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Characterizing the Afghanistan aerosol environment using size- and time- resolved aerosol chemical composition measurements

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dc.contributor.author Fortun, Todd Allen
dc.date.accessioned 2018-05-25T20:43:02Z
dc.date.available 2018-05-25T20:43:02Z
dc.date.issued 2012-05
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11122/8448
dc.description Thesis (M.S.) University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2012 en_US
dc.description.abstract The exposure to aerosols is one danger U.S. soldiers face in Afghanistan that may go unseen. Using the Davis Rotating-drum Universal-size-cut Monitoring (DRUM) cascade impactor, size- and time- resolved aerosol chemical concentrations from Bagram, Afghanistan were collected. These aerosol concentrations were combined with a meteorological analysis and Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model meteorological backward trajectories to establish source sectors. These sectors, along with time of year, were then used as a predictive tool for the chemical composition and relative concentration of aerosols in Afghanistan. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to determined potential source types. PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were compared to military exposure guidelines and U.S. national ambient air quality standards. Results reveal aerosol concentrations in Afghanistan were at levels for which adverse health effects could be anticipated. en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents 1. Introduction -- 1.1. Definition and formation of aerosols -- 1.2. Thesis goals -- 1.3. Climatology of the Afghanistan region -- 1.3.1. Wind patterns -- 1.3.2. Diurnal cycles -- 1.4. Elemental sources and uses -- 1.5. Aerosol chemistry and seasonality -- 1.5.1. Geological dust -- 1.5.2. Anthropogenic aerosols -- 1.5.2.1. Pakistan -- 1.5.2.2. Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan -- 1.5.3. Biomass burning -- 1.5.4. Aerosols over seas and oceans -- 1.6. Health concerns and standards -- 2. Experimental methods -- 2.1. Wind roses -- 2.2. DRUM aerosol impactors -- 2.3. HYSPLIT and sector analysis -- 2.4. Principla components analysis -- 2.4.1. PCA procedure -- 2.4.2. Eigenvector loadings -- 2.4.3. PCA on aerosol samples -- 2.5. Chemical mass balance (CMB) model -- 3. Results and discussion -- 3.1. Wind roses -- 3.2. Elemental concentrations -- 3.2.1. Geological dust -- 3.2.2. Heavy metal events -- 3.3. PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ concentrations and comparison to health safety standards -- 3.4. Sector analysis -- 3.5. PCA -- 3.6. CMB model -- 4. Conclusions -- 5. Future work -- References. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.subject Atmospheric aerosols en_US
dc.subject Afghanistan en_US
dc.title Characterizing the Afghanistan aerosol environment using size- and time- resolved aerosol chemical composition measurements en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US
dc.type.degree ms en_US
dc.identifier.department Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry en_US


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