• Haa léelk'w hás ji.eetí, our grandparents' art: a study of master Tlingit artists, 1750-1989

      Jones, Zachary R.; Heaton, John; Jonaitis, Aldona; Schneider, William; Walz, Robin (2018-12)
      This dissertation examines the lives and creations of twenty-three master Tlingit artists that practiced in Southeast Alaska between 1750 and 1989. Biographical examination of master Tlingit artists showcases how artists created sacred art objects, known as at.óow, which play a central role in the social and spiritual life of the Tlingit people. Historic Tlingit artists came from the aanyádi, the aristocratic class, and were tasked with the responsibility of not only creating sacred art, but also serving as community leaders and exemplifying Tlingit values throughout their lives. The study of Tlingit artists and their creations also sheds light on objects omitted by previous scholars, highlights the overlooked work of female artists, and challenges outdated approaches to the study of Northwest Coast Indian art.
    • Habitat associations, distribution, and abundance of Smith's longspur (Calcarius pictus), an uncommon species of concern in the Brooks Range, Alaska

      Wild, Teri Corvus; Powell, Abby; Verbyla, Dave; Kendall, Steve (2013-12)
      Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) is a species of conservation concern in the U.S. and Canada, yet few studies have been conducted on their breeding grounds in the Arctic, which are expected to undergo dramatic changes due to climate change. For effective conservation, we need information on breeding distribution and abundance; thus I conducted surveys for Smith's Longspur and habitat characteristics across a broad geographic range that included twelve sites within Alaska's Brooks Range, June 2003-2009. My main objectives were to (1) locate breeding populations (2) describe habitats at local and broader geographic scales, (3) develop a predictive distribution map based on habitat characteristics, and (4) estimate densities and abundance of Smith's Longspurs. Smith's Longspurs were detected at seven of twelve sites and were associated with mixed sedge and shrub habitats with high cover of moss and sedges. Across the Brooks Range, I predicted patchy occurrence in valleys and foothills in the north- and south-eastern mountains and in upland plateaus in the western mountains. Density estimates varied, ranging from 0 - 0.39 males/ha due to their patchy distribution within and among sites. I estimated abundance as ~30,000 males in the Brooks Range. My data provides a baseline for future monitoring of this little-known species.
    • Habitat characteristics of black oystercatcher breeding territories

      McFarland, Brooke A.; Konar, Brenda; Goldstein, Michael I.; Rosenberger, Amanda (2010-05)
      Habitat use in birds is often related to forage resources and predation avoidance. The large, long-lived black oystercatcher is a shorebird that defends a composite breeding territory for foraging in the intertidal zone and nesting in the immediate upland. Predation on young is a major source of mortality for many bird species, including black oystercatcher. As these are long-lived birds with many reproductive opportunities, adult survival, associated with forage resources, is expected to be more important in habitat use than less-predictable breeding success. To identify which factors most influence black oystercatcher breeding territory use, logistic regression models were developed and tested in south-central Alaska and tested in southeast Alaska. Intertidal community composition was sampled at a subset of sites. All known breeding sites in Kenai Fjords National Park and western Prince William Sound, plus sites in southeast Alaska, were matched with available breeding sites based on substrate and exposure classifications. Two factors available breeding related to predation avoidance, greater distance to vegetation and isolation from the mainland, were the most important variables in habitat models. Intertidal community composition did not vary between known breeding and available breeding sites. This suggests black oystercatchers choose breeding territories that reduce predation risk, contrary to expectations.
    • Habitat Function In Alaska Nearshore Marine Ecosystems

