• Jackie Gleeson's neighborhood

      Garoupa, Justin Craig (2005-05)
      Jackie Gleeson's Neighborhood is a collection of short stories that deal in narratives of possession and the struggle of an individual toward what some readers might consider a 'lesser epiphany.' The characters of the stories attempt to own and separate themselves from the world at large through the act of storytelling and the examination of their landscape through metaphor. This collection moves through experience and draws the common thread of connection between what we feel and what our minds allow us to see. The result of this re-visioning is not always change or knowledge but feelings of hope, terror, and possibility.
    • Jakobshavn Isbr�_: velocity variations from hourly to decadal time scales at Greenland's fastest tidewater glacier

      Podrasky, David Bryan; Truffer, Martin; Bueler, Edward; Hock, Regine; Larsen, Christopher; Motyka, Roman (2013-12)
      Outlet glaciers in Greenland, and elsewhere, have recently shown large variations in terminus position and ice flux. One example is the tidewater retreat of Jakobshavn Isbr�_, which began in the late 1990s with high thinning rates, acceleration and collapse of the floating glacier tongue. The retreat has continued to the present, with glacier speeds more than doubling in two decades' time. A campaign of in-situ measurements was initiated in 2006 with the aim of determining the importance of short-term forcing as a control on the continuing evolution of the glacier. Three years of continuous GPS measurements along the centerline of Jakobshavn Isbr�_ reveal seasonal velocity variations due to seasonally varying terminus position. The relationship between glacier speed and surface melt is complex, with both speed-up and slowdown events in response to variations in the rate of surface melt. During a particularly long and intense melt season in 2007, a series of melt-driven slowdowns effectively reduced the mean ice flow over the whole year. On shorter timescales, the response to surface meltwater input is more predictable with diurnal velocity variations of 1-2 % that closely match changes in meltwater input. The influence of iceberg calving and tidal forcing is restricted to the lower 10 km of the glacier, imposing an upper limit on longitudinal stress coupling length of a few ice thicknesses. The response to these forcings does not exceed 5 % of mean flow. This is consistent with a glacier operating under high driving stresses. Ice sheet velocities as far as 120 km inland of the margin have responded to the continuing retreat with increases in speed. The flow has also rotated toward the centerline of the main channel. This speedup and channelization of flow are the result of evolving ice surface gradients as the glacier continues to respond to changes initiated at the periphery. This shows that ocean driven changes have led to increased ice flux far inland on the Greenland Ice Sheet, implying a continuing large-scale evolution of the Jakobshavn Isbr�_ drainage basin.
    • James Church McCook and American consular diplomacy in the Klondike, 1898-1901

      Jessup, David Eric; Cole, Terrence; Naske, Claus-M.; Irwin, Robert (2001-08)
      The Klondike Gold Rush saw tens of thousands of Americans pour into the Canadian Yukon. Although the unprecedented event was of marginal diplomatic significance to Washington, the United States government responded by establishing an official American presence in the Klondike boomtown of Dawson City. Congress provided for a United States consulate in Dawson in January of 1898, and the following summer, James Church McCook arrived to serve as the first consul. McCook served for three and a half years as the only U.S. government official in what was essentially an American town on Canadian soil. A retired confectionary manufacturer from Philadelphia, McCook was representative of the amateur tradition of American consular diplomacy. His State Department correspondence revealed both the hardships of consular work and the notion of devoted service, while shedding light on Washington's relationship with Canada at the time of the United State' emergence as a world power.
    • James Hogg, Fyodor Dostoevsky, and romantic anachronism

      Stewart, Heather Ann; Edson, Michael; Burleson, Derick; Carr, Richard (2013-08)
      This thesis explores the problematic nature of the term "Romanticism" as traditionally dictated by national and temporal constraints. Most scholars and literary institutions (i.e., anthologies) define Romanticism as a solely European phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This definition, intentionally or not, serves an elitist function in assuming that only Europeans of a specific era were capable of producing texts with Romantic qualities. Further, even authors who fall into this temporal and nationalistic category are often excluded due to their social class. This thesis seeks to extend the boundaries of Romanticism through examining two authors who, despite some recent efforts at re-appropriation, had previously been excluded by Romanticism: Scotland's James Hogg (1770-1835) and Russia's Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881). Specifically, this thesis explores a defining Romantic aesthetic trait -- the Romantic Anachronism -- as it operates in both authors' uncannily similar masterworks, Hogg's The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824), and Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov (1880). By placing emphasis on aesthetic rather than temporal and national constraints, Romanticism may be redefined towards an inclusivity that bolsters the relevance of Romanticism for current and future scholars operating in an increasingly globalized and rapidly diversifying world.
    • Japanese winter tourism in rural Alaska: Bettles Lodge

