• Phylogeography and population genetics of a Beringian endemic: Dallia (Esociformes: Teleostei)

      Campbell, Matthew A.; López, J. Andrés; Takebayashi, Naoki; Olson, Matthew (2011-08)
      In this thesis I examine the population genetics of an endemic Beringian freshwater fish genus, Dallia (blackfish). The current distribution of blackfish was heavily influenced by paleoclimatic instability during the Pleistocene. Beringian paleoclimatic changes during the Pleistocene included the fluctuating growth and decline of glaciers and an overall decrease in temperature and increased aridity in areas not adjacent to the Bering Sea. Pleistocene glacial advances resulted in the cyclical emergence of the Bering land bridge. The effects of paleoclimatic instability on blackfish distribution and abundance can be inferred through the distribution of genetic variation across the Beringian landscape. I address three basic questions: 1: Are separate populations of blackfish taxonomically distinct entities? I found that while there is clear genetic structuring and isolation, there is insufficient information to make a strong statement in this regard. 2: Did blackfish survive Pleistocene glaciations within multiple Beringian refugia? My results indicate that blackfish persisted in at least four broad geographic areas. 3: How did the Bering land bridge influence intercontinental aquatic interchange? My evidence points to close genetic relationships and potentially high exchange of blackfish across the Bering land bridge, which supports the Bering land bridge as conduit for freshwater aquatic migration.