• Alaska's Quality Schools Initiative: A Description And Analysis Of 51 Schools' Perceived Strengths And Weaknesses In Factors Associated With Organizational Change

      Mckinny, Betty Jean; Porter, David O. (2003)
      This descriptive study of 51 schools in Alaska examined how educational personnel are responding to the Alaskan Quality Schools Initiative. While research-identifying factors that accelerate or impede general change in organizations already exist, little research has been done in Alaska to assess personnel's attitudes and beliefs about standards-based education. Past school reforms have only experienced moderate success. This study shows that standards-based instruction is perceived by both rural and urban Alaskan educators to be a reform that could make improved achievement a reality. A questionnaire was designed and administered to educational personnel assessing present readiness to implement standards-based education and identifying factors which influenced past implementations of change. Profiles of schools, districts, and the state, reveal factors that may limit or expedite the implementation. Findings indicate that overall past educational change initiatives have been mismanaged. The state scores fall in the low moderate range 60.9 based on Implementation Management Associates Scale of 0--100. In regard to readiness to change the participating schools' scores fall in the moderate range (65.3). The majority of respondents believe that there is a high probability of successful implementation. They see a need and purpose for standards-based education. Personnel valued standards and believed that they were compatible with personal and organization values. Surveyed respondents were confident about the ability to change and were willing to focus on new approaches. The majority indicates the need for more resources and support. A predominant theme in the findings was that organizational stress is very high and personnel are concerned about the adverse effect this change may bring to their jobs. Past reform initiatives have not been aligned with the culture of the school or district. Ineffective communication coupled with low motivation and inadequate incentives has limited implementation efforts. Due to perceived lack of resources and expertise the majority of respondents question whether or not this initiative will be successful. Most rural schools, which have been characterized as widely resistant to change, were found to be more optimistic about change and had fewer barriers to overcome than urban schools.
    • Biology and Management of White Spruce Seed Crops Reforestation in Subarctic Taiga Forests

      Alden, J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1985-03)
      Seed production is the most dramatic event in the life cycle of trees and is the first step in forest regeneration. Embryos of white spruce are fragile during germination, and they depend on vigorous seeds for survival and growth. Mortality of white spruce seeds and seedlings is high in northern forests because climate and microhabitat are often unfavorable for seed germination and seedling establishment. Large quantities of high-quality seed are required for natural and artificial regeneration of white spruce forests at high latitudes. The first chapter of this bulletin describes the reproductive process of white spruce and factors that affect cone and seed production and seed quality. Knowledge of the reproduction cycle and factors that affect seed production and quality of white spruce is essential for forecasting and managing seed crops. Evidence that white spruce is a genetically variable species in northern forests is summarized in the second chapter. This chapter includes recommendations for maintaining the gene pool of natural populations and for seed transfer in afforesting sites that do not have endemic populations. A procedure for delineating planting zones for adapted seed sources is described as an alternative for provisional seed zones that only reduce the risk of maladaptation from long-range seed transfer . The final chapter outlines steps in harvesting white spruce seed crops and can be used as a working manual . Practical procedures are described for evaluating quality and quantity of white spruce seed crops , certifying the geographic origin of seed parents , collecting cones , and processing seeds to mainatin viability for many years. The genetic structure of white spruce and the environment-embryology relationships that effect seed production and maturation have not been studied in detail . The need for research in the areas of genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and ecology is discussed in each chapter. The results of such research will help to improve seed yields and make the management of white spruce crops more profitable in Alaska and Yukon.
    • Developing communication tools for resource management in western Alaska: an evaluation of the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative coastal projects database