      Kojima, Mie (2000-12)
      Japanese tourists increasingly visit the Arctic in wintertime because of their interest in northern lights. Some rural communities in Alaska see this as an opportunity to enter winter tourism by targeting the Japanese market. The purpose of this study is to gain better understanding of the interests of these Japanese visitors and to explore potentials for tourism development in rural Alaska. A Japanese visitor survey was conducted in the spring of 2000 at Bettles Lodge in Interior Alaska. The data reveal that the average visitor to Bettles Lodge was female, over 61 years of age, an urban dweller, employed full-time, and college educated. Results show that Bettles Lodge receives a mixture of younger individual travelers and older group travelers, who have very different needs and expectations. The study suggests that sustainable tourism development may be best achieved through cooperation involving all local interests and stakeholders.
    • Joint stewardship of the Barents Sea: Russian and Norwegian policy expectations for preventing offshore oil spills

      Bouffard, Troy J.; Boylan, Brandon M.; Ehrlander, Mary F.; Kassof, Brian (2016-08)
      As Arctic environmental conditions fluctuate, ongoing economic-related agreements established for the Barents Region continue to support and attract Norwegian and Russian oil-producing expeditions within the shared maritime zone. Increased industrial activity throughout the Circumpolar North heightens the need to understand the factors that influence policies responsible for protecting the environment – in particular, preventive measures. Agency theory provides the framework for an analysis of various dynamics that influence the Norwegian and Russian governments (principals) as they develop and enforce rules that regulate petroleum industries (agents). The research question asks about differences between the prevention policies of the two nations even though both acknowledge a very similar need to protect the Barents. Since the regulatory and governance structures cannot fully explain the differences between the two countries’ prevention policies, the hypothesis presents an argument that the strategic goals of Norway and Russia in the global political economy provide sufficient conditions for policy divergence. This research presents case studies of economic and environmental factors that influence how Russia and Norway develop energy-related prevention policies in the Barents Sea. The findings suggest that differing strategic goals between the two countries influence their oil spill prevention policies. Russia’s oil spill prevention policy enables it to maintain high production levels that it can leverage to further its geopolitical aims. Norway’s more cautious prevention policies promote domestic economic stability. In a progressively interdependent world, this study contributes insight into contemporary international relations regarding aspects of partnerships, energy economics, and geostrategic policy.
    • Jumping in quickly is best

      Glynn, Amber Anastasia (2002-03)
      'Jumping in Quickly is Best' examines the expectations that women and men have for themselves and each other. These moments of unveiled expectations happen in bars, in bed, while listening to George Jones, slapping another layer of make-up on. In these moments the common phrases and conversational style of the poems allow the characters to open up within the language and therefore to the reader. The characters with this language then have no problem asking for directions to Winnemucca or ordering another beer, and the reader is sitting right there in the next barstool over, listening and humming to the music. It is the people in these places, the music, the sight of the falling sun and their reaction to what is expected of them that lead to moments of discovery and self-reflection.
    • Jumping off place

      DiPier, Lynn Marie (2001-08)
      'Jumping Off Place' is about eating from the tree of knowledge, which often has brutal and painful consequences. Childhood and adolescence play significant roles, as this is where emotional growth begins. Within family and societal constructs, physical and psychological thresholds are crossed and inner landscapes are suggested in the process. Three sections define a beginning, middle, and end to the journey, yet it is a cyclical story. The poems' speakers eventually make choices that confront the world's mutability; speakers progress as they comprehend, adjust, decide, and finally move forward through the barrier of risk to autonomy, but do not emerge unscathed. In the sense of Aristotelian poetic theory, the characters in these poems are plot: action, reaction, and interaction create metaphor. Although the poems are predominantly narrative, lyric and formal impulses and close attention to sound encourage the development of ideas and musicality of verse.
    • Juvenile Bristol Bay Sockeye Salmon Ecology

