• Centralization to Consolidation: Some Historical Antecedents of Unified Correctional Systems

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1995-10)
      Autonomous prisons in the nineteenth century were often inefficient and highly political. Many state legislatures and governors attempted to move toward centralized control of their state facilities. In the twentieth century the Federal Bureau of Prisons was seen by the Wickersham Commission as a model for institutional centralization. Consolidation of all correctional services was recommended by the National Advisory Commission in 1973. Today only a few states – Alaska, Delaware, Rhode Island, and Vermont – have fully unified adult correctional systems; each is described.
    • Equitable over Time? — Evaluating the 'Costs' of Interstate Compact Participation

      Schafer, N. E.; Wenderoff, Leslie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1992-10)
      The Interstate Compact for the Supervision of Parolees and Probationers (ICSPP) provides for the supervision of offenders in states other than those in which they were sentenced. It is assumed that the number of offenders entering a state for supervision is, over time, approximately equal to the number leaving for supervision elsewhere. Thus the net "cost" to the state would, over time, be zero. Data on Alaska's participation in the Interstate Compact formed the impetus for a study of Interstate Compact clients processed through the Anchorage probation office. This study suggests that numbers should not be the only measure of cost: demographic and offense characteristics of clients, as well as their supervision needs, should be factored into any cost assessment.
    • A Preliminary Assessment of the Impact on Alaska of Participation in the Interstate Compact

      Schafer, N. E.; Wenderoff, Leslie (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1986-10)
      The Interstate Compact for the Supervision of Parolees and Probationers is an agreement whereby one state agrees to provide supervision for offenders on community release from other states. Participants in the interstate compact agree that any state will accept supervision of a parolee or probationer providing the offender has proper residence either as a resident of that state or with family, and that he/she is able to find employment. Major increases in Alaska's prison population over the past decade have been accompanied by corresponding increases in the number of persons under probation/parole supervision and in the caseloads of individual probation officers. Using a master listing of all persons under the jurisdiction of the Alaska Department of Corrections from 1976 to 1983, the Justice Center at University of Alaska Anchorage made a preliminary assessment of the impact on Alaska of participation in the Interstate Compact. From 1976 to 1983, Alaska processed 1,551 offenders through the Interstate Compact, of whom 999 were received for supervision from other states (64.4% of the total) and 552 (35.6%) were sent to other states. Based on this data, the interstate compact has not yet been an equitable arrangement for any city in Alaska: each city has seen a greater number of incoming than of outgoing transfers.
    • Prison Visiting Policies and Practices [paper]

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1987-10)
      Based on empirical evidence that visiting is significantly related to parole success, several authorities have encouraged correctional institutions to maximize visiting opportunities. Previous studies have noted geographical and architectural limits to such maximization. A decade of prison construction should have improved visiting opportunities. This paper reports the results of a national survey of visiting policies and draws comparisons with surveys reported in 1978 and 1954.
    • Profiles of Prison Visitors

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1983-10-14)
      An exploratory survey of visitors to two men's prisons finds that the visitors differ in some significant ways from prisoners' families previously described in the literature. The results raise some questions about the correlation that has been established between visits and post-release success and provoke suggestions for in-depth research into visitor/prisoner relationships.
    • Reorganizing Corrections: Revisiting the Recommendations of the National Advisory Commission

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1993-09)
      In 1973 the National Advisory Commission on Standards and Goals recommended that correctional services be consolidated under a single state agency, arguing that cost efficiencies, improved communication, and greater employee professionalism would result. The National Advisory Commission advocated state rather than local control of probation, and executive rather than judicial branch control of probation services. It encouraged development of regional rather than local jails and recommended that states assume the operation and control of all local detention and correctional functions. This paper examines some of the arguments for consolidation of correctional services and attempts to determine the kinds of reorganization that have occurred since 1973.
    • Visiting Rules and Regulations: A Preliminary Study

      Schafer, N. E. (Justice Center, University of Alaska Anchorage, 1988-04-04)
      Visiting rules and regulations from 71 long-term adult correctional facilities from 31 states were collected for review. The rules are divided into five areas: visitor application, visitor processing, contraband, conduct, and dress codes. They are reviewed in the light of recent standards which stress the importance of encouraging visits. Suggestions and recommendations for change are included.