• Near-Roadway Air Pollution: Evaluation of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Ultrafine Particulate Matter (PM0.1) in Interior Alaska

      Aggarwal, Srijan; Kadir, Abdul; Belz, Nathan (2019-01-28)
      This report presents a study of fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) particles in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) in Interior Alaska, with specific emphasis on the relationship of ultrafine particles (UFPs) to vehicular traffic. Chapter 1 provides a summary of published literature on particulates in air from vehicular emissions. Chapter 2 provides a novel and robust GIS-based data analysis approach to PM2.5 data collected by the FNSB. This analysis approach is convenient for identifying hotspots, as well as locations where PM2.5 changes either abruptly or continuously or does not change at all. The results reveal that average on-roadway PM2.5 concentrations are higher in North Pole than in Fairbanks, and mean levels are higher in stationary background monitoring data than in mobile monitoring on-roadway data. Not surprisingly, significant negative correlations were found between temperature and PM2.5. Chapter 3 presents the results from the data collection campaign to measure UFPs at roadside locations in Fairbanks and North Pole and investigate the relationship of UFPs with traffic and meteorological parameters. Multilinear predictive models were developed for estimation of UFPs and PM2.5 based on weather and traffic parameters. Overall, this study improves our understanding of on- and near-roadway particulates in a cold-climate region.
    • A New Sustainable Additive for Anti-Icing Pavement

      Zhang, Yan; Shi, Xianming (2019-08-30)
      Based on a review and synthesis of the state-of-the-art literature on asphalt pavement with anti-icing additives, this laboratory study developed an anti-icing asphalt pavement that incorporates innovative salt-storage additives with a sustained salt-release rate. These additives were prepared through a surface treatment approach, in which zeolite containing CaCl2 was coated by a porous epoxy layer. The anti-icing performances and mechanical properties of asphalt mixture with the obtained additives were investigated. The experimental results indicated that the anti-icing capability of asphalt mixture at both -3.9 °C (25°F) and -9.4 °C (15°F) was significantly improved by the addition of the additives, and the friction coefficient of the pavement at 60 min after moisture spray was 0.75 at -3.9 °C to 0.55 at -9.4 °C. Reducing the size of additives resulted in a further improved anti-icing capability. Under simulated conditions, the estimated effective anti-icing period of asphalt pavement with additives #8, #16, and #30 were 5.8 years, 9.9 years and 15.3 years, respectively. The incorporation of the additives exhibited negligible effect on the moisture damage resistance of asphalt mixture, and almost all the mixtures passed the WSDOT specification as well as the Wisconsin and Iowa specifications. The rutting resistance, mid-temperature (fatigue) cracking resistance, and low-temperature (thermal) cracking resistance of asphalt mixture improved due to the addition of these anti-icing additives to various extents.
    • A Novel Systematic Strategy Towards Air-Purifying, Corrosion Resistant and Self-Healing Concrete Infrastructure

      Yang, Zhengxian (2019-09-15)
      Transportation causes major emissions of harmful gases (NOx, CO, VOCs). These pollutants also travel long distances to produce secondary pollution such as acid rain. The most popularly used photocatalytic cementitious composites based on TiO2 achieve the air purification function under ultraviolet sunlight, significantly impeding a broader application of photocatalytic cementitious composites. This study focused on developing an environmentally friendly and durable cementitious system based on the multifunctional photocatalytic Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4). The photocatalytic cementitious composites (PCC) were prepared in three manners: (1) incorporating g-C3N4 nanosheets (CNNs) in cement at three mixing dosages (0.5%, 1% and 2% by weight of cement), (2) applying CNNs at various concentration levels as the coating on recycled asphalt pavement aggregate, (3) applying CCNs s with vinyl chloride/vinyl ester/ethylene copolymer (as a binder) as the coating on cement mortar. The photocatalytic performance and durability of the newly developed cementitious composites were evaluated systematically and the results showed that the PCC hold marked efficiency in terms of NOx removal and self-cleaning when the CNNs were applied in a proper way. The obtained knowledge sheds light on a future perspective of developing a novel systematic strategy towards air-purifying, corrosion resistant, and self-healing concrete infrastructure.
    • Numerical Simulation of Snow Deposition Around living Snow Fences

