• MIXED-USE SAFETY ON RURAL FACILITIES IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST: Consideration of Vehicular, Non-Traditional, and Non-Motorized Users

      Belz, Nathan; Chang, Kevin (Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium, 2018-08-15)
      In the United States, one in 12 households do not own a personal automobile and approximately 13% of those who are old enough to drive do not. Trips by these individuals are being made in one of many other possible modes, creating the need to “share space” between many forms of travel. The goal of this project is to: improve safety and minimize the dangers for all transportation mode types while traveling in mixed-use environments on rural facilities through the development and use of engineering and education safety measures. To that end, this report documents three specific efforts by the project team. First, a comprehensive literature review of mixed-use safety issues with consideration of non-motorized and non-traditional forms of transportation. Second, a novel analysis of trauma registry data. Third, development, execution and analysis of the Pacific Northwest Transportation Survey geared toward understanding safety perceptions of mixed-use users. Most notably, findings indicate that ATVs (and similar non-traditional-type vehicles) are used on or near roads 24% of the time and snowmachines are used on or near roads 23% of the time. There are significantly more (twice as many) ATV-related on-road traumas in connected places than isolated places in Alaska and three times more traumas in highway connected places than in secondary road connected places. Comparably, bicycles had 449 on-road traumas between 2004 and 2011 whereas ATVs had 352 on-road traumas. Users of all modes who received formalized training felt safer in mixed-use environments than those who reported having no training at all.
    • PEDESTRIAN TRAVEL-TIME MAPS FOR CORDOVA, ALASKA: An anisotropic model to support tsunami evacuation planning

      Macpherson, Amy; Gardine, Lea; Nicolsky, Dmitry (2020-06)
      Tsunami-induced pedestrian evacuation for Cordova is evaluated using an anisotropic modeling approach developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is based on path-distance algorithms and accounts for variations in land cover and directionality in the slope of terrain. We model evacuation of pedestrians to exit points from the tsunami hazard zone. The pedestrian travel is restricted to the roads only. Results presented here are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies for tsunami inundation assessment, evacuation planning, and public education to mitigate future tsunami hazards.
    • PEDESTRIAN TRAVEL-TIME MAPS FOR PERRYVILLE, ALASKA: An anisotropic model to support tsunami evacuation planning

      Gardine, Lea; Nicolsky, Dmitry (2019-08)
      Tsunami-induced pedestrian evacuation for the community of Perryville is evaluated using an anisotropic modeling approach developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is based on path-distance algorithms and accounts for variations in land cover and directionality in the slope of terrain. We model evacuation of pedestrians to exit points located at the tsunami hazard zone boundary. Pedestrian travel-time maps are computed for two cases: i) travel to an existing evacuating shelter and ii) travel to either the evacuation or an alternative shelter. Results presented here are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies for tsunami inundation assessment, evacuation planning, and public education to mitigate future tsunami hazards.
    • PEDESTRIAN TRAVEL-TIME MAPS FOR SITKA, ALASKA: An anisotropic model to support tsunami evacuation planning

      Macpherson, Amy; Gardine, Lea; Nicolsky, Dmitry (2020-06)
      Tsunami-induced pedestrian evacuation for Sitka is evaluated using an anisotropic modeling approach developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is based on path-distance algorithms and accounts for variations in land cover and directionality in the slope of terrain. We model evacuation of pedestrians to exit points from the tsunami hazard zone. The pedestrian travel is restricted to the roads only. Results presented here are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies for tsunami inundation assessment, evacuation planning, and public education to mitigate future tsunami hazards.
    • PEDESTRIAN TRAVEL-TIME MAPS FOR WHITTIER, ALASKA: An anisotropic model to support tsunami evacuation planning

      Gardine, Lea; Nicolsky, Dmitry (2019-05)
      Tsunami-induced pedestrian evacuation for the community of Whittier is evaluated using an anisotropic modeling approach developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The method is based on path-distance algorithms and accounts for variations in land cover and directionality in the slope of terrain. We model evacuation of pedestrians to exit points from the tsunami hazard zone boundary. The pedestrian travel is restricted to the roads only. Results presented here are intended to provide guidance to local emergency management agencies for tsunami inundation assessment, evacuation planning, and public education to mitigate future tsunami hazards.