• Recycled Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Incorporated in Mortar for Improved Mechanical Performance

      Rodin, Harry; Nassiri, Somayeh; Englund, Karl; Fakron, Osama; Li, Hui (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-12)
      Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) recycled from retired wind turbines was implemented in mortar as a volumetric replacement of sand during the two phases of this study. In Phase I, the mechanically refined GFRP particle sizes were sieved for four size groups to find the optimum size. In Phase II, the select GFRP size group was incorporated at three different volumetric replacements of sand to identify the optimum replacement content. The mixtures were tested for compressive strength, flexural strength, toughness, and the potential for alkali-silicate reaction. Incorporation of GFRP in mortar proves promising in improving flexural strength and toughness in fiber-like shapes and 1–3% volumetric fractions.
    • Freeze-Thaw Durability and Long-Term Performance Evaluation of Shotcrete in Cold Regions

      Qiao, Pizhong; Zhou, Zhidong (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-12-31)
      This study’s aim was to evaluate the freeze-thaw durability of shotcrete in cold regions and predict its long-term performance. One benchmark mix design from the WSDOT was chosen to prepare samples for performance evaluation. Shotcrete specimens were conditioned in accordance with ASTM C666. The long-term freeze-thaw performance after certain cycles was evaluated using the dynamic modulus of elasticity test (ASTM C215), fracture energy test (RILEM 50-FMC), and X-ray CT microstructure imaging analysis. Probabilistic damage analysis was conducted to establish the relation between the durability life and the damage parameter for different probabilities of reliability using the three-parameter Weibull distribution model. The fracture energy test was found to be a more sensitive test method than the dynamic modulus of elasticity for screening material deterioration over time and for capturing accumulative material damage caused by rapid freeze-thaw action, because of smaller durability factors (degradation ratios) obtained from the fracture energy test. X-ray CT imaging analysis is capable of detecting microcracks that form and pore evolution in the aggregate and interface transition zone of conditioned samples. Moreover, the continuum damage mechanic-based model shows potential in predicting long-term material degradation and the service life of shotcrete.
    • Developing Guidelines for Two-Dimensional Model Review and Acceptance

      Toniolo, Horacio; Homan, Joel (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-01-31)
      Two independent modelers ran two hydraulic models, SRH-2D and HEC-RAS 2D. The models were applied to the Lakina River (MP 44 McCarthy Road) and to Quartz Creek (MP 0.7 Quartz Creek Road), which approximately represent straight and bend flow conditions, respectively. We compared the results, including water depth, depth averaged velocity, and bed shear stress, from the two models for both modelers. We found that the extent and density of survey data were insufficient for Quartz Creek. Neither model was calibrated due to the lack of basic field data (i.e., discharge, water surface elevation, and sediment characteristics). Consequently, we were unable to draw any conclusion about the accuracy of the models. Concerning the time step and the equations used (simplified or full) to solve the momentum equation in the HEC-RAS 2D model, we found that the minimum time step allowed by the model must be used if the diffusion wave equation is used in the simulations. A greater time step can be used if the full momentum equation is used in the simulations. We developed a set of guidelines for reviewing model results, and developed and provided a two-day training workshop on the two models for ADOT&PF hydraulic engineers.
    • Development of durable “green” concrete exposed to deicing chemicals via synergistic use of locally available recycled materials and multi-scale modifiers

      Xie, Ning; Cui, Na (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-02)
      From the economic and social perspectives, the use of waste materials would not be attractive until their costs and quality can satisfy the construction requirements. In this study, a pure fly ash paste (PFAP) was developed in place of ordinary Portland cement paste (OPCP). This PFAP was prepared at room temperature and without direct alkali activation. The samples were prepared using only the as-received class C coal fly ash, water, and a very small amount of borax (Na2B4O7). On average, the PFAP featured 28-d compressive strength of about 36 MPa, and micro-nano hardness and elastic modulus 29% and 5%, higher than the OPCP, respectively. These mechanical and other properties of the PFAP make it a viable “green” construction binder suitable for a host of structural and non-structural applications. Advanced characterization of the raw material and PFAP pastes was employed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms of this “green” binder. The obtained knowledge sheds light on the role of class C CFA in the hydration process and may benefit the expanded use of various CFAs in cementitious materials.
    • Long-term Stabilization of Disturbed Slopes Resulting from Construction Operations

