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  • How religious and spiritual information is infused throughout counselor education programs

    Conway, Kathryn; Gifford, Valerie; Renes, Susan; Ollhoff, Tim (2020-05)
    Many counseling clients want the religious and spiritual aspects of themselves acknowledged and incorporated into their therapy sessions. As such, counselors must gain competence in addressing religious and spiritual issues with clients. What is uncertain is whether counselor education programs address religious and spiritual issues consistently and adequately. The following text is a thematic literature review synthesizing research related to the question, “How is religious and spiritual information infused throughout counselor education programs?” Review of the research reveals incredible variability between counselor education programs, and a paucity of religious and spiritual content delivered to counseling students, suggesting that religious and spiritual topics must be more consistently addressed throughout counselor education programs.
  • Multiple imputation of missing multivariate atmospheric chemistry time series data from Denali National Park

    Charoonsophonsak, Chanachai; Goddard, Scott; Barry, Ronald; McIntyre, Julie; Short, Margaret (2020-05)
    This paper explores a technique where we impute missing values for an incomplete dataset via multiple imputation. Incomplete data is one of the most common issues in data analysis and often occurs when measuring chemical and environmental data. The dataset that we used in the model consists of 26 atmospheric particulates or elements that were measured semiweekly in Denali National Park from 1988 to 2015. The collection days were alternating between three and four days apart from 3/2/88 - 9/30/00 and being consistently collected every three days apart from 10/3/00 - 12/29/15. For this reason, the data were initially partitioned into two in case the separation between collection days would have an impact. With further analysis, we concluded that the misalignments between the two datasets had very little or no impact on our analysis and therefore combined the two. After running five Markov chains of 1000 iterations we concluded that the model stayed consistent between the five chains. We found out that in order to get a better understanding of how well the imputed values did, more exploratory analysis on the imputed datasets would be required.
  • Climate drivers of Interior Alaska wildland fire

    Bukhader, Maryam; Bhatt, Uma S.; Mölders, C. Nicole; Panda, Santosh; Rupp, T. Scott (2020-05)
    This study focused on the climate drivers of wildfire in Interior Alaska that occurred in summer season, JJA, during periods in 1994 to 2017. Analysis results presented in this paper provide identify links between meteorological variables and area burned, in the context of spatial and temporal variability at the PSA level. Warmer temperatures caused higher chance of wildland fires as in summer 2004 (26797 km2) where the temperature reached the highest levels compared to all years of study. In addition, this study has shown that temperatures have the same seasonal cycle in all PSAs level; where the temperature increase begins in June, peaks in July and then gradually decline, consistent with the fire season. Although precipitation limits the increase in forest fires, the accompanying lightning increases the chance fires which gives precipitation a double role in influencing the risk of fire. This can be seen clearly in both Upper Yukon valley (AK02) and Tanana Zone South (AK03S) where the largest number of lightning strikes over Interior Alaska occur (17000 and 11000 strikes, respectively). In addition, these two PSAs have the greatest area burned (1441.2 and 1112.4 km2).There is an upward trend in both temperature and precipitation in all months especially in May and September which indicates a decline in the snow season and an increase in the length of the fire season. A similar pattern was documented between PSAs in eastern versus western Alaska. Eastern PSAs receive the highest amount of precipitation in July, (AK01W , AK01E, AK02, AK03N, AK03S) , and western PSAs in August, (AK04, AK05, AK07). The years 2004, 2015, 2005 and 2009 display the largest values for area burned with extremely warm and dry condition especially in 2004 with approximately 26797 km2 (6.6 m acres).
  • Trait extraction from article text

    Braxling, Trace; Hartman, Chris; Metzgar, Jonathan; Chappell, Glenn G. (2020-05)
    For a particular object, vast amounts of information exists within the Wikipedia article relating to that object. From this article, it is often desirable to produce simple, sentence length facts about this object. The purpose of this project is to explore a number of methods for producing single sentences that provide informational facts (or traits) from a given text. These methods are then evaluated in comparison to each other, as well as a hand picked ground truth . By analyzing these results, it can be determined which aspects of the methods is worth further examination for the task of trait extraction.
  • Preliminary Fairbanks Bee Pollinator Protection Plan