      Petrie, John; Zhang, Kun; Shehata, Mahmoud (2019-09-13)
      In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to investigate the air flow around porous snow fences to gain insight into snow transport and deposition in the vicinity of fences. Numerical simulations were performed to validate the CFD approach using experimental data from a wind tunnel study. Subsequent simulations were used to test the use of a porosity model to represent fence geometry and determine the effect of fence spacing for fences comprised of multiple rows. The results demonstrate that CFD simulations can reproduce the aerodynamics around porous fences. Additionally, the flow field generated with a porosity model is in close agreement with that from a model with explicit representation of fence porosity. Simulations of fences comprised of two rows spaced at various distances demonstrate that when the row spacing is small the fence behaves as a single row.
    • Performance of TenCate Paving Interlayers in Asphalt Concrete Pavements

      Liu, Jenny; Zhao, Sheng; Li, Lin (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-08)
      As a continued effort of a previously completed project entitled “Performance of TenCate Mirafi PGM-G4 Interlayer-Reinforced Asphalt Pavements in Alaska,” this project evaluated two newly modified paving interlayers (TruPave and Mirapave) through overlay, dynamic modulus tests and low-temperature performance tests. A field survey was conducted to further evaluate the performance of three paving interlayers (G4, G50/50, and G100/100) applied to field sections constructed in May 2013 at Milepost 148–156 Richardson Highway in Alaska. Overlay test results indicate that asphalt concrete (AC) with paving interlayers (TruPave and Mirapave) shows lower reduction in peak load, suggesting better cracking resistance. The dynamic modulus measurement of AC with paving interlayers reveals more rational results from the IDT mode test than the AMPT method due to similar stress conditions in the paving interlayer. With paving interlayers, the temperature sensitivity and cracking potential of AC material were reduced according to the results from the IDT creep test. Field survey results confirm that all sections reinforced with paving interlayers (G4, G50/50, and G100/100) had better cracking resistance than the control section.
    • Pre-Stress Loss Due to Creep in Precast Concrete Decked Bulb-Tee Girders Under Cold Climate Conditions

      Vandermeer, Drew; Ahn, Il-Sang (2019-07-31)
      Accurate estimation of pre-stress losses is one of the important issues for the design of precast, pre-stressed concrete bridge girders. While this subject has been long studied by many researchers, studies on pre-stress losses in cold climates are minimal. In the present research, long-term pre-stress loss due to concrete creep was studied based on concrete creep test. Two concrete creep test frames were fabricated and placed indoors and outdoors. Concrete strains were measured by Demountable Mechanical Strain Gauge (DEMEC) from two 612 high-strength concrete cylinders in each frame. The concrete strains were collected for 11 months (7/26/2017 – 6/21/2018) after loading, and outdoor ambient temperature dropped below 0C between 100 and 250 days. Between 50 and 100 days, two curves from the two frames are similar in their patterns and values. After 100 days, the total strain from the indoor frame slowly increased reaching 1,600 and 1,700 after 250 days. However, the total strain from the outdoor frame varied between 1,000 and 1,500 and the averaged total strain was 1,300 after 250 days. In cold temperature, the occurrence of concrete creep and shrinkage was suppressed.
    • Prediction of Thermal Behavior of Pervious Concrete Pavements in Winter