      Warner, Nicole; Trainor, Sarah; Greenburg, Joshua; Fix, Peter (2017)
      Science communication is an essential component in decision-making for resource management in Alaska. This field aids in bridging knowledge gaps between scientists and diverse stakeholders. In 2014, the Western Alaska LCC developed a database cataloging the current coastal change projects in order to facilitate collaboration amongst researchers, managers, and the surrounding communities. In order to better inform similar outreach projects in other LCC regions, this MNRM project entailed an evaluation of this database between April and September 2016 and comprised a ten-question phone interview with the database participants and other involved personnel. Results from this evaluation can help refine the database to better suit its users' needs in the future, and it can also inform the creation of similar tools in other LCC regions. This project evaluated the use and usability of the Western Alaska LCC Coastal Change Database. First, I review coastal change and its impacts on Western Alaska. Next, I explore how institutions can respond to these changes and what resources they can use, including decision-support tools. I then provide examples of different decision-support tools (both in academic literature and in Alaskan projects) and discuss methodologies for evaluating their use. Interview results are then reported. The evaluation of the WALCC Coastal Change Database indicated that the tool was mostly used to enhance general understanding of the research occurring in the region. Respondents were less likely to use it for time-intensive tasks such as collaboration. Respondents also indicated that a place exists for tools like this database to flourish, but they need 1) persistent outreach, 2) a dynamic design, and 3) immediate benefits for users' time. In the future, regular updates and frequent outreach could improve the database's usability and help maintain its credibility.
    • Employee Performance Appraisal Systems: Effects On Communication Within Organizations

      Towne, Nicholas D.; Cooper, Christine (2006)
      In this study, 318 supervisors and staff members of a medium sized northwestern university responded to a questionnaire concerning their performance appraisal system and the effects it has on communication with their organization. Several key findings resulted. First, when staff members perceived their supervisors were providing valid, timely appraisals they felt there was more teamwork, information flow, and involvement in the organization than those employees that did not feel their appraisals were valid. Second, as supervisors believed performance appraisals were linked to important outcomes, staff members perceptions of appraisals rose. Finally, contrary to the literature, supervisors reported that when they conducted appraisals in a compliant manner performance appraisal discomfort decreased. This can be attributed to the lack of important outcomes being linked to the appraisals. In this university, 39% of the staff members reported they had not received their appraisals as required.
    • Environmental impacts on Guam's water security and sustainable management of the resource

      Khalaj-Teimoury, Masoud; Duffy, Lawrence; Aguon, Alicia; Barnes, David; Taghizadegan, Salman (2018-05)
      Impacts of climate change on the already severely strained freshwater resources of approximately 1000 inhabited islands in the Pacific Ocean are of great concern. The Western Pacific region is one of the world's most vulnerable when it comes to risk of disaster particularly for the several of the low-lying coral islands. Impacts have already been felt regarding the security of water resources that would directly impact agriculture, forestry, tourism and other industry-related sectors. The ironic and tragic aspect of the environmental crisis of greenhouse emissions is the fact that those parts of the world least responsible for creating the water security issues are the first to suffer its consequences. Pacific Island Nations are responsible for only 0.03 percent of the world's carbon dioxide emissions, and the average island resident produces only one-quarter of the emissions of the average person worldwide. Utilizing the historical data, the evidence of change in water quality and access on Guam has been examined. All indicators except for the precipitation support the hypotheses that climate change trends are impacting Guam's water security. This will eventually weaken Guam's resilience. As a result of this research and its recommendations, a sustainable freshwater resources management plan, for a water-secured Guam can be produced. Adaptive management provided here is based on a process that can measure the resilience of Guam to the issue of water security.
    • Equitable co-management on the Kuskokwim River

      McDevitt, Chris; Anahita, Sine; Ehrlander, Mary; Racina, Kris (2018-08)
      A legally empowered equitable co-management system of the Kuskokwim River salmon fishery between subsistence users and state and federal managers does not exist. Despite federal legislation Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) (Section 8) calling for a "meaningful role" for subsistence users in managing fish and game on federal lands, some rural subsistence users believe that they have yet to assume a "meaningful role" in the policy-making process. The absolute maximum capacity that subsistence users can fulfill in terms of participating in the management of the resources they depend on comes in the form of one of many advisory boards. Ultimately, management regimes and policymakers do not have to consider advisory council member recommendations, suggestions and/or group proposals. On the Kuskokwim River, the decline of king salmon, perceived mismanagement, general mistrust of management agencies, inter-river conflict, and lack of authority and accountability felt by local users, has prompted some subsistence salmon fishermen to press for a stronger role in salmon management. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Kuskokwim River Inter Tribal Fish Commission (KRITFC) have developed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) pertaining to the management of the fishery. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG) has not entered into negotiations with the KRITFC and United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) regarding management. This thesis explores the history of the Kuskokwim salmon fishery and options available to Alaska Native subsistence salmon users who seek an equitable role in managing the fishery.
    • Interdisciplinary assessment of the skate fishery in the Gulf of Alaska