    Adams, Samuel E.; Todd, Susan K.; Karlsson, Meriam; Spellman, Katie (2020-05)
    Global declines in pollinator species have been documented in several studies across the United States, Canada, and Europe. Honeybees, bumble bees and Monarch butterflies have been hit particularly hard in the US. This Preliminary Fairbanks Bee Pollinator Protection Plan recommends ways to increase public awareness of the problems facing bees and other pollinators, methods to increase and protect pollinator habitat and steps to take to reduce the use of pesticides. The plan also includes a list of native and nonnative plants that grow well in the Fairbanks area and that are attractive to insect pollinators. Planting these species can greatly increase the local habitat for pollinators. In developing the plan, I evaluated 12 pollinator plans from other areas, learned about local pollinators and their habitat requirements, and surveyed local beekeepers. To create the goals, objectives and actions included in this plan, I combined ideas from each of these three sources plus ideas of my own. The plan is not intended to be implemented by any one individual or agency. Instead, the plan can be used by anyone interested in improving pollinator habitat. If you have a backyard, access to a community garden, or just a few pots or a windowsill, you can create pollinator habitat. In addition to individuals, there are many businesses, government agencies, non-profits and other organizations that may be interested in taking steps listed in the plan to benefit bees and other pollinators.
  • Alaska sea energy: a guide for hydroponic development

    Blair-Madrid, Daniel; Stern, Charlene; Black, Jessica; Hutto, Will (2020-12)
    This guide has been created to help those unfamiliar with the benefits of growing food with hydroponics to gain a deeper understanding of how such techniques can help rural communities with issues of food sovereignty and provide healthy fresh food through every season. It also includes input from communities participating in the project. Rural coastal communities in particular have a unique opportunity of combining both hydroponic techniques and ocean-based fertilization to maximize sustainable food production, thereby reducing reliance on imported food. The instructions contained within this guide will describe various types of hydroponic systems, recommendations for equipment, and how to address challenges that can arise from each system. Each system may have certain advantages and disadvantages depending upon the needs of the grower.
  • Response of an asymmetrical five-story building in Fairbanks, Alaska during the November 30, 2018 M7.1 Anchorage, Alaska earthquake

    Celebi, Mehmet; Ruppert, Natalia (2021-02)
    A recently constructed, five-story, asymmetrical steel building on the campus of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks was equipped with a strong-motion array that recorded the M7.1 Anchorage earthquake of November 30, 2018 at an epicentral distance of 408 km. The largest recorded peak accelerations at the basement and top of the building are 0.021g and 0.071g, respectively. The steel building is designed with several bays that utilize K-shaped buckling restrained braces. The building response records allow identification of fundamental periods (frequencies) as 0.73s (1.4 Hz), 0.63s (1.60 Hz), and 0.56s (1.78 Hz) in the NS, EW, and torsional directions, respectively. System identification computations resulted in estimated critical damping percentages as 7.7% and 4.7 % in the NS and EW directions, respectively. At this low-level of shaking, the building is not expected to (and did not) experience observable damage, which is confirmed with very small average drift ratios. This is the first time a seismic response from this structural array has been analyzed.

    Metzgar, Jonathan (2020-12-31)
    Previous research efforts at UAF have established that dust palliative performance may be compared using a calculation called the mean particle residence time (tau, or MPRT). The MPRT value is computed using linear regression techniques to determine the time when the dust palliative loses its effectiveness. A technician tests the palliative using a dustfall column and a nephelometer to measure the concentration of PM10 over time. The technician needs to manually process this raw data with an Excel spreadsheet making dust palliative MPRT reports time-consuming and prone to error. Finally, the certifying technician prints and files the report for future reference which limits future dissemination. We developed a web-based calculator, called UAFDUST, to automate the process of producing the MPRT report. UAFDUST combines a web app front end using Google's Angular library with a PHP and SQL database backend. This database enables a laboratory to record metadata about the dust palliative including the dustfall column testing date and technician, certification date, and certifying technician. The app calculates the MPRT and produces accompanying linear regression plots. The UAFDUST app stores dust palliative MPRT tests in a public database and trained laboratory technicians may contribute new data.
  • Energy and Health Care Parallels: Maximizing Electric Utility Social Welfare.

