• An Analysis of Outpatient Accident Trends in Two Dry Eskimo Towns as a Measure of Alternative Police Responses to Drunken Behavior

      Conn, Stephen; Boedeker, Bonnie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-03-24)
      Two rural Eskimo towns of approximately 3,000 persons each have banned the sale but not the use of alcoholic beverages in their communities. In the town of Bethel, police pick up intoxicated persons and transport them to a sleep-off and treatment center. In the town of Barrow, police take intoxicated persons into protective custody. Each town uses its police practice as an alternative to arrests for drunken behavior, decriminalized by the 1972 Alaska State Legislature. At least half of the adult population is picked up in each place. The authors seek to measure the impact of these differing approaches on violence related to alcohol use by employing Indian Health Service data in lieu of poorly maintained police data.
    • Merging Social Control and Criminal Law in Small Eskimo Villages in Alaska — Can It Be Done? The Portrait of the Inner Logic of Social Control Governing Drinking Behavior and Its Relationship to Criminal Law Process

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1985-04-04)
      The legal reaction by Yup'ik and Inupiat Eskimos in Alaska to drunken behavior has changed over time from one that penalizes drunkenness to one that seeks to prevent drinking. This new therapeutic approach interferes with any preemptive aggressive response by persons seeking to control an intoxicated person. Moreover, since the law perceives an intoxicated person as sick rather than bad, the traditional perception that an intoxicated person is not his normal self may be reinforced by the law. Indeed, a drunken person may act aggressively without fear of later community blame. The author concludes that the law should re-orient Native community members to understand that there is a connection between the sober and intoxicated self.
    • Punishment in Pre-Colonial Indigenous Societies in North America [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1987-05-25)
      Using northern Athabascan villages as examples, the author discusses how punishment in indigenous societies was traditionally interwoven with other societal functions. The influence of alcohol and the western legal process changed post-colonial societies and their methods of punishment because punishment decisions in indigenous societies were traditionally arrived at through group deliberation, whereas the western legal system works in a hierarchical fashion. The author concludes that imposition of western-style decision-making disrupted tradtional law ways in post-colonial society.
    • Telling Them What They Want to Hear: Involvement with the Indigenous Populations as a Lawyer-Legal Anthropologist in Alaska and Canada

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1989-04)
      For some purposes — most notably when the legal question of tribal sovereignty is pursued — Alaska has held firm to the principle that all Alaskans are subject to a single law and that village tribes lack legal authority. Yet in practice the history of Alaska bush justice has been to employ informal, extralegal approaches until formal law could muster sufficient resources to intervene and displace informal law.This paper describes the tension between official and unofficial approaches to solving problems such as alcohol, gasoline sniffing, and substance abuse and the attendant social disorder in rural Alaska villages where the structures of formal law and law enforcement are largely absent, and explores the role lawyers can play to improve the legal system within villages.
    • Town Law and Village Law: Satellite Villages, Bethel and Alcohol Control in the Modern Era — The Working Relationship and Its Demise

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-11-04)
      In southwestern Alaska the underpinning of the working relationship between official law and village social control was tied to alcohol control. This paper examines the breakdown of this relationship in the 1960s and its impact on village law. It also assesses the role of town liquor policy and town police and treatment resources on alcohol-related violence in the villages in the 1970s. It argues that a recent movement to reinstitute prohibition of importation and sale in many villages must be understood as a desire for renewal of a working relationship between two centers of legal authority.