      Farrugia, Thomas J.; Seitz, Andrew C.; Kruse, Gordon H.; Criddle, Keith R.; Goldman, Kenneth J.; Tribuzio, Cindy A. (2017-12)
      Skates are common bottom-dwelling fishes and valuable non-target species in Gulf of Alaska fisheries. Although there is little demand for skates in the United States, markets in Europe and Asia are fueling desires for additional fishing opportunities on skates in Alaska. Management agencies, however, have been hesitant to allow increased harvests due to the lack of information on the ecology and population dynamics of skates, and the bioeconomics of skate fisheries. Specifically focusing on the two most commonly landedskate species in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA), the big skate (Beringraja binoculata) and the longnose skate (Raja rhina), I conducted an interdisciplinary project to address these knowledge gaps. First, I advanced our understanding of the movement patterns and habitat use of skates by satellite tagging big skates in the GOA. The results show that big skates can, and likely frequently do, travel long distances, cross management boundaries within the GOA, and spend more time in deeper waters than previously thought. Second, I used the insights from the movement study to develop the first stock assessment models for skates in the GOA. This represents an important improvement in modeling, laying the groundwork for the North Pacific Fishery Management Council to move from Tier 5 (more data limited) to Tier 3 (less data limited) harvest control rules, which should lead to increased confidence with which the total allowable catch (TAC) for skates is set. Finally, I used the sustainable harvest estimates from the stock assessment models to develop a model that examined the impacts of management decisions on the profitability of skate fishing. My research provides essential information about these understudied fishes, helping to improve the sustainability and profitability of skate harvests. Incorporation of best available science regarding skate ecology, population dynamics, and bioeconomics into fishery management fosters more responsible development of skate fisheries, sustainable fishery revenues, and employment, and reduces the risk of overfishing, stock collapse, and prolonged fishery closures. It is my hope that fishery management agencies and the fishing industry make use of the new information and insights presented in this dissertation to work collaboratively towards the responsible development of skate fisheries.
    • Modeling and exploring battery management strategies for use of LiCoO₂ lithium polymer cells in cold climates

      Thompson, Isaac D.; Wies, Richard; Raskovic, Dejan; Lawlor, Orion (2018-05)
      As the use of batteries to power vehicles becomes more common, a robust battery management system becomes necessary to monitor and maintain the batteries. Cold weather places a further burden on this system especially in small electric vehicles such as snowmobiles where it is desirable to use every bit of available energy from the battery cells. The problem with current battery management technology is that use of batteries in cold temperatures is often not addressed. The objective of this research was to develop an appropriate model of a lithium polymer cell with a cathode comprised of LiCoO₂ and develop an optimized charge/discharge method taking into account the effects of extreme cold weather and cell state of charge imbalance. A cell model was adapted and tuned that accurately captures the dynamics of a lithium polymer cell when discharged at temperatures below freezing. The model results were verified against cells discharged in an environmental chamber, which allowed accurate control of ambient temperature. Multiple scenarios were explored, looking at the effects of ambient temperature, cell initial temperature, internal heating, battery pack insulation, and how rapidly the cells were discharged. The results of the optimized battery management strategies showed improvements in the energy delivery capability of lithium polymer battery packs for small vehicles operating in extreme cold environments. In addition, this research extended the LiCoO₂ model down to -20 °C using validated data, showed that perceived cell capacity loss at low temperatures is primarily due to increased internal resistance, demonstrated that measured cell terminal voltage can rise under load at low temperatures, and showed that increasing the capacity of a battery pack has a better than linear gain in usable energy versus increased battery capacity. I.e., doubling battery pack capacity will more than double the useable range of the vehicle.
    • Moose (Alces alces) browse enhancement and sustainable forestry as a rural development tool in the sub-Arctic boreal forest region of Alaska

