• Evaluation of marine and freshwater growth and survival of Auke Creek coho salmon

      Russell, Joshua R.; Tallmon, David; McPhee, Megan; Adkison, Milo; Vulstek, Scott (2019-08)
      Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are a species of great social and economic importance for commercial, sport, personal-use, and traditional harvest. We explored factors influencing Auke Creek Coho Salmon smolt production, growth, and marine survival. We analyzed 35 years (1980-2014) of data collected at the Auke Creek Research Station weir in Juneau, Alaska. This extensive data series allowed for an analysis of Auke Creek Coho Salmon growth and survival that is not possible elsewhere. Creek flow best explained variation in smolt-per-adult production. Analysis of freshwater and saltwater scale growth zones failed to identify a specific growth zone with a significant influence on marine survival. Marine survival had a positive relationship with the magnitude of regional hatchery releases and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Changes in climate and hatchery production could have negative effects on survival of Auke Creek Coho Salmon, as evidenced by low returns in recent years associated with anomalously high temperatures in the Gulf of Alaska. The impact of climate change and increased hatchery production should be considered in future management decisions.
    • Positive behavior supports and interventions: is it the best approach for Juneau elementary schools?

      Anderson, Bobbie; Renes, Susan L.; Morton, James Jr.; Bratton, Imelda (2018-12)
      The US public educational system strives to assist students to develop the academic and social skills they will need to be competitive in the world market. A considerable obstacle to this goal is behavioral problems in schools, which disrupt important learning time for both the student who is demonstrating the behavior and for his or her peers. Additionally, current literature asserts that behavioral problems interfere in social and academic relationships, create stress for school faculty, and are linked to school failure and increased high-school dropout rates, which have a negative economic impact on both the student and community. Given the correlation of problematic behavior (which appears to be trending upward) with negative outcomes, it seems clear that identifying the best approach to preventing and correcting problematic behavior is imperative. The purpose of this project is to critically examine some commonly used approaches to determine the most effective and efficient method used in elementary schools to prevent and correct problematic behavior. In addition, implementation and continuance of the chosen approach is discussed with the Juneau School District in mind.
    • Whale-watching in Juneau, AK: assessing potential effects on humpback whales and understanding passenger perceptions

      Schuler, Alicia Rinaldi; Pearson, Heidi C.; Atkinson, Shannon; Mueter, Franz J. (2019-08)
      The feeding grounds of the North Pacific humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Juneau, Alaska have rapidly developed into a popular whale watch destination during the summer (May-September). The whale watch industry has tripled in size in the last 18 years, currently numbering approximately 65 vessels. The sustainability of this industry could be jeopardized if the health and dependability of the resource, the whales, is negatively affected by increasing vessel pressure. The aim of this project is to provide a holistic understanding of whale watch tourism in Juneau by assessing 1) humpback whale responses to whale-watching vessels and 2) passenger experiences as a conduit for conservation of whales and the environment. Data were obtained during 2016 and 2017, comprising observations of 201 humpback whale groups and collection of 2331 passenger surveys. To address the first objective, shore-based measurements and observations of humpback whales were conducted to assess potential impacts of whale-watching vessels on short-term movement and behavioral patterns of whales. Linear mixed effects models indicated that the presence (vs. absence) of vessels was related to significantly higher deviation in linear movement, increased swimming speed, and shorter inter-breath intervals (IBI). For each additional vessel present, deviation increased and IBI significantly decreased. Linear regression models also indicated that as time spent in the presence of vessels increased, respiration rate (breaths per minute) increased. Markov chain analyses indicated that feeding and traveling humpback whales were likely to maintain their behavioral state regardless of vessel presence, while surface active humpback whales were likely to transition to traveling in the presence of vessels. To address the second objective, surveys were administered to passengers before, immediately after, and six months after a whale-watching tour to measure knowledge, intentions, behaviors, and attitudes over time. Following a whale-watching tour, awareness of whale-watching guidelines/regulations doubled and support for guidelines/regulations significantly increased and remained high six months later. Binomial logistic regression models determined that strong support for guidelines/regulations was more likely if participants were aware of guidelines/regulations and less likely if participants disagreed that vessels have a negative impact on whales. Lastly, linear regression models revealed that participants that acknowledged human impacts on whales and their habitat had stronger pro-environmental attitudes. As vessel presence increases in this region, adherence to whale watching guidelines/regulations is likely to become increasingly important to mitigate cumulative effects that may arise from short-term changes in whale behavior in a changing environment. It is recommended that management revisit the current measures in place to better suit the industry today, and that education during whale watching tours be included as a potential management tool to encourage operator compliance. The results presented in this thesis indicate that both management and the industry itself can help to develop a mutually beneficial industry for the whale watching operators, the whales, and the people that come to watch them.