      Chen, Zhao; Nantasai, Benjamin; Nassiri, Somayeh; Haselbach, Liv (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-05-15)
      Because application of pervious concrete pavement (PCPs) has extended to cold-climate regions of the United States, the safety and mobility of PCP installations during the winter season need to be maintained. Timely application of salt, anti-icing, and deicing agents for ice/snow control is most effective in providing sufficient surface friction when done at a suitable pavement surface temperature. The aim of this project was to determine the thermal properties of PCP during the winter season, and to develop a theoretical model to predict PCP surface temperature. The project included a laboratory and a field component. In the laboratory, thermal conductivity of pervious concrete was determined. A linear relationship was established between thermal conductivity and porosity for pervious concrete specimens. In the field, the pavement temperature in a PCP sidewalk installation at Washington State University was monitored via in-pavement instrumentation. Based on the field data, the Enhanced Integrated Climatic Model (EICM) was developed and validated for the site, using PCP thermal properties and local climatic data. The EICM-predicted PCP surface temperature during the winter season agreed well with the field temperature. Overall, the predicted number of days that the pavement surface fell below 32°F agreed well with the number based on field data for 85% of the days. Therefore, the developed model is useful in identifying those days to apply deicer agents. Finally, a regression model using climatic indices was developed for PCP surface temperature prediction in the absence of a more advanced temperature model.
    • Recent Advances in Sustainable Winter Road Operations – A Book Proposal

      Shi, Xianming (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-08)
      Investing in winter transportation operations is essential and beneficial to the public and the economy. The U.S. economy cannot afford the cost of shutting down highways, airports, etc., during winter weather. In the northern U.S. and other cold-climate areas, winter maintenance operations are essential to ensure the safety, mobility, and productivity of transportation systems. Agencies are continually challenged to provide a high level of service and improve safety and mobility in a fiscally and environmentally responsible manner. To this end, it is desirable to use the most recent advances in the application of materials, practices, equipment, and other technologies. Such best practices are expected to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of winter operations, to optimize material usage, and to reduce associated annual spending, corrosion, and environmental impacts. Currently, no professional societies, scientific journals, or textbooks are dedicated solely to sustainable winter road operations, and key information is scattered across a variety of disciplines. The objective of the proposed book is to summarize the best practices and recent advances in sustainable winter road operations for the purposes of education and workforce development. This book is now in press and can be cited as follows: Shi, X., Fu, L. (2017). Sustainable Winter Road Operations (Eds.). ISBN: 978-1-119-18506-2. Wiley-Blackwell.
    • Recycled Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Incorporated in Mortar for Improved Mechanical Performance

      Rodin, Harry; Nassiri, Somayeh; Englund, Karl; Fakron, Osama; Li, Hui (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-12)
      Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) recycled from retired wind turbines was implemented in mortar as a volumetric replacement of sand during the two phases of this study. In Phase I, the mechanically refined GFRP particle sizes were sieved for four size groups to find the optimum size. In Phase II, the select GFRP size group was incorporated at three different volumetric replacements of sand to identify the optimum replacement content. The mixtures were tested for compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, and the potential for alkali-silicate reaction. Incorporation of GFRP in mortar proves promising in improving flexural strength and toughness in fiber-like shapes and 1–3% volumetric fractions.
    • The Reliability and Effectiveness of a Radar-Based Animal Detection System

      Huijser, Marcel P.; Fairbank, Elizabeth R.; Abra, Fernanda D. (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-09)
      This document contains data on the reliability and effectiveness of an animal detection system along U.S. Hwy 95 near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The system uses a Doppler radar to detect large mammals (e.g., deer and elk) when they approach the highway. The system met most of the suggested minimum norms for reliability. The total time the warning signs were activated was at most 90 seconds per hour, and likely substantially less. Animal detection systems are designed to detect an approaching animal. After an animal has been detected, warning signs are activated which allow drivers to respond. Results showed that 58.1–67.9% of deer were detected sufficiently early for northbound drivers, and 70.4–85% of deer were detected sufficiently early for southbound drivers. The effect of the activated warning signs on vehicle speed was greatest when road conditions were challenging (e.g., freezing temperatures and snow- and ice-covered road surface) and when visibility was low (night). In summer, there was no measurable benefit of activated warning signs, at least not as far as vehicle speed is concerned. Depending on the conditions in autumn and winter, the activated warning signs resulted in a speed reduction of 0.69 to 4.43 miles per hour. The report includes practical recommendations for operation and maintenance of the system and suggestions for potential future research.