      Perkins, Robert (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-03)
      Highway construction disturbs soil, which must be stabilized to prevent migration of soil particles into water bodies. Stabilization is enforced by law, regulation, and a permit system. Stabilization is most efficiently attained by reestablishment of vegetation, and permits sometimes specify this method of stabilization. Revegetation is difficult in northern Alaska, and seeded grasses often die in a year or two, while reestablishment with native vegetation takes several years. A literature search and interviews with experts indicates that simply extending this “establishment period” has many practical difficulties. Field investigations and interviews indicate that in northern Alaska little erosion occurs at slopes with failed vegetation, which implies that vegetation was not critical to reducing contamination and the expense of revegetation was unnecessary. However, when revegetation is specified in standard permit language, and contractor, owner, and regulator must close out projects, grasses are utilized. This research supports the recommendation that the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities work with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to develop special standards for projects north of the Brooks Range and between the Brooks and Alaska ranges, that recognize the low erosion potential of clean road fill – embankments.
    • Investigation of Alternative Deicers for Snow and Ice Control

      Fay, Laura; Akin, Michelle (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-03-15)
      This technical report presents the findings of the laboratory analysis of potassium succinate (KSu) as a roadway deicer. Laboratory analysis included modified SHRP ice-melting testing, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram, and friction measurements to quantify performance. The overall results indicate that the performance of KSu is similar to that of NaCl at improving friction on roadways during snow and ice conditions. The results of DSC suggest that KSu can be applied as a roadway deicer at -5°C (23°F) and above. However, KSu does not function as a deicer at colder temperatures where salt brine will work (the generally agreed upon lowest working temperature for salt brine is 15°F [-9.5°C]). The results of the laboratory testing show that KSu functions as a roadway deicer with slightly lower ice-melting rates than salt brine. The ice-melting rates, DSC, and friction performance testing of KSu show that the product performs as a deicer at warmer temperatures than salt brine, with slightly less ice-melting capacity and similar friction performance. Based on these and previous results showing lack of corrosion in metals, equipment, and pavements from use of KSu and similar BOD of KSu to potassium acetates, KSu appears to be a viable option as a roadway deicer at temperatures at or above -5°C (23°F). Use of KSu as a roadway deicer may be focused in areas where there are concerns about impacts to infrastructure, equipment, or pavements, such as on bridges, elevated roadways, in parking garages, or on newer concrete pavements. Potential concerns with the use of KSu as a roadway deicer are its price, lack of full-scale manufacturing of KSu at this time, and the BOD exerted by the product. Additional testing to fully quantify the environmental impacts of KSu on soil, water, flora, and fauna is recommended. If water quality and BOD are of concern, application of this product is not recommended in large quantities and during times of low water flow.
    • Estimating the Application Rate of Liquid Chloride Products Based on Residual Salt Concentration on Pavement

      Fay, Laura; Akin, Michelle; Muthumani, Anburaj (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-03-21)
      This technical report summarizes the results of laboratory testing on asphalt and concrete pavement. A known quantity of salt brine was applied as an anti-icer, followed by snow application, traffic simulation, and mechanical snow removal via simulated plowing. Using a sample from this plowed snow, researchers measured the chloride concentration to determine the amount of salt brine (as chloride) that remained on the pavement surface. Under the investigated scenarios, the asphalt samples showed higher concentrations of chloride in the plowed-off snow, and therefore lower concentrations of chlorides remaining on the pavement surface. In comparison, the concrete samples had much lower chloride concentrations in the plowed-off snow, and much higher chloride concentrations remaining on the pavement surface. An interesting pattern revealed by the testing was the variation in the percentage of residual chloride on the pavement surface with changes in temperature. When pavement type was not considered, more residual chloride was present at warmer temperatures and less residual chloride was present at colder temperatures. This observation warrants additional testing to determine if the pattern is in fact a statistically valid trend. The findings from the study will help winter maintenance agencies reduce salt usage while meeting the defined Level of Service. In addition, findings will contribute to environmentally sustainable policies and reduce the level of salt usage (from snow- and ice-control products) introduced into the environment.
    • Transportation Life Cycle Assessment Synthesis Phase II

      Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-04-24
      The Transportation Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Synthesis includes an LCA Learning Module Series, case studies, and analytics on the use of the modules. The module series is a set of narrated slideshows on topics related to environmental LCA. Phase I produced 27 modules, and Phase II added 10 more. The modules are available for download on the Lamar CEE website https://www.lamar.edu/engineering/civil/faculty/haselbach/lca-modules.html and on the CESTiCC website http://cem.uaf.edu/cesticc/publications/lca.aspx. The modules are around 20 minutes long and may be used for various purposes such as for class lectures or part thereof, and for background learning in research or application. The modules are organized into four topical areas, each containing overview and detailed modules. The A and α groups cover the international standards that define environmental LCA. The B and β groups summarize some of the typical environmental impact categories in LCA. The G and γ groups include software tools for LCA. The T and τ groups focus on the growing field of transportation with respect to LCA, a complex area of importance. The analytics section provides data on downloads of the modules from the websites and summary survey results from course implementation.
    • Evaluation of Deicer Impacts on Pervious Concrete Specimens (Phase II)

      Haselbach, Liv; Temizel-Sekeryan, Sila; Ross, Molly; Almeida, Nara (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-05-31)
      This research examined the chemical degradation of pervious concrete due to calcium chloride or magnesium chloride deicers. The project consisted of Phase I, Phase IIa, and Phase IIb. Phase I was previous work where a testing protocol was developed to mimic deicer applications. Phases IIa and IIb are parts of this project. Phase IIa used split tensile testing on Phase I specimens and further evaluated the chemical data from Phase I magnesium chloride applications. Phase IIb repeated the Phase I protocol for a larger number of new ordinary Portland cement specimens and evaluated the impact on strength using the unconfined compressive strength test. The hypotheses were based on complexation and precipitation chemistry. Specimens subjected to calcium chloride showed visible degradation. Specimens exposed to magnesium chloride deicer showed a large increase in loss of calcium ions in Phase I. Both deicers showed a loss in strength compared with a water control in Phase IIb. Results from the split tensile testing were inconclusive. The protocol from Phase I with the unconfined compression test may be an effective testing procedure to determine if different designs might be more resistant to chemical degradation by these two deicing chemicals.
    • Environmentally Friendly Pervious Concrete for Treating Deicer-Laden Stormwater: Phase II

      Xu, Gang; Shi, Xianming (2018-12)
      In Phase I of this project, graphene oxide (GO)-modified pervious concrete was developed using coal fly ash as the sole binder. The primary objectives of Phase II of this project were (1) to evaluate the stormwater infiltration capacity of GO-modified fly ash pervious concrete; (2) to evaluate the durability performance of GO-modified fly ash pervious concrete using freeze/thaw and salt resistance testing methods; and (3) to use advanced analytical tools to fully characterize the GO-modified fly ash binder. Test results indicate different degrees of reduction in concentrations of possible pollutants in stormwater—copper, zinc, sulphate, chloride, ammonia, nitrate, and total phosphate. The incorporation of GO significantly improved the resistance of pervious concrete to freeze/thaw cycles and ambient-temperature salt attack. The specimens were examined using X-ray diffraction, which revealed that the mineralogy and the chemical composition of fly ash pastes differ considerably from those of cement pastes. Nuclear magnetic resonance was used to study the chemical structure and ordering of different hydrates, and provided enhanced understanding of the freeze/thaw and salt scaling resistance of fly ash pervious concrete and the role of GO.
    • A Targeted Approach to High-Volume Fly Ash Concrete Pavement (Phase I)

