• Labeling Requirements for Alaska Seafood Processors

      Chambers, Izetta (Alaska Sea Grant, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2013)
    • Labelling studies on sesquiterpene lactones and phytosterols of Gaillardia pulchella

      Seaton, Pamela Jo (1977-08)
      The flowering plant, Gaillardia pulchella, contains sesquiterpene lactones which act as anti-tumor agents. Biosynthetic studies were undertaken to elucidate the metabolic pathway to these compounds and to find other potential anti-tumor agents or compounds for structure-activity relationship studies. Compounds which showed incorporation of radioactivity from 2-¹⁴C-mevalonic and 2--¹⁴C-acetic acids were isolated and identified. It was found that incorporation of both 2-¹⁴C-mevalonic and 2--¹⁴C-acetic acids into the sequiterpene lactones was extremely low: less than 0.7 percent of the total plant-contained radioactivity with mevalonic acid and less than 1.5 percent with acetic acid. Incorporation into phytosterols was much higher, approximately 10 percent for both mevalonic acid and acetic acid. The results indicate that sequiterpene lactone biosynthesis is compartmentalized into structures impermeable to exogenously fed mevalonate and acetate.
    • Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Modified Asphalt Binders and Mixes for Alaskan Pavements

      Liu, Jenny; Liu, Jun (2019-08)
      In order to properly characterize modified asphalt binders and mixes for Alaskan pavements, this study evaluated properties of 13 asphalt binders typically used in Alaska from three different suppliers, and 10 hot mix asphalt (HMA) mixtures which were either produced in the lab or collected from existing paving projects in Alaska. Various binder and mixture engineering properties were determined, including true high binder grades, complex modulus (G*), and phase angle (δ) at high performance temperatures, multiple stress creep recovery rate and compliance, bending beam rheometer stiffness and m-value, Glover-Rowe parameter, ΔT, rheological index, and crossover frequency for binders, and rut depth, critical strain energy release rate (Jc), Indirect tensile (IDT) creep stiffness and strength for mixtures. Binder cracking temperatures were determined using asphalt binder cracking device. Mixture cracking temperatures were determined with IDT creep compliance and strength data. It was found that rutting and cracking resistances of the mixtures with highly modified binders were better than the mixture with unmodified asphalt binder (PG 52-28). Future recommendations for highly modified asphalt binders applications and research were provided based on laboratory testing results and field survey evaluation.
    • Laboratory investigation of infiltration process of nonnewtonian fluids through porous media in a non-isothermal flow regime for effective remediation of adsorbed contaminants

      Naseer, Fawad; Misra, Debasmita; Metz, Paul; Awoleke, Obadare; Najm, Majdi Abou (2019-12)
      Contamination of soil and groundwater have serious health implications for man and environment. The overall goal of this research is to study a methodology of using nonNewtonian fluids for effective remediation of adsorbed contaminants in porous media under nonisothermal flow regimes. Non-Newtonian fluids (Guar gum and Xanthan gum solutions) provide a high viscous solution at low concentration and these fluids adjust their viscosities with applied shear rate and change in temperature. Adjustment of viscosity with an applied rate of shear is vital for contaminant remediation because non-Newtonian shear thinning fluids can penetrate to low permeability zones in subsurface by decreasing their viscosities due to high shear rates offered by low permeability zones. The application of non-Newtonian shear thinning fluids for contaminant remediation required the improvement in understanding of rheology and how the factors such as concentration, temperature and change in shear rate impacted the rheology of fluids. In order to study the rheology, we studied the changes in rheological characteristics (viscosity and contact angle) of non-Newtonian fluids of different concentrations (i.e., 0.5g/l, 1g/l, 3g/l, 6g/l and 7g/l) at different temperatures ranging from 0 ºC to 30 ºC. OFITE model 900 viscometer and Tantec contact angle meter were used to record the changes in viscosity of fluids for an applied range of shear rate (i.e., 17.02 s⁻¹ to 1021.38 s⁻¹) and contact angles, respectively, for different concentrations of non-Newtonian fluids. Understanding the flow characteristic of non-Newtonian fluids under low temperature conditions could help in developing methods to effectively remediate contaminants from soils. Results of rheological tests manifested an increase in the viscosity of both polymers with concentration and decrease in temperature. Mid (i.e., 3g/l) to high (i.e., 6g/l and 7g/l) concentrations of polymers manifested higher viscosities compared to 0.5g/l for both polymers. Flow of high viscous solutions required more force to pass through a glass-tube-bundle setup which represented a synthetic porous media to study the flow characteristic and effectiveness of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids for contaminant remediation. Low concentrations of 0.5g/l were selected for flow and remediation experiments because this concentration can flow through porous media easily without application of force. The 0.5g/l of Xanthan gum and de-ionized water were used to conduct the infiltration experiments to study the flow characteristics of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids at 0.6°C, 5°C and 19°C in synthetic porous media. Infiltration depth of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids would decrease with the decrease in temperature because of the change in their properties like dynamic viscosity, density and angle of contact. The result of comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids showed water to be more effective in remediating a surrogate adsorbent contaminant (Dichlobenil) from the synthetic porous media at 19°C. This result was counter-intuitive to what we began with as our hypothesis. However, it was also observed later that 0.5 g/l concentration of Guar gum behaved more like a Newtonian fluid and 0.5 g/l concentration of Xanthan gum had not shown strong non-Newtonian behavior compared to higher concentrations of Xanthan gum. Hence more analysis needs to be done to determine what concentration of non-Newtonian fluid should be more effective for remediation.
    • Laboratory Performance of Wicking Fabric H2Ri in Silty Gravel, Sand and Organic Silt

