1960s and its impact on village law. It also assesses the role of town liquor policy and town police and treatment resources on alcohol-related violence in the villages in the 1970s. It argues that a recent movement to reinstitute prohibition of importation and sale in many villages must be understood as a desire for renewal of a working relationship between two centers of legal authority.