• Walk Softly With Me: Adventures Of A Woman Big-Game Guide In Alaska

      Mcleod-Everette, Sharon Esther; Murray, John A. (1993)
      Walk Softly With Me: Adventures of a Woman Big-Game Guide in Alaska is a memoir blending adventure, description, dialogue, and humor. The animals and landscapes in Interior Alaska are revealed through the eyes of a woman tackling the male-dominated arena of big-game guiding. The thesis describes the author's evolution from hunting rabbits and tender moose for subsistence to leading clients in search of trophies. In an attempt to provide an objective view of the ethics of hunting and game management, the author explores the question of why we hunt and our relationship with the animals we pursue.<p> The thesis is written in informal first person point of view, beginning with early homesteading life and moving through scenes with hunters and other guides. The natural history of animals is woven into the narrative, as are the changes that the author experiences. The thesis culminates with the author's introspective look at why she guides and whether she will continue. <p>
    • Walks with her hands

      Johnston, Emily R. (2007-05)
      The poems in 'Walks with Her Hands' reflect a female persona tracing the origins of her sexuality, as one might trace her way along a dark corridor using her hands. The persona makes this journey through exploring a range of landscapes as well as relationships with both family and lovers. In Section I, the persona comes to terms with an absent father, a failed marriage, and her experience working with other abused women. In Section II, the persona steps back in time to consider how an emotionally distant mother has further estranged the persona from her sexuality. The persona begins to find herself in Section III through romantic relationships with women. The subject of this section, however, is a controlling lover who stilts the persona's coming out experience. By Section IV, the persona has come full circle, back to the abuse theme in Section I. She enters into an abusive relationship with a different woman, but through this experience, the persona overcomes past relationships and more fully understands herself. Throughout the emotional turbulence in each section, an underlying calm exists. A steady pace, like walking, allows the reader to self-reflect alongside the persona.
    • Walleye Pollock (Theragra Chalcogramma) Distribution In The Eastern Bering Sea Related To Fishery And Environmental Factors

      Shen, Haixue (2009)
      Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) support the largest single-species fishery in the world. Pollock also play an important role in the EBS ecosystem as an important prey species. The decline of the western population of Steller sea lions during the 1980s and 1990s raised concerns about the potential competition between the pollock fishery and the sea lion population. My research focused on pollock distribution related to the fishery and physical environment at different temporal and spatial scales using fisheries acoustic data and observer data in the winter fishing season during 2002-2006. Temperature and wind played important roles in determining the pollock distribution in winter, especially from late February to March. The changes in spatial structure during the fishing season suggested that the fishery probably influenced pollock distribution by removing some portion of the local population and perhaps even smoothing out the aggregated distribution of pollock. At a small scale, pollock schools became smaller and denser. At the meso-scale, the distances between schools increased. At a larger scale, range estimates from variography increased which indicated that the spatial correlation among pollock extended to greater distances after fishing. Fishing behavior was also studied using Levy flight theory and its relation to pollock distribution in the EBS. Fishing behavior was significantly correlated to the fractal dimension of fish which measures the degree of pollock clustering, rather than to pollock spatial concentration or density in the EBS. The observer data were also included to analyze the effect of fish distribution on fishing behavior at the school scale. The results indicated that school density rather than the school size played an important role in fishing behavior. Finally, catch depletion analysis was used to examine the potential local depletion. While frequentist and Bayesian methods confirmed that the fishery caused slight local depletion in some areas in the EBS, the magnitude was less than that before sea lion protection measures were put into place in 1999 to spread out the fishery in space and time.
    • Washability characteristics of low-volatile bituminous coal from the Bering River field, Alaska

      Rao, P.D. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      Two samples of low-volatile bituminous coal from Bering River Coal Field were sized to 0.525" x 3, 3 x 6, 6 x 10, 10 x 20, and 20 x 35 mesh and their washability characteristics studied at specific gravities ranging from 1.29 to 1.55. The results showed that the coals can be up-graded to an ash content as low as 2% with conventional cyclone heavy media process. A product containing less than 1% ash can be obtained from these coals with surprisingly high yields, ranging from 50 to 95% depending on the ash content desired in the washed coal, and the characteristics of the raw coal. The experimental work proves the technical feasibility of preparation of the coal form metallurgical use and as low ash carbon raw material. Further Pilot Plant testing would be required in the fields of preparation and utilization in order to design the final plant for ascertaining the economic feasibility.
    • WASTE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS FOR DAIRY FARMS IN ALASKA