      Connor, Billy; Zhang, Xiong (16-05)
      The use of wicking fabric, H2Ri, is growing in its use to remove water from roadway and airport embankments. Past research has shown H2Ri to be effective in sands and fine grained materials in roadways up to 32 feet in width. However, there is a desire to use H2Ri for airports which require a minimum width of 75 ft. This project tested H2Ri in a 73-foot flume in a crushed surface course with 14 % fines. In addition, the fabric was tested in a 22-foot flume with a sand and with an organic clay. The intent was to bracket the material for which the H2Ri will work. The study showed that the fabric will easily move water 73 feet in a silty gravel. The study showed that the fabric was also able to readily remove water in sand. However, the fabric blinded when used in organic silt and proved ineffective. The study also showed that using simple overlap of the H2Ri as a splice, while effective, was not as efficient at moving water as the fabric itself. Consequently, moisture tended to build up around the splice.
    • Laboratory Procedure for Measuring the Effectiveness of Dust Control Palliatives

      Barnes, David; Connor, Billy (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2017-06)
      Creation of fugitive dust on unpaved roads results in the loss of up to 25 mm (one inch) of surface aggregate annually (FHWA, 1998). On these roads, shearing forces created by vehicles dislodge the fine aggregate fraction (silt and clay) that binds the coarse aggregate. Turbulent airflow created by vehicles loft these fine particles in plumes of fugitive dust that impact health, safety, and quality of life. The loss of these particles results in raveling of the road surface, culminating in large annual losses of surface aggregate. Chemical dust control (palliatives) is an attractive option. However, there are currently no accepted field or laboratory performance testing procedures for chemical road dust palliatives. The lack of a method to predict palliative performance forces engineers and road managers into a trial-and-error methodology or reliance on personal judgment and supplier claims to determine what will work best on their unpaved road or runway surfaces. The overall objective of this research was to finalize the development of a laboratory test procedure for evaluating different dust control formulations and application rates required to effectively control the airborne suspension of dust particles in the size range (aerodynamic diameter) of 10 μm or less.
    • Laboratory Rearing Experiments on Artificially Propagated Inconnu (Stenodus leucichthys)

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-06)
    • Laboratory studies of gas permeability of frozen soil

      Lin, Qing (2003-08)
      A preliminary investigation on the gas permeability of frozen soil was conducted in this study. A unique low-temperature permeability testing system was designed and developed. Widely accepted standard procedures were followed to prepare soil samples. A number of experiments were conducted in a cold chamber with controlled temperature. The impact of several parameters upon the gas permeability of frozen soil was investigated. The experiment results indicated that among the parameters examined, moisture content had the most significant impact on the gas permeability of frozen soil and the effect of temperature was less significant than that of moisture content. It was also found that there seemed to be a transition zone around 10% of moisture content. With moisture content above this level, the permeability was less sensitive to temperature change, while below this level the permeability was more sensitive to temperature change. Another finding was that the permeability increased when the temperature fell below 20ʻF. In addition, applying loads decreased permeability by 10% to 30% dependent on the setting of other parameters. Some suggestions for improvement of the experiments and future research works were also presented.
    • Lake Area Change In Alaskan National Wildlife Refuges: Magnitude, Mechanisms, And Heterogeneity

