• Alaskan Bush Justice: Legal Centralism Confronts Social Science Research and Village Alaska [original paper]

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1981-09)
      This paper traces the history of the bush justice system in rural Alaska, describes the relationship between traditional Alaska Native dispute resolution mechanisms and the state criminal justice system, and analyzes bush justice research between 1970 and 1981 and its effects on state agency policies and changes in the rural justice system. Innovations by researchers were well-received by villagers and field-level professionals, but not by agency policymakers. Hence, most reforms made in the 1970s had vanished by the early 1980s. The author concludes that further reforms will be ineffective unless Alaska Natives are drawn into the decisionmaking process as co-equal players negotiating on legal process from positions of power.
    • An Analysis of Outpatient Accident Trends in Two Dry Eskimo Towns as a Measure of Alternative Police Responses to Drunken Behavior

      Conn, Stephen; Boedeker, Bonnie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-03-24)
      Two rural Eskimo towns of approximately 3,000 persons each have banned the sale but not the use of alcoholic beverages in their communities. In the town of Bethel, police pick up intoxicated persons and transport them to a sleep-off and treatment center. In the town of Barrow, police take intoxicated persons into protective custody. Each town uses its police practice as an alternative to arrests for drunken behavior, decriminalized by the 1972 Alaska State Legislature. At least half of the adult population is picked up in each place. The authors seek to measure the impact of these differing approaches on violence related to alcohol use by employing Indian Health Service data in lieu of poorly maintained police data.
    • Career Mobility in Criminal Justice: An Exploratory Study of Alaskan Police and Corrections Executives

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1978-03-08)
      This paper provides exploratory research into the career patterns of Alaska police and correctional executives in order to assess career mobility patterns and the variables which may have had a significant influence on success. Basic data for the paper is from biographical descriptions of 78 people who have served during the past ten years in top executive positions of Alaska's police and correctional agencies, including the commissioner of the Alaska Department of Public Safety, police chiefs of the 25 largest municipal police agencies in Alaska, superintendents of Alaska correctional institutions, and directors and assistant directors within the Alaska Division of Corrections.
    • Crime and the Justice System in Rural Alaskan Villages

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1979-03-15)
      Approximately 20 percent of Alaska's population live in small remote Native villages. Very little factual data regarding contemporary criminal justice operations has been compiled. For example, comprehensive data concerning present crime rates, policing methods, and local deviancy control mechanisms in rural Alaska simply do not exist. The research underlying this paper was an exploratory effort to begin the collection of crime and justice information which can be used in criminal justice policy development in rural areas of the state by the State of Alaska.
    • Crisis Intervention: The Challenge of Stress

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-10)
      Most people agree that the stress connected with police work affects the way police officers relate to the people they contact and serve. While many assume the primary source of stress on police officers lies in factors related to police job activities, the author argues that the primary factors creating stress for police officers are related to traditional police organizational and management philosophy and related practices.
    • Directions for Change in Police Organizations

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-04)
      Three situations serve to hamper police effectiveness under traditional police organizational arrangements First, police operations are based on an assumption that police are primarily in the "criminal apprehension" business. This concept of the police role serves to constrain many police activities that offer potential for satisfying client needs and contributing to crime prevention. Second, police managers rely almost exclusively on the tenets of Bureaucratic Theory, as promulgated by Max Weber (1947), for arranging and managing police organizations. This reliance contributes to problems in the police and community relationship, coordination and direction of police operations, and (3) motivation of police employees. Third, police agencies are basically organized as self-contained operations which are automous from other units of government. This independence reduces the potential for optimum utilization of police services. This paper elaborates on these three situations and their implications, and makes proposals about the directions that the author believes police organizational changes should take.
    • Increasing Police Utility through Organizational Design