      Pirtle, Jodi L.; Eckert, Ginny; Reynolds, Jennifer; Quinn, Terrance II; Tissot, Brian; Woodby, Doug (2010)
      This research demonstrates how habitat structures subtidal communities and supports individual species in Alaska nearshore marine ecosystems. This was accomplished through a case study of southeast Alaska coastal regions, and an in-depth investigation of red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus early life stage ecology and nursery habitat. How subtidal communities reflect variation in the marine environment of southeast Alaska is poorly understood. The purpose of the first part of this body of research was to identify and compare patterns of community structure for macroalgae, invertebrate, and fish communities at shallow subtidal depths between inner coast and outer coast regions, and link patterns of community structure to environmental variability in southeast Alaska. The major hydrographic gradient of decreasing salinity and increasing temperature from the outer coast to the inner coast affected regional community structure, with greater species diversity at the outer coast. Species distribution for invertebrate communities was linked to variation in benthic habitat at local scales among sites within regions. This study improves understanding of processes that structure marine communities to better predict how environmental change will affect Alaska marine ecosystems. Many Alaska red king crab populations have collapsed and continue to experience little recovery, even for areas without a commercial fishery. Several aspects of red king crab early life stage ecology were investigated because reasons for the lack of recovery may be related to the early life history of this species. Field experiments were conducted in southeast Alaska. Settlement timing was consistent between study years (2008--09) and with historical data for this region. Local oceanographic processes that influence larval transport may be responsible for spatial variation in larval supply. In laboratory and field experiments, early juvenile crabs (age 0 and 1) demonstrated refuge response behavior to a predator threat that changed with crab ontogeny. When predators were absent, juvenile crabs preferred highly structured biogenic habitats due to foraging opportunities, and associated with any structural habitat to improve survival when predators were present. This research shows how availability of high quality nursery habitat affects red king crab early life stage success and potential for population recovery.
    • Habitat relationships and activity patterns of a reintroduced musk ox population

      Jingfors, Kent T. (1980-12)
      A reintroduced muskox herd in arctic Alaska was studied over a 2-year period to assess seasonal changes in activity patterns and feeding behavior. This large herd showed high calving rates and early breeding in females, characteristic of a rapidly expanding population. Age- and sex-specific differences in activity budgets reflect seasonal energy demands of the different cohorts. Comparison with high arctic muskoxen shows that characteristics of suckling behavior provide a more sensitive indicator of differences in range quality than does variation in summer activity patterns. In summer, muskoxen appear to select vegetation types on the basis of abundance and phenological stage of preferred forage species; snow characteristics strongly influence habitat selection in winter. The herd remained within a limited home range with overlapping seasonal ranges and a distinct calving area. The restricted movements and conservative activity budgets permit minimization of energy expenditure and forage requirements, allowing for a year-long existence in areas of low primary productivity.
    • Habitat selection and sightability of moose in Southeast Alaska

      Oehlers, Susan A. (2007-08)
      We examined the role of scale and sex in habitat selection by radiocollared Alaskan moose (Alces alces gigas) on the Yakutat forelands, Alaska, USA. We used conditional logistic regression to quantify differences in habitats selected between sexes and seasons at 3 different spatial scales (250, 500, and 1000 m), and multi-response permutation procedure (MRPP) to test for differences in spatial distribution between the sexes. Sexes selected for habitats similarly during the mating season, when sexes generally were aggregated, whereas sexes exhibited differential habitat selection during the non-mating season when sexes were segregated. Both sexes selected habitats at the 1000 m scale; models limited to 2 variables, however, demonstrated differences in scales selected by the sexes. There was a significant difference between male and female spatial distribution during all months (MRPP; P <0.0001), and distances between individuals were higher in females than in males, particularly during spring. We also developed a sightability model for moose with logistic regression, and used Distance Sampling to develop sightability correction factors (SCFs). Application of the sightability model and Distance Sampling to a sample data set of 600 moose yielded population estimates of 652-1124 (x̄= 755) and 858-1062 (x̄ = 954) moose, respectively.
    • Habitat selection by calving caribou of the Central Arctic Herd, 1980-95

      Wolfe, Scott Adrian (2000-12)
      Habitat selection by calving caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) of the Central Arctic Herd, Alaska, was assessed in relation to distance from roads, vegetation type, relative plant biomass (NDVI; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), accumulation of plant biomass during early lactation (NDVIrate), snow cover, and terrain ruggedness. From 183 calving sites of 96 radio collared- females, 1980-95, calving distribution was estimated in reference (no development) and treatment (oilfields present) zones east and west of the Sagavanirktok River, respectively. In the reference zone, caribou regularly selected wet-graminoid vegetation, above-median NDVIrate, and non-rugged terrain; concentrated calving remained in habitats with zonal average NDVI on 21 June (NDVI621). In the treatment zone, selection patterns were inconsistent; concentrated calving shifted inland to rugged terrainwith low NDVI621 and away from development. Repeated use of lower-quality habitats in the treatment zone could compromise nutrient intake by calving females, thereby depressing reproductive success of the western-segment of the herd.
    • Habitat selection by mule deer: Effects of migration and population density