      Roach, Jennifer; Griffith, Brad; Harden, Jennifer; Verbyla, David; Jones, Jeremy (2011)
      The objective of this dissertation was to estimate the magnitude and mechanisms of lake area change in Alaskan National Wildlife Refuges. An efficient and objective approach to classifying lake area from Landsat imagery was developed, tested, and used to estimate lake area trends at multiple spatial and temporal scales for ~23,000 lakes in ten study areas. Seven study areas had long-term declines in lake area and five study areas had recent declines. The mean rate of change across study areas was -1.07% per year for the long-term records and -0.80% per year for the recent records. The presence of net declines in lake area suggests that, while there was substantial among-lake heterogeneity in trends at scales of 3-22 km a dynamic equilibrium in lake area may not be present. Net declines in lake area are consistent with increases in length of the unfrozen season, evapotranspiration, and vegetation expansion. A field comparison of paired decreasing and non-decreasing lakes identified terrestrialization (i.e., expansion of floating mats into open water with a potential trajectory towards peatland development) as the mechanism for lake area reduction in shallow lakes and thermokarst as the mechanism for non-decreasing lake area in deeper lakes. Consistent with this, study areas with non-decreasing trends tended to be associated with fine-grained soils that tend to be more susceptible to thermokarst due to their higher ice content and a larger percentage of lakes in zones with thermokarst features compared to study areas with decreasing trends. Study areas with decreasing trends tended to have a larger percentage of lakes in herbaceous wetlands and a smaller mean lake size which may be indicative of shallower lakes and enhanced susceptibility to terrestrialization. Terrestrialization and thermokarst may have been enhanced by recent warming which has both accelerated permafrost thawing and lengthened the unfrozen season. Future research should characterize the relative habitat qualities of decreasing, increasing, and stable lakes for fish and wildlife populations and the ability of the fine-scale heterogeneity in individual lake trends to provide broad-scale system resiliency. Future work should also clarify the effects of terrestrialization on the global carbon balance and radiative forcing.
    • Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) otoliths as indicators of past climate patterns and growth in Arctic lakes

      Torvinen, Eric S.; Falke, Jeffrey; Arp, Christopher; Zimmerman, Christian; Sutton, Trent (2017-05)
    • Land Application of Domestic Sludge in Cold Climates

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979)
      Aerobically digested sludge from the Fairbanks sewage treatment plant was worked into the soil on several plots at the University of Alaska in the summer of 1978. Some of the sludge had been air dried for up to six months prior to application while some was taken directly from the thickener. Applications varied from 12 to 100 tons of solids/acre. For sludge applied in July and August, the fecal coliform count decayed by several orders of magnitude by the middle of September.. There was no significant movement of fecal coliform bacteria either vertically or laterally. Lime was used to raise the pH of one plot to 12, completely killing the fecal coliform bacteria within several days. The nutrient distribution demonstrated the potential for enriching soils by sludge addition. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of this concept for remote military sites. Air drying followed by land application may represent a viable means of sludge disposal.
    • Land cover change on the Seward Peninsula: the use of remote sensing to evaluate the potential influences of climate change on historical vegetation dynamics

      Silapaswan, Cherie Sumitra (2000-12)
      Vegetation on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, which is characterized by transitions from tundra to boreal forest, may be sensitive to the influences of climate change on disturbance and species composition. To determine the ability to detect decadal-scale structural changes in vegetation, Change Vector Analysis (CVA) techniques were evaluated for Landsat TM imagery of the Seward Peninsula. Scenes were geographically corrected to sub-pixel accuracy and then radiometrically rectified. The CVA results suggest that shrubbiness is increasing on the Seward Peninsula. The CVA detected vegetation change on more than 50% of the burned region on TM imagery for up to nine years following fire. The use of both CVA and unsupervised classification together provided a more powerful interpretation of change than either method alone. This study indicates that CVA may be a valuable tool for the detection of land-cover change in transitional regions between tundra and boreal forest.
    • Land Disposal of Secondary Lagoon Effluents (Pilot Project)

      Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-01)
      The principle objective of this effort was to assist the US Army, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, in conducting a pilot land disposal project in the interior region of Alaska. This project was a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of land disposal of secondary effluent from an aerated lagoon during the summer months. The hope was to examine the possible use of this technique to meet 1977 standards for the quality of secondary effluents.
    • Land Occupancy, Ownership and Use on Homesteads In Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, 1955.

