• Agricultural possibilities of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

      McCurdy, Richard E.; Johnson, Hugh A. (Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1951-03)
      During the summer of 1950, an intensive study was made on the Kenai Peninsula to determine the extent of its agricultural development and the plans and problems of current settlers. All available settlers residing in accessible areas were interviewed. Notes were also collected concerning non-resident or absentee landholders. The resulting information consequently covers the agricultural community that has developed under existing conditions of help, hindrance and laissez faire. The study furnishes guides useful in formulating public settlement policies for the Kenai-Kasilof area and to individuals who might wish to locate in this or other sections of the Peninsula.
    • The effect of wildfires, spruce bark beetles, and prescribed burns on residential property values in Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

      Reinker, Paul C.; Little, Joseph; Baek, Jungho; Greenberg, Joshua (2019-08)
      This study estimates the effect that forest fires, spruce bark beetle outbreaks, and controlled burns performed by fire management agencies have on nearby residential property values. Using the hedonic pricing framework, and ten years of house sales from south-central Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, this study found little evidence that wildfires and spruce beetle outbreaks have a significant effect on the final sale price of surrounding homes, but found that the controlled burns contribute to a decrease in surrounding home values. As Alaska's climate becomes warmer and drier, these disturbances threaten to increase in frequency and severity. Understanding how homeowners perceive fire risk and forest damage is increasingly important to fire management policy, as the behavior of residents can help limit both the cost from and incidence of wildfires. The study's findings suggest that homeowners are either insulated from, or indifferent to fire risk, but targeted burns of high-risk areas by fire managers could increase awareness and sensitivity to fire risk.
    • Marine-derived nutrients in riverine ecosystems: developing tools for tracking movement and assessing effects in food webs on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

      Rinella, Daniel J. (2010-05)
      Marine-derived nutrients (MDN) delivered by spawning Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) contribute to the productivity of riverine ecosystems. Optimizing methods for measuring MDN assimilation in food webs will foster the development of ecologically based resource management approaches. This dissertation aims to better understand relationships among spawning salmon abundance, biochemical measures of MDN assimilation, and the fitness of stream-dwelling fishes. The goals of my first research chapter were (1) to understand the factors that influence stable isotope ([delta]¹³C, [delta]¹⁵N, and [delta]³⁴S) and fatty acid measures of MDN assimilation in stream and riparian biota, and (2) to examine the ability of these measures to differentiate among sites that vary in spawning salmon biomass. For all biota studied, stable isotopes and fatty acids indicated that MDN assimilation increased with spawner abundance. Among Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), larger individuals assimilated proportionately more MDN. Seasonal effects were detected for aquatic macroinvertebrates and riparian horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), but not for Dolly Varden. Of all dependent variables, Dolly Varden [delta]¹⁵N had the clearest relationship with spawner abundance, making this a good measure for monitoring MDN assimilation. Expanding on these results, two chapters examined potential fisheries management applications. The first sought to identify spawner levels above which stream-dwelling Dolly Varden and coho salmon (O. kisutch) parr cease to gain physiological benefits associated with MDN. RNA-DNA ratios (an index of recent growth rate) and energy density indicated saturation responses where values increased rapidly with spawner abundance up to approximately 1 kg/m² and then leveled off. In coho salmon parr, energy density and RNA-DNA ratios correlated significantly with [delta]¹⁵N. These results show strong linkages between MDN and fish fitness responses, while the saturation points may indicate spawner densities that balance salmon harvest with the ecological benefits of MDN. The second application tested a quick and inexpensive method for estimating, spawning salmon abundance based on [delta]¹⁵N in stream-dwelling fishes. Estimates made with coho salmon pair were unbiased, tightly correlated with observed values, and had a mean absolute deviation of 1.4 MT spawner biomass/km. Application of this method would allow estimates of annual escapement to be made on a potentially large number of streams.
    • Project to demonstrate feasibility of gas production with sensitivities on production schemes on Sterling B4 sands formation

      Yeager, Ronald J.; Patil, Shirish; Ning, Samson; Khataniar, Santanu (2018-04)
      The Sterling B4 reservoir is a low-relief anticline structure underlain by a weak aquifer located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. This dry gas-on-water reservoir, holding approximately 13.9 BCF, has experienced challenges since its first development in the 1960s. The gas-water contact is very mobile and easily influenced upward by gas production. All four wells, largely producing in succession of one another, have experienced excessive water production which killed gas production. Faulty drilling and completion work exacerbated the challenges associated with bringing the gas to market. This project covers an effort to develop the Sterling B4 and determine feasible alternatives for commercialization. Those alternatives include infill drilling, variable production, and co-production. Co-production is a method by which gas is produced from a single upper perforation and water is produced from a lower perforation; each of the streams are produced independently by mechanical means which utilize packers and tubing. The only feasible alternative found by this study is co-production. Of the two coproduction methods analyzed, the highest ultimate recovery includes the utilization of an existing vertical well perforating the upper portion of the reservoir for gas production and a new lower horizontal well perforating the water zone to control the gas-water contact. Modeled production schemes proved the gas-water contact was able to be controlled from upward mobility by maintaining a threshold pressure delta between the bottom-hole pressures of the two producing wells. Utilizing co-production in this manner yielded incremental benefit of over 2 BCF until shut-in limits were triggered. Economic analysis of the project has proved bringing the gas to sales presents a significant prize able to support production and able to support facility operational expense despite no other revenue streams. Should other nearby formations demonstrate sufficient targets the economic case would be enhanced and present an even greater prize.