    Reynolds, Douglas (2020-12-14)
    This pod cast, based on a paper from the 4th IAEE Eurasian Conference in Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan, is about electric power markets. It considers consumer sovereignty in U.S. health care markets and then looks at the parallels between those health care markets and electric power markets. It then shows how one particular U.S. health care market mechanism called the Advantage Medicare System works best. It then explains how an Electric Power CEO bonus system, based on the Advantage System, can create better, more socially maximizing outcomes for electric power markets than the current consumer sovereignty based systems the world is using now.
  • Alaska Earthquakes Poster

    Gardine, Lea; West, Michael; Grassi, Beth (2020-10)
    Alaska is one of the most seismically active places in the world. This poster connects the geographic distribution of earthquakes from the Alaska Earthquake Center catalog with the core concepts that drive Alaska seismicity. Rupture patches, how plate tectonics forms faults throughout Alaska, and how the angle of the sinking Pacific Plate affects earthquake distribution and creates volcanoes are some of the key concepts represented.
  • Effects of elevated sediment levels from placer mining on survival and behavior of immature arctic grayling

    Scannell, Patrick O. (1988-12)
    The effect of placer mining effluents on Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) fingerling and egg survival was tested in mined and unmined streams in interior Alaska. Also the influence of turbidity on Arctic grayling reactive distance and avoidance behavior was tested in a laboratory choice chamber. Arctic grayling fingerlings suffered less than 1% mortality during a 96-hr toxicity test in both clear (mean NTU = 1.4) and mined (mean NTU = 445) streams. Arctic grayling eggs did not show significantly (p > 0.1) higher mortality in mined streams than in unmined streams. In a laboratory choice chamber test, Arctic grayling avoided water with a turbidity above 20 NTU (nephelometric turbidity units). Arctic grayling reactive distance diminished proportional to the natural logarithm of turbidity.
  • AACSE earthquake catalog: May-December, 2018

    Ruppert, Natalia A.; Barcheck, Grace; Abers, Geoffrey A. (2021-02)
    The Alaska Amphibious Community Seismic Experiment (AACSE) comprised 75 ocean bottom seismometers and 30 land stations and covered about 650 km along the segment of the subduction zone that includes Kodiak Island, the Alaska Peninsula and the Shumagin Islands between May, 2018 and September, 2019 (Barcheck et al., 2020). This unprecedented dataset has the potential to support a greatly enhanced earthquake catalog by both increasing the number of detected earthquakes and improving the accuracy of their source parameters. We use all available regional and AACSE campaign seismic data to compile an enhanced earthquake catalog for the region between Kodiak and Shumagin Islands including Alaska Peninsula (51-59N, 148-163W). We apply the same processing and reporting standards to additional picks and seismic events as the Alaska Earthquake Center currently use for compilation of the authoritative regional earthquake catalog. This release includes earthquake catalogs for the time period between May 12 and December 31, 2018 (3829 events total 1132 of which are newly detected). We include monthly CSS database tables and quakeml files. The data analysis is ongoing and more catalogs will be released in the near future.
  • Positive solutions for rural solid waste management

    Meyer, Jessica L. (2011-12)
    Rural solid waste management is and will continue to be one of the leading environmental problems facing the twenty-first century. As the global south, under developed, and developing countries progress, proper solid waste management must be a priority to keep humans and ecosystems healthy and safe. This study provides an overview of the Republic of Macedonia's solid waste management and the discoveries of public and environmental health risks as a result of unsanitary landfills and illegal dumping. These problems are caused by low enforcement of environmental laws, minimal governmental and public support, as well as lack of funding and infrastructure. This study concludes by offering positive solutions for improvement of these solid waste management (SWM) problems, such as community organizing, proper technology, enforcing environmental laws, collecting taxes to fund proper solid waste management, and creating inter-town cleanliness competitions.
  • Effects of climate variability and fishing on gadid-crustacean interactions in subarctic ecosystems