      Johnson, Hugh A.; Coffman, Robert J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1956-11)
      The Kenai Peninsula is an Alaskan Mecca for many venturesome families newly arrived from the States. They flock there each year searching for " free" land and fresh opportunity in a new country. Business at the Anchorage Land Office continues briskly as new frontiersmen apply for the right to enter the public domain. Numerous applications for homestead entry are still filed despite a recent change in the Homestead Act requiring cultivation by all entrymen, whether veteran or not, and d~spite the fact that accessible agricultural land along the Peninsula's roads has already been culled over. Most new arrivals know little about pioneering or Alaskan conditions. They often have no experience in rural living. All too many find that Alaska is a hard bargain~r, taking their savings and their hopes and giving them in return a bit of land which they are powerless to use. Settlement continues to outpace farm development and even interest in farm development. On the other hand, interest in farm development is also definitely increasing.
    • Landfast sea ice formation and deformation near Barrow, Alaska: variability and implications for ice stability

      Jones, Joshua M.; Hajo, Eicken; Shapiro, Lewis; Hutchings, Jennifer; Weingartner, Thomas (2013-12)
      Climate change in the Arctic is having large and far-reaching effects. Sea ice is declining in annual extent and thinning with a warming of the atmosphere and the ocean. As a result, sea ice dynamic behaviour and processes are undergoing major changes, interacting with socio-economic changes underway in the Arctic. Near Barrow, Alaska, landfast sea ice is an integral part of native lñupiaq culture and impacts the natural resource extraction and maritime industries. Events known as breakouts of the landfast ice, in which stable landfast ice becomes mobile and detaches from the coast, have been occurring more frequently in recent years in northern Alaska. The current study investigates processes contributing to breakout events near Barrow, and environmental conditions related to the detachment of landfast sea ice from the coast. In this study, synoptic scale sea level pressure patterns are classified in an attempt to identify atmospheric preconditioning and drivers of breakout events. An unsupervised classification approach, so called Self-Organizing Maps, is employed to sort daily sea level pressure distributions across the study area into commonly observed patterns. The results did not point to any particular distributions which favored the occurrence of breakouts. Because of the comparatively small number of breakout events tracked at Barrow to date (nine events between 2006 and 2010), continued data collection may still yield data that support a relationship between breakout events and large scale sea level pressure distributions. Two case studies for breakout events in the 2008/09 and 2009/10 ice seasons help identify contributing and controlling factors for shorefast ice fragmentation and detachment. Observational data, primarily from components of the Barrow Sea Ice Observatory, are used to quantify stresses acting upon the landfast ice. The stability of the landfast ice cover is estimated through the calculation of the extent of grounded pressure ridges, which are stabilizing features of landfast ice. Using idealized ridge geometries and convergence derived from velocity fields obtained by coastal radar, effective grounding depths can be calculated. Processes acting to destabilize or precondition the ice cover are also observed. For a medium-severity breakout that occurred on March 24, 2010, the calculated atmospheric and oceanic stresses on the landfast ice overcame the estimated grounding strength of ridge keels, although interaction with rapidly moving pack ice cannot be ruled out as the primary breakout cause. For another medium-severity breakout that took place on February 27, 2009, the landfast ice was preconditioned by reducing the draft of grounded ridge keels, with subsequent detachment from the shore during the next period of oceanic and atmospheric conditions favoring a breakout. For both of these breakouts, in addition to their potential role in destabilizing the landfast ice by overcoming the ridge grounding strength, current and/or wind forcing on the landfast ice were found to be important factors in moving the stationary ice away from shore.
    • Landsat linear features and mineral occurrences in Alaska