      Farley, Edward V., Jr.; Adkison, Milo (2008)
      Predicting annual returns of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) has been difficult due to large, unexplained variations in return strength. Ocean conditions, particularly during the first few months after salmon leave freshwater, are believed to have a strong influence on their early marine growth and survival. Limited historical and present research suggests that sea temperature can affect juvenile Bristol Bay distribution. During years with cool spring sea temperatures, juvenile sockeye salmon are distributed nearshore along the Alaska Peninsula, whereas they are found further offshore during years with warm spring sea temperatures. Juvenile sockeye salmon are larger, in better condition, and have higher marine stage survival after the first year at sea when they are distributed further offshore than when they are distributed nearshore along the Alaska Peninsula. Juvenile sockeye salmon stomach contents also shift from primarily Pacific sand lance ( Ammodytes hexapterus) and euphausiids to age 0 walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma) when their distribution changes from nearshore to further offshore. Annual averages of juvenile sockeye salmon growth rate potential (GRP) were generally lower among years and regions with cool spring sea temperatures. In addition, juvenile sockeye salmon GRP was generally higher in offshore regions than nearshore regions of the eastern Bering Sea shelf. A sensitivity analysis indicated that juvenile sockeye salmon GRP was more sensitive to changes in observed (August to September) sea surface temperatures during years when prey densities were lower. The results of the dissertation suggest that variability in early marine survival is primarily due to bottom-up control of the trophic structure of the eastern Bering Sea ecosystem.
    • Juvenile Fish Passage Through Culverts in Alaska: A Field Study

      Kane, Douglas L.; Belke, Charles E.; Gieck, Robert E.; Mclean, Robert F. (2000-06)
      In the past, culvert design where fish passage was considered generally has been based on the weakest-swimming adult fish in a river system. It has also been recognized for some time that juvenile fish are very active throughout the year, moving upstream and downstream in response to a number of environmental factors. In Alaska, many natal and nonnatal streams in southcentral and southeastern Alaska support both Chinook (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha (Walbaum)) and Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum)) for one to three years, respectively, before they emigrate to sea. Are we restricting desirable habitat for these juvenile salmonids with hydraulic structures such as culverts? Unfortunately we have little information on either the behavior of juveniles in the vicinity of hydraulic structures or their swimming abilities. The objective of this study was to examine the behavior of juveniles when attempting to ascend a culvert. It was hypothesized that vertical obstacles or high velocity of opposing flow may prevent juvenile fish from moving upstream. It was also hypothesized that they would determine and take the path of least resistance to optimize their chances of successfully ascending a culvert. Four culverts were selected for intensive study regarding juvenile fish passage: Beaver and Soldotna Creeks on Kenai Peninsula and No-name and Pass Creek Tributary on Prince of Wales Island. It was postulated that fish are motivated to move upstream to obtain food if they can establish its presence. We used salmon eggs as an attractive food source both to initially capture the juveniles and then to motivate them to ascend the culvert for possible recapture. Juvenile fish were captured in a baited minnow trap and stained with a dye. They were released downstream of the culvert while the food source was placed upstream in a minnow trap. We supplemented our visual observations with underwater video cameras. We made numerous hydrologic and hydraulic measurements at each site. Although we attempted to select culverts that would prove to be quite challenging to juvenile fish passage, in three of the culverts selected, juvenile fish, of the full range of the fork length initially captured, succeeded in ascending through the culvert. For the fourth culvert, some larger juvenile fish succeeded in ascending the culvert, but not the smaller of each fish type. It was clearly established that juvenile fish were motivated to move upstream to obtain food. In the Beaver Creek culvert, fish used the large corrugations to their advantage when ascending the culverts. The Pass Creek Tributary culvert had corrugations too small for fish to utilize. No-name Creek appeared to present not problems for juvenile fish for the water levels at the time of the visit as they small along the bottom on the centerline of the culvert. In general, observations of fish attempting to move upstream through the culvert revealed that they swam very close to the culvert wall, and in the case of high velocities (Beaver Creek and Pass Creed Tributary) they swam near the surface along the sidewall where velocities are reduced. It is obvious that the juvenile fish are attempting to minimize power output and energy expenditure by taking the path of least resistance. Although not quantitavely proven, it appears that as long as fish make some headway in their upstream movement they are content. The rationale for this conclusion is that fish do not know what they may encounter upstream so they attempt to conserve as much power and energy as possible while still moving forward. They generally do so by seeking out the lowest velocities in the cross-section. In areas of steep velocity gradients along the wall (where the areal extent of low velocities is limited), it is clear in our videotapes that fish have problems maintaining their position and preferred orientation. It is apparent from our observations that because of their small size, juvenile fish are hindered by turbulence and that this area needs more study.
    • Juvenile Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) feeding ecology in Prince William Sound, Alaska