      Angell, John E. (Criminal Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1976-11)
      Research by social scientists over the past decade provides strong evidence that American policies concerning police organizational designs have served in many instances to restrict the social usefulness, or utility, of local police operations. Substantial changes in police organizational designs are unlikely to occur unless policymakers have relatively comprehensive and complete models. To satisfy policy officials, a model must be (1) easily understood by laypersons, (2) logically related to definitions of problems acceptable to policymakers, (3) sufficiently defined to provide guidelines for systemic, incremental changes, and (4) adequate to facilitate simple, but accurate, assessment of the impact of changes consistent with the model. This paper is in pursuit of such an alternative model for improving police utility.
    • Law Enforcement Selection Practices in the U.S.A. and Canada

      Johnson, Knowlton W. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-04)
      Selection practices in law enforcement have been said to be one of the most complex facets of personnel management. In an effort to document the state of this complexity internationally, the study presented provides state of the art information about police personnel practices in the USA and Canada.
    • Police Organization and Community Relations

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-10-22)
      Police scholars approached the decade of the 1970s with optimistic expectations that the use of alternative organizational designs could improve the responsiveness and effectiveness of American policing. These expectations were not fulfilled. The 1970s ended with the traditional bureaucratic philosophy more firmly entrenched in the police managerial psyche than it was in the 1960s. The author argues that this is not because the traditional bureaucratic arrangements are superior, and proposes specific changes to police organization to improve community relations and the effectiveness of the police function.
    • Police: An Agenda for the 80's

      Angell, John E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1980-03)
      Arguing that the police field suffers from excessively narrow frames of reference and perspectives, this paper asserts that a top priority for the 1980s police agenda must be on establishing a broader perspective for the development of theory and study of policing and explores the implications of those values and trends which the author contends will shape policing for the remainder of the 20th century, identified as (1) demographic changes, (2) the diminishing quantity of fossil fuels, (3) the accelerating rate of monetary inflation, (4) rapid developments in technology (5) changing attitudes toward the acceptance of a conflict model for achieving social change objectives, (6) continuing democratization and equalization of human society and its institutions, (7) increased danger and damaging consequences from natural and manmade disasters, and (8) need for higher levels of knowledge and skill for performing future police responsibilities.
    • Policing the Arctic: The North Slope of Alaska

      Angell, John E.; Trostle, Lawrence C. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1993-10)
      Geographic size and lack of roads, among other factors, contribute to unique difficulties in providing effective law enforcement and public safety services to residents of the North Slope Borough of Alaska. Despite comprehensive plans laid in the mid-1970s, the North Slope Borough has not been successful in implementing a broad, multicultural community public safety organizational design. The more traditional professional law enforcement agency which has evolved is perceived by some people as having community and employee relations problems. This paper provides a brief history of law enforcement on the North Slope and presents selected data from a 1993 survey of employees of the North Slope Borough Department of Public Safety (NSBDPS). The data support a hypothesis that indigenous personnel with strong roots in a minority community will be more committed to the community police organization than would be employees without such roots.
    • Selective Return of Criminal Law Activity to Alaska Native Villages: Neocolonialism or Revitalization of Tribal Sovereignty?

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1990-03)
      As Alaska struggles with criminal justice delivery to Alaska Native villages, many experiments have been undertaken or postulated which would reinvigorate criminal law activity in these rural places. Initial enthusiasm for alleviation of burdens on the formal system has been replaced with a state concern that village activity will be viewed as tribal activity. The author isolates areas where the needs of the state and villages can be met without feeding the flames of the conflict between state sovereignty and village tribal sovereignty.
    • Town Law and Village Law: Satellite Villages, Bethel and Alcohol Control in the Modern Era — The Working Relationship and Its Demise

      Conn, Stephen (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1982-11-04)
      In southwestern Alaska the underpinning of the working relationship between official law and village social control was tied to alcohol control. This paper examines the breakdown of this relationship in the 1960s and its impact on village law. It also assesses the role of town liquor policy and town police and treatment resources on alcohol-related violence in the villages in the 1970s. It argues that a recent movement to reinstitute prohibition of importation and sale in many villages must be understood as a desire for renewal of a working relationship between two centers of legal authority.