      Metz, P.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      In order to develop and better understanding of the regional structural controls of the metallic mineral deposits of Alaska, a detailed examination was made of the linear features and trends interpreted from Landsat imagery. In addition, local structural features and alteration zones were examined by ratio analysis of selected Landsat images. The linear trend analysis provided new regional structural data for previously proposed mineral deposit models and also provided new evidence for the extension of the existing models. Preliminary evidence also suggests linear intersection control of some types of mineral occurrences and that trend analysis may result in the definition of areas favorable for future mineral exploration. Ratio image analysis indicates that alteration zones and local structural features can be identified by use of Landsat imagery. Ratio image analysis for the definition of alteration zones must be used with caution, however, since the alteration associated with the various mineral deposits may not be differentiated by the technique.
    • Landscape Control Of Thunderstorm Development In Interior Alaska

      Dissing, Dorte; Verbyla, David (2003)
      General Circulation Models suggest a future climate of warmer and possibly drier summers in the boreal forest region, which could change fire regimes in high latitudes. Thunderstorm development is a dominant factor in the continental boreal forest fire regime, through its influence as a fire starting mechanism. Global Climate Change research has identified the land-atmosphere interface as a vital area of a needed research in order to improve our predictions of climate change. This dissertation has focused on the development of thunderstorms and lightning strike activity in a boreal forest region in Interior Alaska and on how the underlying surface can influence their development. I have examined the distributions and correlations between lightning strikes, thunderclouds, thunderstorm indices (CAPE and LI), elevation, and vegetation variables in Alaska. The relationships were examined at scales ranging from the Interior region of the state to individual wildfire burn scars, and at temporal scales ranging from the annual to daily. The objective is to understand the influential factors and processes responsible for thunderstorm development in Alaska, such that we may produce well-founded predictions on future thunderstorm regimes caused by a changing climate. The scale-related studies of this dissertation show that both processes and important variables for development of thunderstorms and lightning activity vary within and between the scales. It appears that on the larger scales, the combined effects of boreal forest and elevation on increased lightning strike activity were more prevalent than at the smallest scale (local). When the scale gets too small for the boundary layer to be affected (<10km), land surface effects on lightning cannot be. My results suggest that the underlying surface (in the form of areal forest coverage and vegetation) has more of an influence on convective development on days with airmass storms than on days with synoptic storms.
    • Landscape modeling of threespine stickleback occurrence in small Southeast Alaska lakes

      Gregovich, Dave (2007-12)
      Although threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L) are known to inhabit a wide range of habitats, their distribution in lakes across Southeast Alaska is not known. Threespine stickleback are an important prey item for many consumers in freshwater ecosystems. Additionally, isolated populations may be genetically unique and thus important from a conservation perspective. This study focused on identifying' landscape factors and models useful in predicting the presence of threespine stickleback in small (0.5-5 ha) lakes of Southeast Alaska. Stickleback occurrence was assessed via snorkeling and minnow trapping in 54 lakes, which were divided into calibration (n=36) and prediction (n=18) data sets. A number of models representing four methodologies-generalized linear models, generalized additive models, classification trees, and artificial neural networks-were built based on the calibration set, cross-validated, and evaluated by prediction to the test set of lakes. Lake elevation, distance from saltwater, and slope of lake outlet stream were the most useful predictors of stickleback occurrence. Results suggest that the likelihood of stickleback presence is highest in low elevation lakes near the coast. Human development and recreational activity also tends to be common in these areas, and so land-use planning should account for the high potential occurrence of threespine stickleback here
    • Landscape sensitivity to climate change in northern Alaska: lessons from the past

