• Discretion, Due Process, and the Prison Discipline Committee

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1985-04)
      Prison discipline received considerable attention from both the courts and professional organizations during the decade of the 1970s. It was widely assumed that the due process requirements which resulted from judicial review coupled with the promulgation of model discipline standards and procedures would limit the broad discretionary authority found in the traditional prison disciplinary process. A case study of the activities of one prison discipline committee suggests that these external pressures have had less impact on decision-making than such internal pressures as overcrowding. Due process requirements have not greatly inhibited the exercise of discretion in the prison discipline process.
    • Prison Visiting Policies and Practices [paper]

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1987-10)
      Based on empirical evidence that visiting is significantly related to parole success, several authorities have encouraged correctional institutions to maximize visiting opportunities. Previous studies have noted geographical and architectural limits to such maximization. A decade of prison construction should have improved visiting opportunities. This paper reports the results of a national survey of visiting policies and draws comparisons with surveys reported in 1978 and 1954.
    • Prisoner Behavior, Staff Response: Using Prison Discipline Records

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1984-03)
      Official prison misconduct records are used to test some of the assumptions inherent in previous research based upon such records. Many of these studies used prison data to measure changes in prisoner behavior, while others used them to indicate changes in the actions and attitudes of prison staff. Analysis of one prison's official discipline records over a 30-month period reveals flaws in both approaches. The same data cannot serve to draw conclusions about both groups though they can provide information about both when supplemented with other research methods. Conclusions drawn from official prison misconduct records are more reliable when used to assess the end of the prison discipline process — assessing discretionary decisionmaking by staff — than at the beginning of the process — evaluating prisoner behavior.
    • Profiles of Prison Visitors

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-10-14)
      An exploratory survey of visitors to two men's prisons finds that the visitors differ in some significant ways from prisoners' families previously described in the literature. The results raise some questions about the correlation that has been established between visits and post-release success and provoke suggestions for in-depth research into visitor/prisoner relationships.
    • Visiting Rules and Regulations: A Preliminary Study

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-04-04)
      Visiting rules and regulations from 71 long-term adult correctional facilities from 31 states were collected for review. The rules are divided into five areas: visitor application, visitor processing, contraband, conduct, and dress codes. They are reviewed in the light of recent standards which stress the importance of encouraging visits. Suggestions and recommendations for change are included.