      Cullum, Robert F. (Agricultural Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska, 1983-05)
      Manure handling is one of the most unappreciated chores associated with livestock enterprises. It is also the most difficult problem to solve in a totally satisfactory manner because physical characteristics of manure usually change with the daily weather, seasons, and ration. All handling systems have their limitations, and none works perfectly all the time. The problem of manure handling is most easily solved if cows are confined in covered housing because physical characteristics of the manure remain more uniform under cover — no surface water, less drying and freezing. Improper design of manure-handling systems may lead to higher costs for redesign than new facilities would cost. Even with new facilities, manure handling may present major problems if systems are inadequate for the particular environmental conditions of the area. In continuing efforts to improve livestock waste-handling systems, new methods and equipment are being used. Waste-system components, related closely to dairy-manure handling, deal with removal of waste from buildings and storage facilities that are separated from the livestock housing facility. The major systems provide for collection, transfer, storage, and land application, and are divided into two groups — liquid and semisolid manurehandling systems. Many manure-handling systems are used in the United States. Not all of these systems, however, are adapted to northern climates. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation currently has no code of practice for livestock waste facilities. The agency, however, must be notified for approval of waste-treatment systems used in livestock enterprises. The systems described in this report comply with current state codes in the northern United States and Canada, and most are adaptable to the environmental conditions of Alaska.
    • Wasting disease and environmental variables drive sea star assemblages in the northern Gulf of Alaska

      Mitchell, Timothy James; Konar, Brenda; Iken, Katrin; Kelley, Amanda (2019-05)
      Sea stars are ecologically important in rocky intertidal habitats. The recent (starting 2013) sea star die-off attributed to sea star wasting disease throughout the eastern Pacific, presumably triggered by unusually warm waters in recent years, has caused an increased interest in spatial and temporal patterns of sea star assemblages and the environmental drivers that structure these assemblages. This study assessed the role of seven potential static environmental variables (distance to freshwater, tidewater glacial presence, wave exposure, fetch, beach slope, substrate composition, and tidal range) influencing northern Gulf of Alaska sea star assemblages before and after regional sea star declines. For this, intertidal surveys were conducted annually from 2005 to 2018 at five sites in each of four regions that were between 100 and 420 km apart. In the years leading up to the regional mortality events, assemblages were different among regions and were structured mainly by tidewater glacier presence, wave fetch, and tidal range. The assemblages after wasting disease were different from those before the event, and there was a partial change in the environmental variables that correlated with sea star structure. In these recent years, the environmental variables most highly correlated with sea star assemblages were slope, wave fetch, and tidal range, all of which relate to desiccation, attachment, and wave action. This indicates that the change in sea star density and structure by wasting disease left an assemblage that is responding to different environmental variables. Understanding the delicate interplay of some of the environmental variables that influence sea star assemblages could expand knowledge of the habitat preferences and tolerance ranges of important and relatively unstudied species within the northern Gulf of Alaska.
    • Watching you go: exploring subjective documentary methods in contemporary photography

      Quimby, Ellamarie; Mason, Charles W.; Lazarus, Joshua J.; Jones, Zoe M.; Mehner, Da-ka-xeen (2017-05)
      This work examines the history and contemporary context of photojournalism and documentary photography through narrative imagery of the artist's mother and family. By adapting traditional documentary practices and exploring more subjective methodologies, Watching you go addresses the artist's physical and emotional limitations while experiencing her mother's terminal illness.
    • Water and Land-surface Feedbacks in a Polygonal Tundra Environment