      Blank, Matt; Dockery, David; Pohl, Christina (2019-03)
      The purpose of this research was to evaluate how characteristics of hydraulic structures, such as slope or size, used at crossings over waterways relate to operation and maintenance (O&M) effort, fish passage, and stream function. Data on O&M concerns, fish passage concerns, and crossing characteristics were collected from 45 road-stream crossings in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, during lower and higher water periods in both 2014 and 2015 (four events total). Logistic regression and generalized mixed models were used to examine relationships between O&M effort (response) and five explanatory variables. For all data from all years combined, there were no observable associations among O&M and culvert type or constriction ratio. However, lower constriction ratios were observed for sites with O&M needs in the June 2014 data set. The proportion of sites with both fish passage and O&M concerns was 0.52; comparatively, the proportion of sites with no fish passage concern but with O&M concern was 0.35.
    • Stormwater-Pavement Interface in Cold Climates

      Haselbach, Liv; Nassiri, Somayeh (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-05-27)
      This project relates to “managing stormwater runoff in cold climates” and addresses the feasibility of low-impact development at a regional demonstration site in eastern Washington. The studies relate to seven large permeable pavement systems. The findings for similar climates and soils are as follows:  The draindown times for retention in Palouse or similar clay soils may handle many typical storms.  On average, every square foot of a permeable pavement system installed also receives run-on from another square foot of impermeable pavement, doubling its impact on both stormwater quantity reduction and stormwater quality improvement.  Most of the clogged sections on various applications were downslope of other areas.  Permeable pavements installed in areas targeted for additional stormwater quantity control and quality improvement may be feasible.  On average, the cleaning for installations is less frequent than annually. Power washing plus vacuuming appears to be an effective method for pervious concrete.  Surface distress was usually where vehicles turned, or from placement activities.  Preliminary studies on various surface treatments on pervious concrete show promise for added safety benefits under wintry conditions.  Both detention-type and retention-type permeable pavement systems appear to have little negative impact on neighboring soils in the winter under the study conditions. However, further research is needed for different designs of retention-type systems to ensure that water volumes in the aggregate storage bed do not allow for sufficient water flow into neighboring soils that might result in ice lens formation or other negative impacts.
    • Sustainable Construction in Remote Cold Regions

      Perkins, Robert (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2015-12-31)
      The goal of this project was to identify sustainable construction techniques appropriate for remote and cold regions, some of which apply to operations and maintenance as well. The vast body of literature regarding green construction in warm regions was reviewed, and information that might be applicable to cold and remote regions was ascertained. A hierarchal taxonomy was developed to categorize the information and reduce it to a form useful for presentation to engineering and construction managers. Twenty-two engineers and construction managers, all familiar with cold regions and remote projects, were interviewed, and the information and taxonomy were reviewed with them. This process resulted in a set of preliminary guidelines, which were then presented at two different meetings: one at AGC and one at the DOT, Central Region, where the preliminary guidelines were revised slightly. The final set of guidelines, approximately 160 suggestions and notes, was used to develop a module for UAF construction management classes, although it is suitable for other learning venues. The module, the Guidelines, as well as a preliminary paper are available on the CESTiCC website.
    • A Targeted Approach to High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavement (Phase I)