    Marcello, Laurinda; Mueter, Franz; Eckert, Ginny; Kruse, Gordon (2011-12)
    Snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) are a vital economic and biotic resource to many subarctic ecosystems. Their abundance varies greatly, but what causes large changes in production and early life survival is unknown. My overall goal is to improve our understanding of snow crab population dynamics during early life history stages. Chapter 1 provides background information on subarctic ecosystems, addresses possible mechanisms of population control and potential drivers of variability, describes snow crab life history, and reviews recent population trends in snow crab and their major cod predators. Chapter 2 details a regression study examining the effects of snow crab spawning stock biomass, environmental conditions, and Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) or Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) biomass on snow crab recruitment. This study compares three ecosystems: the eastern Bering Sea, the Newfoundland-Labrador Shelf, and the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Cold ocean conditions during early life history were associated with increased snow crab recruitment or recruitment indices in all three ecosystems. However, there was no consistent observed effect of spawning stock biomass or gadid predation on subsequent recruitment. The dominant role of environmental conditions in driving snow crab recruitment highlights the importance of an ecosystem-based management approach for these stocks.
  • Communication in the face of diversity: towards a training model for U.S. Army cadets

    Lasiter, Nolan O.; Taylor, Karen; Richey, Jean; Sager, Kevin; DeCaro, Peter (2011-12)
    The purpose of this study was to explore the need for a communication and cultural diversity training program in a Northwestern university Reserve officer Training Corps (ROTC) department. A needs assessment was conducted identifying the need for a training program in both culture and communication. Research questions explored the need for a training program in communication and cultural diversity. Quantitative methods assessed the overall outcomes from the communication and cultural diversity workshops. Hypotheses predicted that Cadet's scores would increase from pretest to posttest as a result of the communication and cultural diversity workshop. Senior level cadets at a Northwestern university ROTC program volunteered to participate in the study. A pilot training program was administered in the spring semester in order generate feedback and improve the design. The final training design was implemented in the fall and assessed using the communication competency measurement and cultural competency instrument. Results showed that there was an overall significant increase of scores from pretest to posttest, suggesting that the workshops improved cadets abilities in communication and cultural diversity.
  • Hydrodynamics of downstream pointed guidevanes: a case study of the Hess Creek meander bend realignment

    Lai, Alexandre W. (2011-12)
    The hydrodynamics of downstream pointed guidevanes installed to realign an eroding meander bend upstream of the Trans- Alaska Pipeline bridge is studied. The bridge is located at Hess Creek, 137 km north of Fairbanks, Alaska. Effect of the downstream pointed vanes on bed form, erosion, longitudinal and transverse slopes, three dimensional velocity profiles, flow patterns, and other hydraulic parameters for high and low flows are compared and analyzed. Six years after installation of the vanes the realigned thalweg remains in its original design location. The longitudinal bed profile changed from a dominant continuous pool typical of natural meander bends on gravel stream beds to a series of pool riffles. However, there is minimal change in maximum scour depth between post and pre installation of the vanes. Secondary or transverse current patterns which cause scour or erosion on the outer bank are severely disrupted due to interference caused by the vanes. There is a consistent weak counter current in reaches between the vane stems due to flow separation caused by expansion of flow area. This condition was more dominant during low flows when the vanes were not completely submerged. From the tip of the vanes to the inner bank a more dominant transverse and streamwise current was measured. Location of the original eroding outer bank remains unchanged since installation of the vanes. This indicates that the vanes have to this point effectively realigned the meander bend and arrested additional lateral movement of the meander.
  • The fate of nitrogen pollution in high-latitude winter: investigations using a 1-D photochemical model

    Joyce, Patrick L. (2011-12)
    Simulations using a 1-D photochemical model were performed to analyze the fate of NOx pollution in a high-latitude winter environment. Modeled pollution emissions were constrained by observations from downtown Fairbanks and the model reproduced dilution of NOx on timescales in agreement with field measurements on the edge and outside of the urban area of Fairbanks. The model was updated from previous versions to include calculations of reactions of N₂O₅ on aerosol particles and an empirically-derived value for dry deposition velocity of N₂O₅ to the snowpack, which acts as a competing loss of N₂O₅. It was found that dry deposition of N₂O₅ causes a significant fraction of N₂O₅ loss near the snowpack, but reactions on aerosol particles dominate loss of N₂O₅ over the total atmospheric column. Sensitivity experiment results indicate a strong sensitivity to urban area density (affecting NO flux), season and clouds (affecting photolysis), and weather and climate (affecting temperature), implying a strong sensitivity of the results to urban planning and climate change. Model simulations produced large amounts of secondary ammonium nitrate downwind of the polluted area due to NOx oxidation and subsequent reactions with ammonia on aerosol particles.
  • Visualizing the present: current issues within contemporary visual Sami art - an analysis of Sami artists and their art in Oslo, Norway