      Bolton, W. Robert; Busey, Robert; Hinzman, Larry D.; Peckham, Scott (2014-03)
      The Arctic, including Alaska, is currently experiencing an unprecedented degree of environmental change with increases in both the mean annual surface temperature and precipitation. These observed changes in the climate regime has resulted in a permafrost condition that is particularly sensitive to changes in both Changes in the surface energy balance and water balances and is susceptible to degradation. Thermokarst topography forms whenever ice-rich permafrost thaws and the ground subsides into the resulting voids. Extensive areas of thermokarst activity are currently being observed throughout the arctic and sub-arctic environments. The important processes involved with thermokarsting include surface ponding, surface subsidence, changes in drainage patterns, and related erosion. In this research, we are applying the land-surface evolution model, ERODE (http://csdms.colorado.edu/wiki/Model:Erode), to an area dominated by low- center, ice-wedge polygons. We are modifying the ERODE model to include land surface subsistence in areas where the maximum active layer depth exceeds the protective layer – the layer of soil above ice-rich soils that acts as a buffer to surface energy processes. The goal of this modeling study is to better understand and quantify the development of thermokarst features in the polygonal tundra environment, emphasizing the resulting feedbacks and connections between hydrologic processes and a dynamic surface topography. Further, we are working on understanding the balance between thermal and mechanical processes with regard to thermokarst processes. This unique application of a landscape evolution model may provide valuable insight related to the rates and spatial extent of thermokarst development and the subsequent hydrologic responses to degrading permafrost in a changing climate.
    • Water Balance of a Small Lake in a Permafrost Region

      Hartman, Charles W.; Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • A Water Distribution System for Cold Regions: The Single Main Recirculation Method: An Historical Review, Field Evaluation, and Suggested Design Procedures

      Murphy, R. Sage; Hartman, Charles W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1969-03)
      Students and residents of the Arctic are familiar with the many problems peculiar to the geographical area. This monograph will consider an adequate, safe, and reliable water distribution system. Water supply, together with housing, transportation, and waste disposal, are demanded when a remote area becomes established as a permanent settlement. As long as the population of the North was widely distributed in small mining camps, villages, and individual cabins, water distribution systems were not necessary, as shallow wells and nearby streams adequately served most needs. With the rapidly increasing settlement of the vast lands of the North, the population is being centered in communities rather than distributed over large areas. The world population explosion will undoubtedly contribute to increasing immigration into Arctic and sub-Arctic areas. These changes have already created a need for modern water distribution systems, a need which will become more critical with time.
    • Water Metabolism By Reindeer (Rangifer Tarandus)

      Cameron, Raymond Darwin, Iii (1972)
    • Water metabolism of wolves in winter: effects of varying food intake and exercise

      Philo, L. Michael (1986-12)
      The only free water available to wolves during arctic winter is snow. Snow consumption involves an energy cost due to melting the snow and increasing the temperature of the resulting water to deep body temperature. Wolves are subject to negative energy balance when prey availability is inadequate. When negative energy balance is prolonged, the energy cost of snow consumption could shorten the time to death by starvation. It was therefore hypothesized that during negative energy balance in winter, wolves reduce energy expenditure by suppressing snow intake. The goal was to determine whether wolves conserve a significant quantity of energy by suppressing snow intake during negative energy balance in winter. The hypothesis was tested by varying food intake and exercise of captive wolves during winter in arctic Alaska. Experimental negative energy balance was imposed in three ways: (1) undernutrition, (2) fasting and (3) forced exercise on a treadmill with no change in food intake. Results of testing the hypothesis varied among experiments, but overall the findings refuted the hypothesis. When the wolves were undernourished, there was indirect evidence of suppressed snow intake. When the wolves were fasted, there was indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake. When the wolves were exercised with no change in food intake, there was indirect evidence of both suppressed and enhanced snow intake, but the evidence of enhancement was more conclusive. The indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake during either fasting or the exercise trial was sufficient to refute the hypothesis. The wolves did not conserve a significant amount of energy by suppressing snow intake. When snow intake was suppressed during undernutrition, less than 1% of the calculated daily energy expenditure was saved. There was no unequivocal evidence of snow intake suppression in any other experiment. It is concluded that when energy balance is negative during winter, wolves do not suppress snow intake to conserve energy.
    • Water metabolism of wolves in winter: Effects of varying food intake and exercise