      Du, Sen; Shi, Xianming (2018-12)
      Unlike the conventional method of admixing nanomaterials directly in fresh concrete mixture, a more targeted approach was explored. Specifically, nanomaterials were used to improve the interface between coarse aggregate and cement paste, by coating the coarse aggregate with cement paste that contained graphene oxide or nanosilica. Using coated coarse aggregates, the mechanical and transport properties of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete were tested to evaluate the effect of nanomaterial coating on the interface transition zone of concrete. The compressive and splitting strengths of HVFA concrete at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the water sorptivity and chloride migration coefficient at 28 days were studied. Results show that nanomaterial-coated coarse aggregate can improve the transport properties of HVFA concrete by reducing permeability. However, no improvement was seen in the compressive and splitting strengths when incorporating coated coarse aggregate, compared with direct mixing of nanomaterials in fresh concrete. Resistance to freezing/thawing cycles and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of concrete samples were also investigated to obtain a more comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial coating.
    • Transportation Life Cycle Assessment Synthesis Phase II

      Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-04-24
      The Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis includes an LCA Learning Module Series, case studies, and analytics on the use of the modules. The module series is a set of narrated slideshows on topics related to environmental LCA. Phase I produced 27 modules, and Phase II added 10 more. The modules are available for download on the Lamar CEE website https://www.lamar.edu/engineering/civil/faculty/haselbach/lca-modules.html and on the CESTiCC website http://cem.uaf.edu/cesticc/publications/lca.aspx. The modules are around 20 minutes long and may be used for various purposes such as for class lectures or part thereof, and for background learning in research or application. The modules are organized into four topical areas, each containing overview and detailed modules. The A and α groups cover the international standards that define environmental LCA. The B and β groups summarize some of the typical environmental impact categories in LCA. The G and γ groups include software tools for LCA. The T and τ groups focus on the growing field of transportation with respect to LCA, a complex area of importance. The analytics section provides data on downloads of the modules from the websites and summary survey results from course implementation.
    • Transportation Life Cycle Assessment Synthesis: Life Cycle Assessment Learning Module Series

      Haselbach, Liv; Langfitt, Quinn (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2015-03-12)
      The Life Cycle Assessment Learning Module Series is a set of narrated, self-advancing slideshows on various topics related to environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). This research project produced the first 27 of such modules, which are freely available for download on the CESTiCC website http://cem.uaf.edu/cesticc/publications/lca.aspx. Each module is roughly 15- 20 minutes in length and is intended for various uses such as course components, as the main lecture material in a dedicated LCA course, or for independent learning in support of research projects. The series is organized into four overall topical areas, each of which contain a group of overview modules and a group of detailed modules. The A and α groups cover the international standards that define LCA. The B and β groups focus on environmental impact categories. The G and γ groups identify software tools for LCA and provide some tutorials for their use. The T and τ groups introduce topics of interest in the field of transportation LCA. This includes overviews of how LCA is frequently applied in that sector, literature reviews, specific considerations, and software tutorials. Future modules in this category will feature methodological developments and case studies specific to the transportation sector.
    • Use of Cellular Concrete for Air Convection Embankment to Protect Permafrost Foundations in Cold Regions: Feasibility Study

      Liu, Jenny; Wu, Hanli (2019-08-15)
      The air convection embankment (ACE) is a technique used to protect permafrost from thawing in road construction in cold regions. However, the desired materials needed for ACE are not readily available, which prevents its extensive use in Alaska. To overcome the limitation of traditional ACE, and further improve the cooling effect of ACE, this study investigated the feasibility of using cellular concrete as an alternative material for ACE in cold regions. The heat transfer patterns of the cellular concrete ACE, the crushed-rock ACE, and the sand/gravel embankment were studied using the numerical simulation. The results of the present study show that the cooling performance of both cellular concrete ACE and crushed-rock ACE are superior to the traditional sand/gravel embankment. The cellular concrete ACE has better heat insulation property in the summer, and the crushed-rock ACE has stronger natural convection in winter. For the annual cooling efficiency of the two different ACE techniques, the proposed cellular concrete ACE has a better cooling effect on the foundation soil than the crushed-rock ACE. These results indicate that the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of construction materials have significant impacts on the performance of the ACE.