      Foy, Robert James; Norcross, Brenda; Cooney, Robert T.; Paul, A. J.; Mason, Doran M.; Stokesbury, Kevin (2000-12)
      Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) are commercially exploited along the Asiatic and North American Pacific Ocean continental shelves. In Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, herring were commercially important until a year class failures in 1993. A noticeable lack of life history information on juveniles was available in PWS to use for studies addressing the failed recruitment. This study describes the seasonal herring feeding ecology in PWS nursery areas from 1996 to 1998. Zooplankton from 535 vertical tows and herring diet data from 3,282 stomach contents were collected from Eaglek, Simpson, Whale and Zaikof Bays. Zooplankton species composition was dominated by small calanoid copepods, cyclopoids, invertebrate eggs, and adult euphausiids in March prior to the spring phytoplankton bloom. Small calanoid copepods, especially Pseudocalanus spp., were dominant during the peak abundance. Oikopleurans were abundant from August to October. The zooplankton density peaked at 1,234 to 5,594 individuals m-3 between June and July 1996. Zooplankton density was significantly lower in 1997 than 1996. Seasonal density and diversity were found to vary among and within the four bays. The abundance of prey in herring diets was correlated to the timing and degree of zooplankton prey availability. Feeding was highest at 1,192 items per fish in July 1996 and decreased until winter (December to March) when the number of empty stomachs ranged from 70 to 90 %. Lower zooplankton densities in 1997 were reflected in significantly lower abundances of prey in 1997 diets. Prey selectivity was negatively correlated with zooplankton densities among months. Diel and ontogenetic feeding trends as well as differences between feeding depths were noted. Assimilation rates of smaller herring were closer to basal metabolic rates and herring less than 3 g had insufficient energy reserves to survive the winters of 1995-1996 and 1996-1997. These patterns suggest that juvenile herring are dependent on an abundance of prey to successfully feed and have enough energy reserves to overwinter. The effects of increased temperatures on zooplankton fluctuations and changes in herring condition may have had population level consequences in PWS. Successful feeding when prey abundance and composition was highly variable reveals herring’s adaptability to multiple environments.
    • Kamus Pengantar Bahasa Pantar Barat

      Holton, Gary; Lamma Koly, Mahalalel (Unit Bahasa dan Budaya GMIT, 2008)
      Practical dictionary of the Western Pantar language (ISO 693-3: lev), also known as Lamma or Pantar Barat, with introductory material including a sketch grammar. Western Pantar to Indonesian, with an Indonesian index. Coverage of all three dialects: Tubbe, Mauta, Lamma. In Indonesian.
    • Kanban teaching examples

      Remick, Karen J.; Genetti, Jon; Lawlor, Orion; Chappell, Glenn (2017-04)
    • The Kandik map: cultural exchange along the Yukon River

      Johnson, Linda R. (2007-05)
      The Kandik Map drawn in 1880 by Yukon Indian Paul Kandik and annotated by French Canadian fur trader François Mercier and U.S. Census Agent Ivan Petroff is a unique record in the documentary history of Northwestern North America. It traces the Yukon, Tanana, and Kuskokwim Rivers from their headwaters to the Pacific, showing trading posts, trails, and place names in several Athabascan languages, as well as French and English. As one of the oldest maps of the Alaska-Yukon borderlands it documents indigenous knowledge and the dynamic cultural exchange between Native residents and non-native newcomers along the Yukon River prior to the Klondike Gold Rush. Using oral traditions, archival and published sources, this thesis examines the significance and meanings of the map from 1880 to the present. The original map is preserved at The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and transcription activator regulates extracellular matrix signal pathway

