Browsing Community Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates (CESTiCC) Publications by Subject "revegetation"
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Evaluation of Effectiveness and Cost-Benefits of Woolen Roadside Reclamation ProductsThis research project developed three types of products for study: woolen erosion control blankets (ECBs), wool incorporated into wood fiber compost at a 40:1 ratio (compost to wool, by weight), and wool incorporated into silt fence. The project, supported by Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) and the Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, compared the wool products’ performance to roadside reclamation products commonly used for revegetating cut slopes: straw/coconut (coir) ECB, wood fiber compost and woven plastic silt fence. Three versions of wool silt fence were developed by the project, yet, even more versions are needed to arrive at a commercially viable product. Wool silt fence was the least promising of the three types of reclamation materials. The primary measure for success for ECBs and wool additive to the compost was the amount of seeded or desired vegetation they established after two growing seasons. The research team evaluated the performance of the woolen and standard products by measuring the percentage of canopy cover of each plant species present in each treatment plot. Canopy cover measures the percentage of ground that is covered by a vertical projection of a plant’s foliage. To conduct the comparative analysis, researchers calculated an average percent canopy cover for each functional group: seeded native grasses, desired non-seeded (volunteer) grasses and forbs, and weeds. There was no statistical difference in the mean canopy cover of seeded grass species of the compost treatment (control) compared to the cut wool with compost treatment, 6.4% and 10.2%, respectively. Thus, the project could not determine that cut wool pieces provided a benefit to plant establishment and growth when it is added to compost material. Further experimentation to determine the ideal ratio of wool pieces to add to compost is warranted. The two best performing treatments (i.e. greatest seeded grass establishment) were the rolled wool/straw ECBs. The 100% wool ECB and 50% wool/50% straw ECB had the greatest mean seeded grass canopy cover after two years. Both of these wool ECBs had more seeded grass canopy cover than the standard 70% straw/30% coir ECB demonstrating their potential as a commercially viable product for roadside revegetation applications. Laboratory tests of the wool/straw ECB demonstrated it was comparable to the specifications of a short-term (Type II B or C) standard ECB used along MDT roadways. Future product development of the wool/straw ECB should focus on improving the shear strength at high flows so it meets all required Type III specifications.
Long-term Stabilization of Disturbed Slopes Resulting from Construction OperationsHighway construction disturbs soil, which must be stabilized to prevent migration of soil particles into water bodies. Stabilization is enforced by law, regulation, and a permit system. Stabilization is most efficiently attained by reestablishment of vegetation, and permits sometimes specify this method of stabilization. Revegetation is difficult in northern Alaska, and seeded grasses often die in a year or two, while reestablishment with native vegetation takes several years. A literature search and interviews with experts indicates that simply extending this “establishment period” has many practical difficulties. Field investigations and interviews indicate that in northern Alaska little erosion occurs at slopes with failed vegetation, which implies that vegetation was not critical to reducing contamination and the expense of revegetation was unnecessary. However, when revegetation is specified in standard permit language, and contractor, owner, and regulator must close out projects, grasses are utilized. This research supports the recommendation that the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities work with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to develop special standards for projects north of the Brooks Range and between the Brooks and Alaska ranges, that recognize the low erosion potential of clean road fill – embankments.