    Horn-Hanssen, Birte Marie (2011-12)
    Until recently, contemporary visual Sami art has been little studied. However there is continuous activity within the Sami art world that is evident from the large amount of contemporary visual Sami art exhibits in northern Scandinavia. This paper provides an exploratory analysis of the current issues and artistic language contemporary visual Sami artists who live in Oslo, Norway are concerned with. Through contextualizing the artworks within a post-colonial framework highlighting the dominant Sami historical, political and societal narratives from the 1970s until now, and contrasting them with the official Norwegian image of Norway as a unified "oil and gas nation," a "human rights nation" or a "fishing nation" the artworks question dominant historical perspectives and become visual inquiries of the Sami's political and societal situation currently or in recent history in Norway. This study demonstrates that the current issues visualized among contemporary Sami artists in Oslo are humans' relationship to the natural environment; collective and personal identity; and political and cultural rights. The study shows that the artists use their Sami background as a specific context to visualize these generic issues. Finally, the analysis emphasizes that contemporary visual Sami artists have transcultural backgrounds and use transnational artistic language, themes, and expressions and therefore visualizes new and emerging fluid transnational Sami identities.
  • Terrestrial invertebrate prey for juvenile chinook salmon: abundance and environmental controls in an Interior Alaska river

    Gutierrez, Laura; Wipfli, Mark S.; Blanchard, Amy L.; Rosenberger, Amanda E. (2011-12)
    Terrestrial prey subsidies can be a key food source for stream fish, but their importance and environmental controls on their abundance have not been widely documented in high latitude ecosystems. This study investigated terrestrial invertebrate prey availability and predation by age-0+ juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), overlap between terrestrial infall and drift to diet, and the relationship between diet to stream temperature and discharge in the Chena River, Interior Alaska. Terrestrial infall, drift, and juvenile chinook diet varied widely through the summers (May-September) of 2008 and 2009. Drift was comprised of 33% terrestrial and 67% aquatic invertebrate mass, while juvenile chinook diet contained 19% terrestrial, 80% aquatic, and 1% unidentifiable invertebrate mass. The proportion of terrestrial invertebrate mass consumed increased through summer and, at times, made up to 39% of total diet. Low similarity of invertebrates in diet and infall, and diet and drift suggested that fish were, in part, prey-selective, selecting hymenopterans and chironomid midges (Diptera). In both years, prey mass consumed and discharge varied inversely, but no correlation was found between proportion of terrestrial invertebrates consumed and discharge. However, the two sampling dates with the highest proportion of terrestrial invertebrates consumed occurred shortly after a 60-year flood, indicating that terrestrial invertebrates may be important during rain and associated high water. This study found that, although terrestrial infall and drift are highly variable, terrestrial invertebrates are an important prey resource for rearing chinook salmon in this high latitude riverine system, especially later in the summer.
  • Novel fungal taxa in an Alaskan boreal forest: phylogenetic affinities, ecologies, and ribosomal RNA secondary structures

    Glass, Daniel; Taylor, D. Lee; Olson, Link E.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Duffy, Lawrence (2011-12)
    Phylogenetic analyses suggest that a novel DNA sequence (NS1) found in a boreal forest soil-clone library belongs to the fungal kingdom but does not fall unambiguously within any known class. In order to determine if NS1 codes for an authentic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-copy, I modeled ribosomal RNA secondary structure for four gene regions. Such analyses have never been used on environmental ribosomal sequences before. It appears that NS1 does code for an authentic gene-copy and is not a biological or lab artifact. I also elucidated the habitat preferences, horizon preferences, and fine-scale spatial structure of NS1 using molecular methods. I determined that NS1 was associated with spruce and was found in both the organic and mineral soil horizons. It appears to have a clumped distribution on the scale of a few meters and its spatial distribution shows little inter-annual variability. Together these findings suggest that NS1 does represent an authentic gene-copy and also shed light on the ecology of this putative taxon. I hope future efforts will expand our understanding of both its identity and function.

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