Browsing Community Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC) Publications by Author "Okon, Deborah Ave"
Bio-Based Renewable Additives for Anti-Icing Applications (Phase II)Nazari, Mehdi Honarvar; Oh, Taekil; Ewing, Alexander Charlemagne; Okon, Deborah Ave; Avalos, Brandon; Alnuaimi, Eisa; Havens, Eden Adele; Shi, Xianming (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2019-01-24)The performance and impacts of several agro-based anti-icers along with a traditional chloride-based anti-icer (salt brine) were evaluated. A statistical design of experiments (central composite design) was employed for developing anti-icing liquids consisting of cost-competitive chemicals such as agro-based compounds (e.g., Concord grape extract and glycerin), sodium chloride, sodium metasilicate, and sodium formate. The following experimentally obtained parameters were examined as a function of the formulation design: ice-melting capacity at 25°F (−3.9°C), splitting strength of Portland cement mortar samples after 10 freeze-thaw/deicer cycles, corrosion rate of C1010 carbon steel after 24-hour immersion, and impact on asphalt binder stiffness and m-value. One viable formula (“best performer”) was tested for thermal properties by measuring its differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms, the friction coefficient of asphalt pavement treated by this anti-icing formulation (vs. 23 wt.% NaCl and beet juice blend) at 25°F after being applied at 30 gallons per lane mile (1 hour after simulated trafficking and plowing), and other properties (pH, oxygen demand in COD). Laboratory data shed light on the selection and formulation of innovative agro-based snow- and ice-control chemicals that can significantly reduce the costs of winter maintenance operations.