      Cain, Bruce David (2014-05)
      This project studies indigenous and western moose browse management issues in the sub-arctic boreal forest and how this topic relates to rural development. Chapter one explains the methodology of the project. Chapter two describes how moose browse and biomass management support rural development and investigates productivity potential of combining moose browse management with sustainable forestry and biomass production. Chapter three investigates landscape and habitat management principles from a customary and traditional practice versus a scientific approach. It looks at management models in the following territories: Alaska, Canada, Continental US, Mongolia/Russia and Scandinavia. Chapter four investigates indigenous wildlife management systems and other indigenous wildlife policy issues. Chapter five is a selected annotated bibliography. The project has a focus on the Ahtna region of central Alaska and recognizes the implications of these issues for this region.

      Wang, Yinhai; Jiang, Ying; Gottsacker, Christopher; Zeng, Ziqiang (2019-06)
      Traffic crashes are one of the leading causes of death among all people in the United States, but the rates among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations are significantly higher than other groups. In fact, rural areas in general are disadvantaged from a traffic safety perspective due to the lack of funding and challenges in safety improvement decisions. This may contribute to the much higher fatality rate on rural roadways than on urban roadways. Additionally, there is a known issue of underreporting of fatal crashes of tribal members. Thus, an increased focus on rural, isolated, tribal, and indigenous (RITI) community traffic safety is necessary in order to progress towards zero fatalities. The need for quality data is recognized, and even included in many tribal transportation plans, but implementation and collection of the data varies. Quality data enables better safety analysis and enables greater support for traffic safety improvements. An easy-to-use and multisource database would enable tribes throughout the state and other rural communities to more readily manage data and apply for improvement funding. In order to reach this point, it is necessary to have agreements with tribes on crash data collection and usage, and understand local customs, needs, and current practices. This research aimed to form trusting and lasting relationships with tribal leaders in Washington State in order to facilitate crash database management and traffic safety analysis in their communities. The outreach activities included meetings with local tribal leaders, interviews, and attendance and presentations at tribal conferences. Ultimately a formal research agreement was signed with one tribe in Washington State granting access to the fatal and serious injury crash data they had collected.
    • Representative Rivers: An Experimental Research Program in River Recreation Management

      Jubenville, Alan (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1983-04)
      Earlier attempts at synthesizing research needs and priorities were not fruitful. It became an exercise in which I subconsciously tried to produce a document that was acceptable through peer review. I styled my writing and format after other analyses that I had read. It seemed the natural thing to do - to look just like the others so mine would be accepted. At the same time, I tried to be different. It became a matter of shifting chairs around the table, but somehow the dinner still looked the same. I did not really realize what I was doing until Drs. Workman and Becker, in separate reviews, pointed out the problem. They simply said I was not covering new ground or even looking critically at river-recreation management. The second attempt was more progressive in terms of reviewing previous research and management theory, and proposing a new approach to river recreation management research; but it was too disjointed to be effective in communicating the problems of present research and means of overcoming those problems. At least one thing became clear - most of the research done in recreation, particularly river recreation, was based on survey research designs which required a lot of data-crunching and liberal interpretation. As reproved by W. G. Workman, "Torture the data until nature confesses." In fact, much of the belief in the process of survey research appears to be related to the apparent ability to overcome inadequacies of research design by simply increasing sample size and then manipulating that data until some significant relationship is noted .
    • The reproductive biology and management of walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) in the Gulf of Alaska