      Gaglioti, Benjamin V.; Mann, Daniel H.; Wooller, Matthew J.; Arp, Christopher D.; Jones, Miriam C.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Swanson, David K. (2016-05)
      The climate is now changing rapidly at high-latitudes, and observing how the Arctic and sub-Arctic environment responded to prehistoric climate changes can hold valuable lessons as we adapt in the future. This dissertation presents four studies that use biogeochemical proxies to reconstruct environmental changes in northern Alaska over the last 40,000 years (40 ka). These records are used to infer how the environment responded to climate changes at different locations and over varying spatial and temporal scales. The first study presents a time series of stable oxygen isotopes contained in radiocarbon-dated (¹⁴C) willow wood to quantify the nature and rates of climate change on the North Slope of Alaska over the last 40 ka. The second study examines how past temperature fluctuations affected permafrost thaw and the release of ancient carbon over the last 14.5 ka by compiling ¹⁴C-age offsets in the sediment of a small lake in the Brooks Range foothills. In the third study, I document human-caused changes to boreal wildfire frequency near the city of Fairbanks to test whether the primeval forest type and permafrost in the surrounding watershed will be vulnerable to more frequent fires in the future. The fourth study examines how ice age (40-9 ka) climate changes impacted the activity of sand dunes, vegetation productivity, and the dynamics of permafrost recorded in a unique sedimentary exposure located near the Arctic Coastal Plain on Alaska’s North Slope. Overall, I present several new and interesting approaches and findings stemming from this work. Ancient willow isotopes show that between 17 and 8 ka, during the time when ice sheets were in retreat worldwide, temperatures fluctuated widely on the North Slope mostly in concert with those in Greenland. Most notably, rapid changes in temperature and moisture occurred during the initial deglacial warming (ca. 16 ka), and during the Younger Dryas cold period (12.9-11.7 ka). These climate trends were amplified on the North Slope by changes in sea-ice extent in adjacent seas, which also controlled the availability of local precipitation evaporated from these seas. However, these warming and cooling trends were occasionally dampened by the advent of more maritime climate accompanying sea-level rise during the early Holocene, and by the breakdown of the atmospheric circulation patterns created by continental ice sheets in North America during the last glacial maximum. Over the last 7 ka, a gradual, insolation-driven cooling trend ended in ca. AD 1850 when the exceptional rates of recent warming began that continue to today. I found that the vegetation, permafrost and sand dunes in Arctic Alaska were sensitive to external climate forcing, but their responses were moderated by strong, internal feedbacks, including the temperature-buffering effects that thick peat layers have on the underlying permafrost. Prior to peat buildup in the early Holocene, the timing of sedimentary transitions indicate permafrost and aeolian processes were highly responsive to the volatile climate during the last ice age, which included Greenland interstadials. This incessant ice age climate change, coupled with the complex biophysical landscape responses that are particular to the unglaciated Arctic, helped maintain the ecological mosaic of the Mammoth Steppe ecosystem. Prehistoric warming events triggered permafrost thaw and the release of ancient carbon during the Bølling-Allerød (14.5-12.9 ka) and early Holocene warm period (11.7-8.0 ka), and this release is likely to occur again given enough warming. In the boreal forest watershed near Fairbanks, Alaska, the current ecological regime has remained intact despite a three-fold increase in pre-settlement wildfires during the Fairbanks gold rush (1902-1940). Once continued warming surpasses the buffering effects of the current internal feedbacks of the North Slope and boreal forest and the threshold for change is reached, more dynamic aeolian and permafrost processes may again dominate as they did on the more unstable and diverse ice age landscape. Overall, the results of this work will be useful for understanding how climate and landscape change in northern Alaska will respond to global climate forcing in the future.
    • Landscape Structure And Terrain-Based Hunting Range Models: Exploring Late Prehistoric Land Use In The Nutzotin Mountains, Southcentral Alaska

      Patterson, Jody J.; Murray, Maribeth; Gerlach, S. Craig; Irish, Joel; Mann, Dan (2010)
      Striving for better delineation of site function, land use, and settlement patterns, the data and analyses presented in this dissertation aim to explore more robust and objective avenues of inquiry for addressing the variability and distribution of surface lithic scatters using terrain-based hunting range models. Using large mammal distributions, Athabascan hunting ranges, and topography, landscape metrics, and an exploratory data analysis (EDA) framework, landscape structure is quantified and compared across much of the Alaskan Interior to identify reoccurring patterns related to hunting land use and the range characteristics of caribou, moose, and sheep. Key components of the landscape structure are contrasted with topographic matrices associated with protohistoric and late prehistoric sites via discriminant function classification models. Projectile points, scrapers and bifaces from surface scatters in the Nutzotin Mountains are examined in relationship to these models and their constituent elements. The results show that the association of certain chipped-stone tools and landscape structure are highly autocorrelated. This suggests that landscape structure models can be useful in the generation of constructive hypotheses to test ideas concerning inter-assemblage variability, site function and varied forms of land use.