      Pfalmer, Daniel; Chen, Jiguo "Jack"; Ferrante, Andrea; Hueffer, Karsten (2016-08)
      Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy caused by infection with Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus [KSHV; also known as Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)] in which tumor cells show a characteristic ‘spindle-like’ morphology. The transcription factor RTA (Replication and Transcription Activator) is the viral protein responsible for reactivating KSHV from its latent state. Production of RTA in latently infected cells causes a number of viral proteins to be produced and leads to a cascade of gene expression changes in both viral and host genes. Previous work in our lab showed that RTA was capable of reprogramming cells in vitro to display a spindle-like morphology. In this study we aimed to identify the host gene expression changes caused directly by RTA which could be responsible for that reprogramming. To that end, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK cells) were chosen as a model for KSHV-naïve mammalian cells. Differences in host gene expression levels in a culture of MDCK cells transfected with a plasmid coding for expression of RTA compared to MDCK cells transfected with a similar plasmid lacking the RTA gene were measured by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Cells containing the RTA-coding plasmid adopted a spindle-like morphology and showed at least a two-fold change in expression level in approximately 180 genes. Those 180 genes were then screened for known associations to signaling pathways in order to determine which might be involved with the morphological changes observed and/or biological significance. The expression levels of the 10 genes identified by that screening were then verified by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Of those 10 genes, eight were identified as potentially associated with the morphological changes, including three genes associated with extra cellular matrix (ECM) destruction (MMP9, CTSD, and CTSS) that were down-regulated; two genes associated with blocking ECM destruction (TIMP1 and TIMP2) that were pregulated; two ECM component genes (LAMC2 and COL1A2) that were upregulated; and one gene associated with blocking cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion (MUC1) that was downregulated. The remaining two genes (MAP2K1 and podoplanin) were identified as potentially biologically significant, but not directly involved in regulating morphology. MAP2K1 is associated with epithelial dedifferentiation and was down-regulated; and the lymphatic endothelial specific marker podoplanin (PDPN) was up-regulated. Taken together, the differences in morphology and gene expression between RTA-producing cells and controls suggest a possible role for RTA in the formation of the spindle cells that characterize Kaposi’s sarcoma.
    • Katabatic Winds In Adelie Land, Antarctica (Snow, Automatic Weather Stations, Pressure Gradient, Coreless Winter)

      Kodama, Yuji (1985)
      Data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) on Adelie Land, Antarctica, were analysed. The findings are: (1) The high directional constancy of surface winds, which has been explained by the inversion strength and topography of the slope, was found at the slope stations even in summer when the inversion is weak or destroyed. An analysis of data and model simulations of diurnal variations of katabatic winds in summer show that synoptic geostrophic winds and eddy viscosity also effect the constancy of the wind direction in summer. (2) Wind directional constancies at the slope stations in winter, when the inversion is expected to be stronger than that in summer, are sometimes lower than the mean annual constancies. These low constancies are associated with warm air advection from maritime air brought into Adelie Land when the continental anticyclonic ridge lies to the east of Adelie Land. (3) There is a superadiabatic surface temperature change between the high plateau and intermediate plateau stations. The comparison of the terms in the total pressure gradient force showed that the superadiabatic surface temperature change along the slope could be of importance for surface flow when the buoyancy component is balanced or nearly balanced by an increase in depth of the katabatic wind layer. (4) The entrainment of blowing snow particles increases the density of the katabatic flow layer by two mechanisms: first, by the addition of snow particles to the air column; and second, by the sublimation of the snow particles. This increase in density in the katabatic flow layer leads to increased wind speed. This accelerative effect occurs primarily at wind speeds exceeding 12 m/s, since at those high wind speeds there is usually a large amount of blowing snow.
    • Keeper Of The Seal: The Art Of Henry Wood Elliott And The Salvation Of The Alaska Fur Seals

      Morris, Lisa Marie; Lee, Molly; Woodward, Kesler (2001)
      This thesis examines the art of Henry Wood Elliott (1846--1930) and its role in Elliott's successful crusade to save the Pribilof Island fur seals from probable extinction, its importance as a visual record of the nineteenth-century Pribilof Aleut people during a time of societal transition, and how the art reveals the guiding aspirations of the artist. Elliott was one of the first American artists to work in Alaska. An experienced field artist who had served on two prior government expeditions before his assignment to the Pribilof Islands, Elliott used his watercolors of the fur seals in a successful nationwide campaign to reverse the depletion of the herds. Less well known are Elliott's ethnographic watercolors of the Pribilof Aleut people. Created only a few short years after the 1867 Alaska Purchase, these works show the Native people accommodating their Aleut-Russian culture to American societal expectations. These images, then, are a significant visual record for safeguarding the Aleut people's past. Nettled by scientific opponents, Elliott also turned his artistic talents to retaliation. Just as William Hogarth (1697--1764) and Honore Daumier (1808--1879) used caricature to comment on society, Elliott created hundreds of cartoons (ca. 1910--1926) to ridicule his opponents and promote his own point of view. It is in these previously unexamined works that Henry Elliott achieved a synthesis of art and documentation. Elliott's art also reveals his own thwarted aspirations to achieve recognition as a serious artist. His experiences as an expedition artist encouraged both his enthusiasm for science and talent for documentation. Elliott's desire to pair his watercolors with descriptive written details and snippets of government documents, however, transformed them into visual record. Elliott may not have realized his dream of winning respect as an artist, but his documentary images aroused more interest in the declining fur seal herds than the thousands of pages of dry testimony documenting the controversy. The attention generated by his artwork was a major contributor to the successful resolution of the Pribilof Island fur seal debate.
    • Keeping The Home Fires Burning: The Effects Of Military Induced Separations On Marital Intimacy From A Female Perspective