      Du, Sen; Shi, Xianming (2018-12)
      Unlike the conventional method of admixing nanomaterials directly in fresh concrete mixture, a more targeted approach was explored. Specifically, nanomaterials were used to improve the interface between coarse aggregate and cement paste, by coating the coarse aggregate with cement paste that contained graphene oxide or nanosilica. Using coated coarse aggregates, the mechanical and transport properties of high-volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete were tested to evaluate the effect of nanomaterial coating on the interface transition zone of concrete. The compressive and splitting strengths of HVFA concrete at 3, 7, 14, and 28 days and the water sorptivity and chloride migration coefficient at 28 days were studied. Results show that nanomaterial-coated coarse aggregate can improve the transport properties of HVFA concrete by reducing permeability. However, no improvement was seen in the compressive and splitting strengths when incorporating coated coarse aggregate, compared with direct mixing of nanomaterials in fresh concrete. Resistance to freezing/thawing cycles and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of concrete samples were also investigated to obtain a more comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of nanomaterial coating.
    • Evaluating the Potential Effects of Deicing Salts on Roadside Carbon Sequestration

      Fay, Laura; Ament, Rob; Hartshorn, Tony; Powell, Scott (2019-01)
      This project sought to document patterns of road deicing salts and the effects of these salts on the amount of carbon being sequestered passively along Montana Department of Transportation roads; it was designed collaboratively with a related roadside project that tested three different highway right-of-way management techniques (mowing height, shrub planting, disturbance) to determine whether they have the capacity to increase soil organic carbon. Our sampling did not reveal elevated salt levels at any of the nine locations sampled at each of the three I-90 sites. The greatest saline concentrations were found at the sample locations farthest from the road. This pattern was consistent across all three sites. The range of soil organic matter (SOM) was broad, from ~1% to >10%. Generally, SOM values were lowest adjacent to the road and highest farthest from the road. We found no or weak evidence of a relationship between our indices of soil salinity and SOM levels, with electrical conductivity, exchangeable calcium, and cation exchange capacity. Results imply that if road deicing salts are altering patterns of roadside SOM and potential carbon sequestration, this effect was not captured by our experimental design, nor did deicing salts appear to have affected roadside vegetation during our most recent sampling effort. Our findings highlight the value of experimentally separating the multiple potentially confounding effects of winter maintenance operations on roadside soils: roads could focus the flow of water, salts, and sands to roadside soils. How these types of mass inputs to roadside soils might influence medium- or long-term carbon dynamics remains an open question, but their fuller characterization and possible flow paths will be essential to clarifying the role of roadside soils in terrestrial soil organic carbon sequestration strategies.
    • Bio-Based Renewable Additives for Anti-Icing Applications (Phase II)

      Nazari, Mehdi Honarvar; Oh, Taekil; Ewing, Alexander Charlemagne; Okon, Deborah Ave; Avalos, Brandon; Alnuaimi, Eisa; Havens, Eden Adele; Shi, Xianming (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2019-01-24)
      The performance and impacts of several agro-based anti-icers along with a traditional chloride-based anti-icer (salt brine) were evaluated. A statistical design of experiments (central composite design) was employed for developing anti-icing liquids consisting of cost-competitive chemicals such as agro-based compounds (e.g., Concord grape extract and glycerin), sodium chloride, sodium metasilicate, and sodium formate. The following experimentally obtained parameters were examined as a function of the formulation design: ice-melting capacity at 25°F (−3.9°C), splitting strength of Portland cement mortar samples after 10 freeze-thaw/deicer cycles, corrosion rate of C1010 carbon steel after 24-hour immersion, and impact on asphalt binder stiffness and m-value. One viable formula (“best performer”) was tested for thermal properties by measuring its differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms, the friction coefficient of asphalt pavement treated by this anti-icing formulation (vs. 23 wt.% NaCl and beet juice blend) at 25°F after being applied at 30 gallons per lane mile (1 hour after simulated trafficking and plowing), and other properties (pH, oxygen demand in COD). Laboratory data shed light on the selection and formulation of innovative agro-based snow- and ice-control chemicals that can significantly reduce the costs of winter maintenance operations.
    • Near-Roadway Air Pollution: Evaluation of Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Ultrafine Particulate Matter (PM0.1) in Interior Alaska