      Nicholson, Matthew Christopher (1995)
      I investigated effects of migration and population density on habitat and diet selection in a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in southern California from 1989 to 1991. All male deer were migratory, whereas females exhibited a mixed strategy with both migrant and resident individuals. No difference occurred in sizes of home ranges for migratory or resident deer. Home-range size of deer was smaller in summer than in winter, however. Size of home range was positively associated with proximity to human disturbance and the amount of avoided habitat (use $<$ available) in the home range. Deer avoided human disturbance in all seasons. Clear tradeoffs existed for deer in montane southern California with respect to whether they migrated. Migratory females were farther from human disturbance and used high-quality habitats more often than did their nonmigratory conspecifics. Nonetheless, during migration deer were at increased risk of predation, and in years of low precipitation (low snow) had higher rates of mortality than did resident deer. Thus, in areas with extremely variable precipitation and snow cover, a mixed strategy for migration can be maintained. Migration patterns of deer resulted in drastic shifts of population density between seasons as deer migrated into and out of ranges. Quality of diet (as indexed by fecal crude protein) for deer in a low-density area was higher than that of a high-density area in winter, when deer densities were most different. Diet quality was similar in summer when both areas had similar densities of deer. Contrary to predictions of the ideal-free distribution, diet quality was different between the two areas in autumn when population densities were similar; this may have been due to an elevated availability of graminoids on the high-density area. Niche breadth, as measured by diet diversity, differed in a manner opposite to the predictions of the ideal-free distribution. During winter, when differences in density between the two study areas were most evident, niche breadth along the dietary axis in the low-density group was twice the size of this measure for the high-density area. Theoretical models for changes in niche dimension need to consider such empirical outcomes.
    • Habitat usage by flatfish (Pleuronectidae) in the Mendenhall wetlands, Juneau, Alaska

      Mattes, Lynn A. (2004-05)
      The Mendenhall Wetlands in Juneau, Alaska were sampled with a variety of gear types to determine if the wetlands were essential fish habitat for flatfish. At locations where fish were captured, water quality characteristics were recorded and stomach contents of starry flounder and yellowfin sole were examined. Starry flounder, yellowfin sole, rock sole and flathead sole were captured over the course of the sampling season, both adults and juveniles. Starry flounder were captured in all sampling locations. Starry flounder have the ability to survive in higher temperatures, lower salinities and lower oxygen content than the other species. Yellowfin sole, rock sole and flathead sole were only captured on the mudflat, not in any of the less saline or warmer locations. The flatfish had more food items in their stomachs at high tide than at low tide, with the majority of food items being benthic, such as clam siphons, whole clams, mussels and copepods. The Mendenhall Wetlands appear to provide essential habitat for starry flounder, providing both food and shelter to several life stages and marginal habitat for the other three species of flatfish observed.
    • Habitat use by migrating and breeding shorebirds on the eastern Copper River delta, Alaska

      Murphy, Stephen M. (1981-05)
      This study examines the phenology, species composition, relative abundance, patterns of habitat use, and resource partitioning by migrating and breeding shorebirds on the eastern Copper River Delta. The peak of spring migration in 1978 occurred on 11 May, several days later than normal. Interspecific competition for foraging space on intertidal mudflats was minimized by temporal differences in the peaks of migration of the most abundant species and by spatial segregation during feeding. Fall migration differed from spring migration in several ways: 1) different species composition, 2) lower densities of staging birds, 3) different patterns of habitat use, and 4) less habitat segregation between species. Forty-five nests of six species of shorebirds were located along 52 km of transects. The peak of nest initiation was between 25 May and 31 May. Over 75% of the nests occurred in three habitat types, all of which were dominated by varying degrees of sedge, grass, and moss.
    • Habitat use of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) in Prince William Sound, Alaska

      Kelly, Seanbob R. (2007-12)
      To determine the spawning area contributions of Pacific herring (Clupea pallashii) larvae to nursery bays, otolith chemical analysis was conducted on juvenile fish collected from 1995 to 1997 in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The otolith edge, representing the chemical signature of the known capture location, and the otolith core, representing the unknown spawning ground chemistry, were compared with discriminant function analysis to infer spawning area origin. Chemical signatures of ⁸⁷Sr/⁸⁶Sr, ⁸⁸Sr/⁴⁸Ca, ²⁴Mg/⁴⁸Ca, and ¹³⁸Ba/⁴⁸Ca were used to identify broad spawning regions from inner and outer PWS that persisted for the three years sampling period despite significant interannual variability in otolith edge chemistry within nursery bays. Age of juvenile Pacific herring, age-0, 1, 2, did not significantly affect the otolith edge signatures; thus, this study is able to conclude from the otolith core chemistry that spawning areas do not contribute equally to nursery bays. This is the first demonstration that otolith chemical signatures can be used to identify the important spawning areas of this commercially important species in the Gulf of Alaska coastal areas.
    • Habitat Utilization By Sea Otters (Enhydra Lutris) In Port Valdez, Prince William Sound, Alaska