      Philo, Lee Michael; Dieterich, Robert A. (1986)
      The only free water available to wolves during arctic winter is snow. Snow consumption involves an energy cost due to melting the snow and increasing the temperature of the resulting water to deep body temperature. Wolves are subject to negative energy balance when prey availability is inadequate. When negative energy balance is prolonged, the energy cost of snow consumption could shorten the time to death by starvation. It was therefore hypothesized that during negative energy balance in winter, wolves reduce energy expenditure by suppressing snow intake. The goal was to determine whether wolves conserve a significant quantity of energy by suppressing snow intake during negative energy balance in winter. The hypothesis was tested by varying food intake and exercise of captive wolves during winter in arctic Alaska. Experimental negative energy balance was imposed in three ways: (1) undernutrition, (2) fasting and (3) forced exercise on a treadmill with no change in food intake. Results of testing the hypothesis varied among experiments, but overall the findings refuted the hypothesis. When the wolves were undernourished, there was indirect evidence of suppressed snow intake. When the wolves were fasted, there was indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake. When the wolves were exercised with no change in food intake, there was indirect evidence of both suppressed and enhanced snow intake, but the evidence of enhancement was more conclusive. The indirect evidence of enhanced snow intake during either fasting or the exercise trial was sufficient to refute the hypothesis. The wolves did not conserve a significant amount of energy by suppressing snow intake. When snow intake was suppressed during undernutrition, less than 1% of the calculated daily energy expenditure was saved. There was no unequivocal evidence of snow intake suppression in any other experiment. It is concluded that when energy balance is negative during winter, wolves do not suppress snow intake to conserve energy.
    • Water quality from rainwater catchments throughout Alaska: looking at contaminants in catchment materials

      Hart, Corianne Irene (2003-12)
      A field study which focused on linking materials used in rainwater catchments to the quality of water they produce was conducted throughout Alaska in the summer of 2003. The importance of this project stems from the fact that many families throughout Alaska depend on rainwater catchment systems to provide water for washing, cleaning, cooking and/or drinking purposes. After a core group of participants were identified, samples were periodically collected from participants' water taps and were analyzed for a suite of contaminants that included metals (e.g., Pb and Zn), organics (e.g., volatile organic compounds) and bacteria. Based on variables, such as construction materials, the frequency of rainfall, the amount of water collected and the duration of storage, we evaluated the effectiveness of various catchments for providing safe drinking water. This fieldwork, coupled with a companion document addressing best management practices for rainwater catchments, provides valuable information for owners of small systems seeking to use rainwater catchments in Alaska. The conclusions of the study were that zinc concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by roof and tank material, lead concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by roof material, and copper concentrations of water collected at the tap were affected by pipe material.
    • Water Quality in Alaskan Campgrounds

      Murphy, R. Sage (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-01)
      This report presents an evaluation of water quality in Alaskan Campgrounds using laboratory determinations and on-site evaluations. In general, ground water quality was found to be excellent and surface water quality unacceptable for human consumption and total body contact recreation. The most pressing need was found to be the provision of an approved drinking water supply for each campground. The· environmental health aspects of campgrounds were found to be largely neglected. Many of the sewage systems are inadequate resulting in pollution of the ground and surface water. Solid waste was found to be stored and disposed of by unacceptable methods. Finally, many campgrounds are located in swampy areas or located in areas subject to annual flooding.
    • Water Quality in the Great Land, Alaska's Challenge: Proceedings

      Huntsinger, Ronald G. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1987-10)
      Administering water quality programs -- Surface water issues -- Groundwater issues -- Sediments and resource development
    • Water Retention, Bulk Density, Particle Size, and Thermal and Hydraulic Conductivity of Arable Soils in Interior Alaska

      Sharratt, Brenton S. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1990-10)
      The relative proportion of liquid, gas, and solid as constituents of soil depends on factors such as climate, biological activity, and management practices. Therefore, the physical state of soil is a dynamic process, changing with time and position in the profile. Temperature, thermal and hydraulic conductivity, density, and water content are some quantitative properties characterizing the physical state of soil. These properties are important in describing soil processes such as water and heat flow, movement of chemicals, biological activity, and erosion. Water in the soil is subject to a number of forces resulting from the attraction of the soil matrix for water and presence of solutes and gravity. The energy status of water-the sum of these forces-is termed water potential. Processes such as evaporation and plant water uptake are governed by the gradient in water potential in the soil and across the root-soil interface, respectively. The term water potential is more descriptive of the soil water status than water content as movement of water is in response to differences in water potential.
    • Water security in the rural North: responding to change, engineering perspectives, and community focused solutions