      Williams, Benjamin C.; Kruse, Gordon; Criddle, Keith; Dorn, Martin; Quinn, Terrance II (2018-08)
      Ecosystem-based fishery management (EBFM) entails treating resource allocation and management as elements of a comprehensive framework that accounts for ecological linkages. The goal of EBFM is to maintain ecosystem resiliency in a manner that provides for the services desired e.g., fishery catch, species abundance, economic viability. Historically fisheries have been managed on a per species basis with a general focus on increasing or decreasing harvest rates. This management strategy often excludes meaningful processes such as interactions with other species, environmental changes, and economic effects of management changes. One feasible path for implementation of EBFM is through enhancement of existing single-species fishery management models. Contemporary age-structured stock assessment models generally use an estimate of spawning stock biomass (SSB), i.e., the biomass of female spawning fish, to approximate stock reproductive potential (RP). This approximation inherently assumes a proportional relationship between SSB and RP. Maturity at age or at length is a key aspect of reproductive biology that is central to estimating both RP and SSB. As a sequential augmentation to a single species management model the relationships among body condition, population abundance, the probability of being mature, relative fecundity, and environmental correlates were examined for female walleye pollock Gadus chalcogrammus in the Gulf of Alaska. Maturity data were corrected for spatial sampling bias using a mixed-effects generalized additive model. Once corrected for spatial bias, relationships between maturity, ocean temperature, body condition, ocean productivity (in the form of chlrophyll-a), and population abundance were explored. Estimates of fecundity were updated through the processing of archived samples and were also examined with mixed-effects generalized additive models to explore relationships between the previously listed covariates. Multiple measures of RP were examined to explore differences between methods currently incorporated into the stock assessment and updated measures of total egg production and time varying maturity. Walleye pollock body condition is density-dependent, declining with population abundance. However, after accounting for the effects of length, age, location, year, chlorophyll-a concentrations, summer ocean temperature and sample haul, condition has a positive effect on the probability of a fish being mature. Similarly, condition has a positive effect on relative fecundity, after accounting for length, age, egg diameter, chlorophyll-a concentrations, winter ocean temperature and sample haul. A positive relationship is observed between depth-integrated summer ocean temperature and maturity and depth-integrated winter ocean temperature and fecundity. Chlorophyll-a concentrations have a dome shaped relationship with maturity, peaking at 2.3 mg/m⁻³, and a negative relationship with fecundity. Variations in body condition have a direct influence on the estimated RP of the fish stock through both differences in the maturation schedule and total egg production. Over some periods these updated estimates of RP differ from estimates of female SSB from the annual stock assessment. Alternative estimates of annual RP, particularly total egg production, may provide better estimates of annual reproductive output than spawning stock biomass. In addition, relationships to density-dependent and density-independent factors provide informative predictions that can be incorporated into stock assessment analyses. Inclusion of spatially explicit information for walleye pollock maturity has implications for understanding stock reproductive biology and thus the setting of sustainable harvest rates used to manage this valuable fishery. Additionally, because management decisions have economic as well as biological consequences a suite of management strategies were simulated to examine the economic viability of a proposed small-vessel walleye pollock fishery in Alaska state waters in the Gulf of Alaska. As a case-study for straddling stocks, an agent-based model was developed to examine a suite of available federal and state management strategies as they relate to the economic viability of a nascent Alaska state-waters trawl fishery for walleye pollock that may develop after a long history of parallel state and federal waters management. Results of alternative strategies were compared in terms of indicators, such as variance of catch and quasi-rent value. Given the input characteristics of these simulations, the management strategy that produces the best overall improvements relative to status quo involved a federal-waters management strategy that allows for community-based cooperatives and an open access strategy in state-waters. Agent-based models may be used to inform managers of the underlying dynamics of catches and revenues in order to avoid unintended consequences of management decisions and to improve the likelihood of attaining fishery management objectives. This dissertation provides incremental additions to our knowledge of walleye pollock reproductive biology its spatial and temporal dynamics, and environmental correlates that may serve as ecological indices. These indices, coupled with an improved understanding of the socio-economic examinations of fishery management changes through agent-based modeling, may assist in producing more holistic management strategies, such as EBFM.
    • Responses of Biennial Sweetclovers of Diverse Latitudinal Adaptation to Various Management Procedures in Alaska

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1994-06)
      This report summarizes eight experiments with sweetclover (Melilotus species). Objectives were (a) determine responses of numerous cultivars and strains, representing a wide range of latitudinal adaptation, to various management procedures, (b) identify management options that contribute to improved winter survival, (c) delineate management procedures for maximizing yields, nutritional value, and usefulness of sweetclover for forage production in Alaska, and (d) identify logical avenues for future management research with sweetclover in this north-latitude area. Species of sweetclover included were biennial yellow (M. officinalis), biennial white (M. alba), and annual white (M. alba var. annua). All experiments except one were conducted at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska; one experiment was conducted at the Fairbanks Experiment Farm (64.9oN) in central Alaska’s Tanana Valley.
    • A review of oil spill history and management on the North Slope of Alaska