      Cynar, Deborah J.; McWherter, Pamela (2008)
      In this study, a convenience sample of 56 female, married, military wives in northwestern community responded to a survey questionnaire concerning intimacy promoting communication skills, marital satisfaction, and military induced separations. The results indicated a strong correlation between marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. This study also explores the difference between the type and frequency of military induced separations and their influence on marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. To further describe this military population, several post hoc tests for difference found significance between military branch affiliation, and between those who had or had not received premarital counseling on levels of perceived marital satisfaction, and intimacy promoting communication skills. Further, no significant difference was found to exist between education level or employment status of the at home spouse on levels of perceived marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. A description of the implications of the findings, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    • Kelp bed variability and fish population dynamics in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

      Hamilton, Judith Ann (2004-08)
      Understanding interactions between kelp beds and fishes is essential because anthropogenic changes and natural variability in these beds (composition, density, and distribution) may affect available habitat for fishes. In Alaska, little is known about the annual and seasonal variability of macroalgal cover in kelp beds and corresponding changes in associated fish populations. This study investigated natural variability using monthly SCUBA surveys in Kachemak Bay, Alaska from May 2002 to September 2003. Ten shallow (approximately 7m water depth) nearshore kelp beds with varying degrees of macroalgal cover were surveyed visually for fishes and kelp, and measurements of environmental variables were collected. These kelp beds had a persistent, perennial-dominated understory with sporadic, sparse populations of annual canopy kelp. Understory and canopy kelps had affinities with greater bottom structure, and annual kelp density was greatest during periods with higher temperatures. Hexagrammids, especially kelp greenlings, existed year-round in the more structurally complex beds and were typically more abundant during periods with higher temperatures, and at sites with denser annual kelp populations. Most other fishes were transient and generally present only during summer months. Monthly changes in kelp and fish communities reflected a strong seasonal component.
    • Kelp beds as fish and invertebrate habitat in southeastern Alaska

      Calvert, Elizabeth L.; Stekoll, Michael; Shirley, Thomas; Hillgruber, Nicola (2005-08)
      Throughout the temperate marine regime, the shallow subtidal is dominated by rocky reefs and algal assemblages. The ecological significance of high-latitude, cold-water kelp systems is poorly understood particularly for Alaska. Two large-scale experiments conducted near Juneau, Alaska were designed to study fish and invertebrate assemblages in regard to (1) canopy forming Nereocystis luetkeana (1500 m² manipulations) and (2) sub-canopy forming Laminaria bongardiana (600 m²). Fish and invertebrates were quantified using Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fish (SMURFs), light traps, and visual surveys. The canopy kelp experiment revealed significantly greater abundance (X=0.57 fish/SMURF; X=0.28 fish/SMURF) and biomass (X=0.95 g/SMURF; X =0.23 g/SMURF) of benthic fishes at Nereocystis sites versus sites without canopy kelp. In contrast, a direct negative effect of Nereocystis was observed for schooling fish; significantly more fish were observed at sites without canopy kelp as compared to Nereocystis sites (X=27.3 fish/15 m³; X=4.2 fish/15 m³). Fish assemblages were independent of L. bongardiana, yet invertebrates were twice as abundant at sub-canopy sites. Nereocystis has direct and indirect effects on fish distributions through behavioral and habitat modifications. Overall, canopy kelps with associated sub-canopy kelps promote more abundant and rich fish assemblages in southeastern Alaska, while invertebrate assemblages are greater in sub-canopy areas.