Browsing Community Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC) Publications by Author "Friend, Trenton"
Examination of the Variability in Grout Test ResultsAhn, Il-Sang; Friend, Trenton (2019-08-31)Keyway grouting is an operation that connects decked bulb-tee girders into one system. The quality of grout should be well maintained through reliable material test procedures. Due to the issues of discrepancy and variability, there have been several cases in which grout materials did not satisfy the compressive strength standard specified in the DOT&PF Standard Specifications for Highway Construction. This research examined the causes of such issues. Six factors – grout material, mix consistency, workmanship, initial curing/storing, curing method, and test equipment – were identified as the causes of strength variation. Their effects on strength variation were investigated by testing compressive strength of cube and cylinder specimens made from 5 grout materials that were used or considered to be used in DOT&PF projects. Grout material characteristics such as grout material and mix consistency have significant effect on strength variation. Workability and consolidation can be different from one material to another. Consequently, they affect compressive strength and its variation. Workmanship and test equipment were evaluated in this research to have moderate effect on strength variation. Especially, strength variation can increase when the workmanship factor combines with the grout material characteristics factor.