      Davila, Amanda (2013-12)
      Alaska has an abundance of natural resources including oil, natural gas and coal. It is critical to minimize the occurrence of oil spills to ensure protection of Alaska's people and the environment. The objective of this project is twofold. One is to provide a quantification of the number of spills on the North Slope (NS) as well as the number of contaminated sites that are generated, describe the regulatory requirements for the Arctic zone, and discuss cleanup methods. Second is to describe the ADEC regulations as they pertain to terrestrial oil spills. The region of study begins north of Alyeska's Pump Station 4 at the Dalton Highway milepost 270, TAPS 144, north to the Beaufort Sea, encompassing all oil related operations. This review excludes spills at villages (not related to oil field operations), and releases to the atmosphere (e.g., halon, propane). Additionally, spills at formally used defense sites (FUDS) and long range radar sites are also excluded from this study. Spills that result in long term monitoring and cleanup are managed as contaminated sites. The data reveals that the majority of contaminated sites have been cleaned up with no institutional controls in place. The number of spills on the North Slope is consistent with activity. The time during the peak oil is when there are a higher number of spills. Over time, as the oil production and activity decline, so do the number of spills with a few exceptions. The decline in oil production has limited activity and growth on the NS.
    • Social dimensions of invasive plant management: an Alaska case study

      Callear, Tara L.; Fix, Pete; Brinkman, Todd; Graziano, Gino (2018-05)
      Uncertainty pervades attempts to identify an efficient management response to the threat of invasive plants. Sources of uncertainty include the paucity of data, measurement errors, variable invasiveness, and unpredictable impacts of the control methods. Rather than relying on this uncertain evidence from the natural sciences, land managers are taking a more participatory approach to invasive plant management to help alleviate risk and share the responsibility of implementation of proactive control and eradication strategies. This research is intended to contribute to this process of social learning by revealing the beliefs that determine stakeholder management preferences in a case study involving an infestation of Vicia cracca (bird vetch) affecting public lands, north of the Arctic Circle, along the Dalton Highway in Alaska. Possible encroachment of this "highly invasive" species upon vulnerable areas of high conservation significance in this rapidly changing, boreal-arctic system has motivated some stakeholders to advocate an aggressive, early response aimed at eradication using herbicides. This case study applies social-psychological theory in the study of the interactions between human behavior and human outcomes. Interior Alaska stakeholders were engaged in a survey to measure support for a scenario involving the use of herbicides to control the highly-invasive species, Vicia cracca (bird vetch), which has spread north along a road corridor north of the Arctic Circle. Respondents were asked a series of questions about the "likelihood" and "acceptability" of the possible outcomes. The survey results aligned with the expectation that attitudes predict management preference, however the beliefs that influence these attitudes were more complicated than expected. The results address the feedbacks anticipated between the human outcomes and human behavior in the social template within the broader system context that are critical to management success. The purpose is to utilize the results of this specific case study to facilitate the development of ongoing research questions that are generalizable to other affected boreal-arctic ecosystems, regionally and globally.
    • Timothy in Alaska: Characteristics, History, Adaptation, and Management

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1997-10)
      This report (a) summarizes the characteristics of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) as a forage species, (b) reviews briefly the history of its use in the U.S., and the history of timothy evaluations and culture in Alaska, (c) compares winterhardiness of alpine timothy (P. alpinum L.) with common timothy, (d) compares physiological and morphological characteristics of timothy cultivars from widely divergent latitudinal origins and relates those characteristics to winter survival, (e) compares planting dates and different seeding–year harvest dates for seeding– year forage production and effects on subsequent winter survival and productivity, and (f) evaluates forage production of established timothy under a broad array of harvest schedules and frequencies, and compares the effects of those harvest treatments on subsequent winter survival and first–cut forage yield the following year. All experiments were conducted at the University of Alaska Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska.
    • Toward Arctic transitions and sustainability: modeling risks and resilience across scales of governance

