• Pacific sleeper sharks in the Northeast Pacific Ocean: relative abundance, plausible incidental exploitation rates, trophic ecology, and habitat use

      Courtney, Dean Louis; Adkison, Milo D.; Foy, Robert; Sigler, Mike; Criddle, Keith R.; DiNardo, Gerard (2017-12)
      Pacific sleeper shark relative abundance indices in the eastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska were developed from sablefish longline surveys and the sustainability of a plausible range in Pacific sleeper shark incidental exploitation rates in the Gulf of Alaska was evaluated with a risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation for use in fisheries management. A significant increase in Pacific sleeper shark relative abundance was identified in the Gulf of Alaska during the years 1989-2003. The aggregate risk of ending in an overfished condition in the Gulf of Alaska increased from 0% under a low exploitation rate scenario to 59% under a high exploitation rate scenario. Baseline information about Pacific sleeper shark trophic ecology and habitat utilization in the eastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska was developed for use in ecosystem-based fishery management. Analysis of stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ¹⁵N) and lipid normalized carbon (δ¹³C′) identified significant geographic and ontogenetic variability in the trophic ecology of Pacific sleeper sharks in the eastern Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska and revealed wider variability in the feeding ecology of Pacific sleeper sharks than previously obtained from diet data based on stomach contents alone. Time series analysis of Pacific sleeper shark electronic tag data from the Gulf of Alaska identified a simple autoregressive relationship governing short-term movements (hours) throughout the time series which included substantial variation in longer time period movement patterns (months) and demonstrated that statistical inference about habitat utilization could be drawn from simultaneous analysis of an entire time series depth profile (six months of data) stored on an electronic archival tag.