      Penn, Henry J. F.; Schnabel, William E.; Loring, Philip A.; Gerlach, S. Craig; Dotson, Aaron A.; Barnes, David L. (2016-08)
      This project explores the capacity of rural communities to manage their water resources in a changing climate, environment and society. Using water resources as a lens through which to evaluate the effects of social and environmental changes on Alaska’s rural communities, and working from conversations with key community members including city planners and infrastructure operators, this research develops theoretical frameworks for increasing community capacity. The prospect of developing community capacity, and more specifically water resources management capacity, in order to respond to societal and climatic change is a present concern for rural communities, and is becoming increasingly so in today’s fiscally challenged environment. Many rural water managers in Alaska are challenged by aging systems designed and built over 20 years ago, and are now operating well beyond their design life. While the configuration of existing systems varies across Alaska, a common suite of problems exists; regular breakdowns, failure to achieve regulatory standards, wide variability of raw water quality, low payment rates, and historically high electricity and fuel prices. These systems are also operating during a period of historically high deficit between community needs and available grant funding at both a State and Federal level. Existing theoretical frameworks for exploring the impacts of change on regional water security (i.e. resilience and vulnerability) are informative heuristics for triage of impacts at the individual community level. Presently, however, there is little consideration given to water security solutions that do not involve the construction of a new system. This research proposes that the focus upon “new system solutions” limits available solutions for improving security at both the local and regional levels. Further this research seeks to understand the extent to which “new utility solutions” create additional capacity at both the community and regional level to respond to change. At the core of this work are informal interviews and participant observation research in 11 coastal communities in Bristol Bay and Northwest Arctic regions of Alaska.
    • Water, behavior, and health in Alaska

      Ritter, Troy L.; Bersamin, Andrea; Lopez, Ellen; Hennessy, Thomas; Johnson, Rhonda; Konkel, Steven (2014-08)
      This dissertation addresses the need for a better understanding of how water and sanitation infrastructure and water use behaviors come together to influence health. The ultimate aim is to inform water infrastructure designs and behavior change programming for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), skin infections, and diarrhea. All three diseases are of public health significance in Alaska, and all three can be prevented by proper access and use of water and sanitation services. I begin the dissertation by illustrating that some residents who have access to treated water continue to consume untreated river water and rain. In fact, 82% of respondents (n=172) reported that some of their drinking water came from an untreated source. Motives for drinking untreated water could be categorized into six themes: chemicals, taste, health, access, tradition, and cost. The next chapter describes the design and impact of a health promotion program to increase consumption of treated water. Self-reported data revealed that from pre- to post-intervention, the proportion of households drinking mostly treated water increased by 21% (39% to 60%), p < 0.0001. The third chapter reports changes in water use and health as reported by participants who recently received modern sanitation services. Most participants (n=101; 74%) reported improved community health. A prominent theme was that better access to treated water increased children’s ability to drink treated water and perform hand washing and bathing, practices known to prevent ARIs, skin infections and diarrhea. Based on the findings, I recommend: 1) providing inhouse piped water service where feasible, 2) development of an alternative water and sanitation system that provides adequate quantities of water for homes that may not be provided in-house piped water service, and 3) providing health promotion to encourage healthy water use, either in combination with provision of in-house water service, or as a stand-alone intervention.
    • Water/Wastewater Evaluation for an Arctic Alaskan Industrial Camp

      Tilsworth, Timothy (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-04)
      Discovery of a huge oil field at Prudhoe Bay in the late 1960's resulted in a great deal of industrial activity on the North Slope of arctic Alaska. This flurry of industrial activity was accompanied by environmental concern across the nation. The fact that Alaska was "the last frontier” placed it high on the list for ecological scrutiny.