      Blair, Berill; Lovecraft, Amy Lauren; Kofinas, Gary P.; Eicken, Hajo; Haley, Sharman; Meek, Chanda (2017-08)
      The Arctic region has been the subject of international attention in recent years. The magnitude of impacts from global climate change, land-use change, and speculations about economic development and accessible polar shipping lanes have intensified this focus. As a result, the potential to manage complex ecological, social and political relationships in the context of changes, risks and opportunities is the focus of a large and growing body of research. This dissertation contributes to the expanding scholarship on managing Arctic social-ecological systems for resilience by answering the question: What conditions improve cross-scale learning and resilience in nested social-ecological systems experiencing rapid changes? Using the framework of social-ecological systems and the drivers of change that can transform fundamental relationships within, three studies profile the spatial and temporal dimensions of learning and risk perceptions that impact nested social systems. The first study presents a spatial and temporal analysis of scale- and level-specific processes that impact learning from risks. It draws on four cases to underscore the need for a plurality of risk assumptions in learning for resilience, and sums up essential resources needed to support key decision points for increasing resilience. Two additional studies present research conducted with northern Alaska communities and resource managers. In these studies, I analyzed the extent to which perceptions of risks scale horizontally (between same-level jurisdictions), and vertically (between levels in a dominant jurisdictional structure). These examples illustrate the need for innovative institutions to enhance cross-scale learning, and to balance global drivers of change with local socioeconomic, cultural, and ecological interests. Based on findings of the dissertation research I propose recommendations to optimize the tools and processes of complex decision making under uncertainty.
    • Toward the Integration of Economics and Outdoor Recreation Management

      Jubenville, Alan; Matulich, Scott C.; Workman, William G. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1986-01)
      The general theme of this bulletin is that improved management of public-sector recreational resources is a multidisciplinary task. To this end, we attempt to integrate elements of outdoor recreation management theory and economics. The bulletin is written for both resource managers and researchers. For the former, our intent is to emphasize the importance of being aware of economic implications-at least conceptually-of management actions that influence the character and availability of recreational opportunities. To researchers involved in developing recreation management theory, we draw attention to the parallel between recreation management theory and the traditional managerial economic model of the firm. To economists, particularly those involved in developing and applying nonmarket valuation techniques, we draw attention to the types of decisions faced by resource managers. We argue that the most important resource allocation issues are of the incremental variety, so nonmarket valuation should also yield incremental values. These values alone, however, are not sufficient economic input into rational public choice analysis. The missing link , or nexus, between outdoor recreation management theory and economic analysis is the integration of supply and demand, as called for by traditional managerial economics. Collaborative research to develop recreation supply response functions akin to agricultural production functions is an essential step that is missing from both literatures. Theoretical and applied work assume greater practical importance if they feed information into this broadened framework. It is our hope that this bulletin will bring the disciplines closer to that realization.
    • Why did Alaska eliminate the Alaska Coastal Management Program?

      Wilson, Ryan M.; Todd, Susan; O'Donoghue, Brian P.; Speight, Jeremy S. (2018-05)
      In 1972, the federal government passed the Coastal Zone Management Act. The federal government recognized that there is a national interest in effective management of the nation's coasts. The act created a program that made it possible for states to collaborate with the federal government to manage the nation's coastal areas and resources. In July of 2011, after thirty-two years of active participation in the program, Alaska became the only eligible state or territory to choose to no longer take part in the program. This action significantly affected Alaska's ability to manage the state's coastline and resources. This research is a qualitative case study that documents the events leading up to the establishment of the Alaska Coastal Management Program, its implementation, its elimination, and the initiative regarding its possible reinstatement. The research evaluates the current form of Alaska's coastal management practices to determine if it meets Elinor Ostrom's design principles for effective common property resource management, as well as theories on decentralization/devolution, polycentric governance, and adaptability and resilience. The research concludes that Alaska's choice to eliminate the Alaska Coastal Management Program was influenced by the interests of natural resource extraction agencies and a consequence of divisive party politics. The research finds that the effect of eliminating the Alaska Coastal Management Program was that the State of Alaska took a significant step away from what science recommends as prudent ways to manage common property resources.