      Aggarwal, Srijan; Kadir, Abdul; Belz, Nathan (2019-01-28)
      This report presents a study of fine (PM2.5) and ultrafine (PM0.1) particles in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) in Interior Alaska, with specific emphasis on the relationship of ultrafine particles (UFPs) to vehicular traffic. Chapter 1 provides a summary of published literature on particulates in air from vehicular emissions. Chapter 2 provides a novel and robust GIS-based data analysis approach to PM2.5 data collected by the FNSB. This analysis approach is convenient for identifying hotspots, as well as locations where PM2.5 changes either abruptly or continuously or does not change at all. The results reveal that average on-roadway PM2.5 concentrations are higher in North Pole than in Fairbanks, and mean levels are higher in stationary background monitoring data than in mobile monitoring on-roadway data. Not surprisingly, significant negative correlations were found between temperature and PM2.5. Chapter 3 presents the results from the data collection campaign to measure UFPs at roadside locations in Fairbanks and North Pole and investigate the relationship of UFPs with traffic and meteorological parameters. Multilinear predictive models were developed for estimation of UFPs and PM2.5 based on weather and traffic parameters. Overall, this study improves our understanding of on- and near-roadway particulates in a cold-climate region.
    • Evaluating Management Options to Increase Roadside Carbon Sequestration

      Ament, Robert; Hartshorn, Tony; Powell, Scott (2019-01-30)
      We estimated the amount of carbon sequestered along Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) roads and tested 3 different highway right-of-way (ROW) management techniques to increase carbon stocks. Using Geographic Information System techniques, the total ROW acreage owned by MDT was found to sequester 75,292 metric tons of carbon per year and to consist mostly of grasslands (70%). From 2016-2018 we tested 3 ROW management techniques to increase carbon stocks- increase mowing height, plant woody shrubs, or add legumes to reclamation seed mixes of disturbed soils - at 3 sites (Three Forks [3F], Bear Canyon [BC], and Bozeman Pass [BP]) along Interstate 90 in southwestern Montana. Soil samples generally averaged 0.75–1.5% soil organic carbon (SOC) at the 3F site, 2.5–4% SOC at the BC site, and 1.5–2.5% SOC at the BP site. Average SOC levels were always lower in 2018 than in 2016. Soil respiration rates were generally highest in June or July at the BC site, averaging ~4 μmol CO2 m-2 second-1. Soil respiration rates were lower at the BC site in November 2016, at the BP site in June 2018, and at the 3F site in July 2018 (all ~2–3 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1). Aboveground biomass carbon estimates generally mirrored belowground SOC estimates. Taken together, our findings suggest that of the three treatments implemented (raised mowing height, shrub planting, and disturbance), minimizing disturbance to soils likely makes the greatest contribution to the medium- and long-term carbon-storage potential of these roadside soils.

      Blank, Matt; Dockery, David; Pohl, Christina (2019-03)
      The purpose of this research was to evaluate how characteristics of hydraulic structures, such as slope or size, used at crossings over waterways relate to operation and maintenance (O&M) effort, fish passage, and stream function. Data on O&M concerns, fish passage concerns, and crossing characteristics were collected from 45 road-stream crossings in Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, during lower and higher water periods in both 2014 and 2015 (four events total). Logistic regression and generalized mixed models were used to examine relationships between O&M effort (response) and five explanatory variables. For all data from all years combined, there were no observable associations among O&M and culvert type or constriction ratio. However, lower constriction ratios were observed for sites with O&M needs in the June 2014 data set. The proportion of sites with both fish passage and O&M concerns was 0.52; comparatively, the proportion of sites with no fish passage concern but with O&M concern was 0.35.
    • The Impact of Snowfall on Airport Operations and Delays

