• Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [1982 revision]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • Crime and the Justice System in Rural Alaskan Villages

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-03-15)
      Approximately 20 percent of Alaska's population live in small remote Native villages. Very little factual data regarding contemporary criminal justice operations has been compiled. For example, comprehensive data concerning present crime rates, policing methods, and local deviancy control mechanisms in rural Alaska simply do not exist. The research underlying this paper was an exploratory effort to begin the collection of crime and justice information which can be used in criminal justice policy development in rural areas of the state by the State of Alaska.
    • Developing Prosecutorial Charging Guidelines: A Case Study

      Ring, Peter Smith (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-03-14)
      In July 1975, Alaska's attorney general announced his intention to end plea bargaining by assistant attorneys in all criminal cases involving violations of Alaska criminal law. While the major thrust of this policy change was intended to halt negotiations over sentencing, the policy also dealt — albeit less intensely — with charge bargaining. This paper describes efforts ot the Alaska Department of Law's Criminal Division to enhance the effectiveness of plea bargaining policy through the development of uniform, statewide charging guidelines, including the development of Project PROSECUTOR (PROSecutor Enhanced Charging Using Tested Options and Research), and presents preliminary findings from the project's prosecutorial screening intake component.
    • Evaluation Capacity Building in Pretrial Diversion Services: A Case Study

      Partch, Serena Shores; Edwards, Steven M.; Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1984-03-27)
      Despite increasing use of adult pretrial diversion programs in recent years, the limited capacity to produce, analyze, and translate evaluation data in pretrial diversion programs has frequently resulted in policy and programmatic decisions being made on the basis of little or no empirical information. This paper presents a case study of the development of an evaluation system for the Alaska Pretrial Intervention (PTI) program of the Alaska Department of Law which can generate timely results for policymaking as well as monitor staff productivity.
    • Pretrial Intervention and Chronic Offenders

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-10-05)
      The Alaska Pretrial Intervention (PTI) program of the Alaska Department of Law operated in 13 locations throughout the state from 1983 to 1986, when economic pressures resulted in the program's termination. The program was intended to provide an alternative to full prosecution in cases where the offense behavior did not appear to warrant it. This paper analyzes recidivism in the PTI program through examination of chronic offenders, defined as PTI clients who were rearrested for the same charge as that for which they had initially been referred to the program.
    • Selective Return of Criminal Law Activity to Alaska Native Villages: Neocolonialism or Revitalization of Tribal Sovereignty?

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1990-03)
      As Alaska struggles with criminal justice delivery to Alaska Native villages, many experiments have been undertaken or postulated which would reinvigorate criminal law activity in these rural places. Initial enthusiasm for alleviation of burdens on the formal system has been replaced with a state concern that village activity will be viewed as tribal activity. The author isolates areas where the needs of the state and villages can be met without feeding the flames of the conflict between state sovereignty and village tribal sovereignty.
    • A Socialist System of Justice: Observations from a Visit to the U.S.S.R.

      Endell, Roger V. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-03-28)
      This paper presents observations of the Soviet system of justice, including the courts, the procuracy (described as a combination of a prosecutor or district attorney and a police investigator), criminal trials, sentencing, and corrections. The paper is based upon a three-week visit by the author to the USSR as one of 24 American participants in a criminal justice study program. In all, just over three weeks were spent in the Soviet Union including lengthy visits in Leningrad, Moscow, and Tallin (then-capital of Soviet Estonia). The opportunity of first hand observation and direct interaction with Soviet policy and law makers and Soviet academicians has done much toward destroying myths about Soviet justice practices.
    • Victim-Offender Mediation in Anchorage

      Trostle, Lawrence C.; Cunningham, Patrick (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1994-10)
      Victim-offender mediation programs provide an opportunity for victims to meet the offenders face-to-face in the presence of a trained mediator for the purpose of resolving the injury of the crime in some way. Mediation is offered as a diversion from the justice system which the offender may accept to avoid more formal adjudication. This paper describes a pilot victim-offender mediation program in Anchorage which involves juveniles accused of certain offenses and the victims of those crimes.