      Anthony, Jill Ada Marie; Fay, Francis H. (1995)
      Environmental constraints and human activity influence sea otter habitat use in Port Valdez. Nonetheless, a small subpopulation consistently uses food and space resources there. Otter number, distribution, response to human activity, energetics, and behavior in the Alyeska Marine Terminal (an industrial area) were compared to Shoup Bay (an area with low human activity) from September 1989 to September 1991. Low numbers averaged 102 otters monthly and were predominantly juvenile males. Shoup Bay densities were higher than the Terminal. Terminal boat traffic was more than twice Shoup Bay, resulting in more otter encounters with moving boats and more behavioral changes. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels were low or undetectable in mussels, the main otter prey in the port. Diets varied more in the Terminal than Shoup Bay. Despite lower mussel caloric content in Shoup Bay, otters spent significantly more time feeding at the Terminal. Time-activity budgets in Shoup Bay were more variable. <p>
    • Halo brace

      Barnett, Boe Robert (2003-12)
      It has been my goal in the following poems to pull readers in several directions at once. By organizing the work around the emotional arc of loss, anger, and hope and its realization in love, I have attempted to present the notion that while we may be engaged in anyone stage of this cycle, our actions, decisions, and relationships may be influenced to an equal or even stronger degree by the other stages. I have tried to focus the collection's tension around these seemingly contradictory feelings; specifically, in the region where two distinct unions overlap. The first being that between the "I" (or speaker of the poem) and the Other (i.e., friends, those we admire, peers, spouse, etc.); the second, between that "I" and himself. Through formal gestures, however, it is my hope that the poems achieve the restraint necessary to avoid the sometimes solipsistic results of confessional poetics.
    • a handbook for Alaska's Settlers with special reference to agricultural homesteads

      Saunders, Dale; Hitchcock, Kay (University of Alaska, Alaska Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1960-06)
      Selecting a suitable homestead is not simply finding a good piece of land to farm. Personal and social needs must be met, as well as those of farm oper­ations. Since each family has different standards, goals and needs, the selection should be made by you and your family only after careful inspection and consideration.
    • Handbook for the Alaskan Prospector

      Wolff, Ernest (Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1969)
      It is hoped that this book will be of value to many different classes of men engaged in the search for mineral deposits. These classes might include the experienced practical prospector who would like to learn something of geology; the young geologist who needs information on practical prospecting; the novice who needs a comprehensive reference; and the all around experienced exploration engineer or geologist who might need to refer to some specialized technique, look up a reference in the bibliography, or read a resume of the geology of a particular area, Because this book is aimed at so many different classes, different chapters are written assuming different levels of learning and experience. This, no doubt, will prove troublesome at times, but it is believed to be the best way to insure that the information contained in each chapter will reach with maximum effectiveness the group for whom it is intended.
    • Handbook of geophysical prospecting methods for the Alaskan prospector

      Heiner, L.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      This Handbook has been compiled to acquaint the Alaskan prospector with the more recent application of geophysics for locating economic metallic minerals. For this reason, well documented subjects such as the use of the dip needle and mineral detectors have been excluded.
    • Handheld stand-alone microfluidics compatible field use fluorimeter for analyzing the concentration of analytes in a sample

      Anctil, Matthew B.; Chen, Cheng-fu; Drew, Kelly; Podlutsky, Andrej; Rasley, Brian (2015-12)
      This thesis presents the work performed to produce a handheld fluorometric tool for the analysis of microfluidics lab chips. The first section of this thesis describes the methods used for the design and development of this fluorometric tool. Each of the major components was tested individually to determine how effectively it would perform under different circumstances and configurations. Compensations were made for the weaknesses identified in each of the major components. The second section describes the laboratory testing of the developed photofluorimeter. Initial testing was carried out using a photo fluorescent tracer dye known as fluorescein sodium salt. Additional testing was performed using D-glutamic acid as a target chemical and 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde (NDA) as the marker fluorophore. The resulting fluorimeter was capable of reading fluorescein and NDA labeled D-glutamic acid at the single μM concentration level. The data show a linear relationship between sample concentrations and the readings provided by the sensor.