      Lee, Jukwan; Yan, Jia (2019-03-31)
      Flight delays or cancelations due to snowfall are a costly inconvenience, not only to airports but also to airlines, passengers and society as a whole. However, no quantitative research has ever been done to provide an analytical explanation about the issue. Though being a reliable alternative to melt snow on the runway and mitigate flight delays, the Heated Pavement System is not adopted in any US airports because of concerns over the initial investments and maintenance costs being higher than the economic loss from delays during unpredictable snowfall days. Combining weather and domestic flight data in Boston and Los Angeles regions, we analyze the benefits and costs associated with installing the Heated Pavement System. Using two advanced econometric methods, the Difference in Difference in Difference (DDD) and the nearest neighbor matching, we first develop a Delay Analysis model to evaluate the exact effect of snowfall on flight delays, and then we calculate the delay costs. Based on the empirical findings, we conduct cost-benefit analysis of installing HPS at the three airports in Boston area. Our results indicate that HPS is feasible for airports with a great number of flights and passengers, such as Boston Logan airport.
    • Pre-Stress Loss Due to Creep in Precast Concrete Decked Bulb-Tee Girders Under Cold Climate Conditions

      Vandermeer, Drew; Ahn, Il-Sang (2019-07-31)
      Accurate estimation of pre-stress losses is one of the important issues for the design of precast, pre-stressed concrete bridge girders. While this subject has been long studied by many researchers, studies on pre-stress losses in cold climates are minimal. In the present research, long-term pre-stress loss due to concrete creep was studied based on concrete creep test. Two concrete creep test frames were fabricated and placed indoors and outdoors. Concrete strains were measured by Demountable Mechanical Strain Gauge (DEMEC) from two 612 high-strength concrete cylinders in each frame. The concrete strains were collected for 11 months (7/26/2017 – 6/21/2018) after loading, and outdoor ambient temperature dropped below 0C between 100 and 250 days. Between 50 and 100 days, two curves from the two frames are similar in their patterns and values. After 100 days, the total strain from the indoor frame slowly increased reaching 1,600 and 1,700 after 250 days. However, the total strain from the outdoor frame varied between 1,000 and 1,500 and the averaged total strain was 1,300 after 250 days. In cold temperature, the occurrence of concrete creep and shrinkage was suppressed.
    • Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixes for Alaskan Pavements

      Liu, Jenny; Liu, Jun (2019-08)
      In order to properly characterize modified asphalt binders and mixes for Alaskan pavements, this study evaluated properties of 13 asphalt binders typically used in Alaska from three different suppliers, and 10 hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures which were either produced in the lab or collected from existing paving projects in Alaska. Various binder and mixture engineering properties were determined, including true high binder grades, complex modulus (G*), and phase angle (δ) at high performance temperatures, multiple stress creep recovery rate and compliance, bending beam rheometer stiffness and m-value, Glover-Rowe parameter, ΔT, rheological index, and crossover frequency for binders, and rut depth, critical strain energy release rate (Jc), Indirect tensile (IDT) creep stiffness and strength for mixtures. Binder cracking temperatures were determined using asphalt binder cracking device. Mixture cracking temperatures were determined with IDT creep compliance and strength data. It was found that rutting and cracking resistances of the mixtures with highly modified binders were better than the mixture with unmodified asphalt binder (PG 52-28). Future recommendations for highly modified asphalt binders applications and research were provided based on laboratory testing results and field survey evaluation.
    • Highly Abrasion-resistant and Long-lasting Concrete

      Liu, Jenny; Murph, Diane (2019-08)
      Studded tire usage in Alaska contributes to rutting damage on pavements resulting in high maintenance costs and safety issues. In this study binary, ternary, and quaternary highly-abrasion resistant concrete mix designs, using supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), were developed. The fresh, mechanical and durability properties of these mix designs were then tested to determine an optimum highly-abrasion resistant concrete mix that could be placed in cold climates to reduce rutting damage. SCMs used included silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag, and type F fly ash. Tests conducted measured workability, air content, drying shrinkage, compressive strength, flexural strength, and chloride ion permeability. Resistance to freeze-thaw cycles, scaling due to deicers, and abrasion resistance were also measured. A survey and literature review on concrete pavement practices in Alaska and other cold climates was also conducted. A preliminary construction cost analysis comparing the concrete mix designs developed was also completed.