• Bringing Twygs to life: PACE based lessons in an adult ESL classroom

      Harris, Erica; Martelle, Wendy; Siekmann, Sabine; Stewart, Kimberly Aragon (2017-12)
      English grammar is a daunting subject for language learners and teachers alike. Traditionally, grammar is taught in an explicit manner in a teacher-fronted classroom. Rules are given and explained to students, who then practice with drills and example problems. As an alternative approach to teaching grammar, this project incorporates the PACE model (Presentation, Attention, Co-Construction, Extension) and task-based language teaching (TBLT). This method of teaching is a departure from traditional explicit-style teaching, and focuses more on the learner's role in the classroom than on the teacher's role. The PACE model uses stories to teach grammar, in this case English prepositions. Over the course of three weeks, a series of story-based lessons along with mini tasks were administered to a small academic writing class of adult ESL students. In addition to focusing on prepositions, the lessons were designed to allow practice for several other grammatical features appropriate to an academic writing class. The incorporation of PACE and task based activities showed that learners were able to understand the prepositions and use them appropriately in an original writing task.
    • Diigwandak: stories from a Gwich'in language classroom

      Hayton, Allan; Siekmann, Sabine; Hishinlai', "Kathy R. Sikorski"; Marlow, Patrick (2013-05)
      This study describes a semester in an Indigenous language high school classroom during the spring of 2011. The goal of this research is to capture the experiences of a novice Indigenous language teacher, and his students. High and low points are shared as the researcher seeks to find his place in the work of Indigenous language revitalization, and students strive to learn a second language. Data for this qualitative research was collected through teacher auto-ethnographic journal entries, lesson plans, student journals and projects, exit interviews with students, and two recorded classroom observations. Emergent themes of Time, Responsibility, Community, Fluency, Emotions, and Self-Doubt capture significant moments in the classroom, and reveal close connections between teacher and student experiences. The purpose of conducting this research is to provide insights for novice Indigenous language teachers into their classroom dynamics. The researcher also discovered areas of possible future research for Indigenous language teaching and learning.
    • Improving the renovation, repair and painting training course to eliminate childhood lead poisonings: Wisconsin observations

      Hildebrandt, Anke M.; McBeath, Gerald; Meek, Chanda; Greenberg, Joshua (2013-12)
      In 2011, I worked briefly with the Asbestos and Lead Program for the State of Wisconsin. It was my job to conduct audits of our training providers as well as on-site inspections of work sites. During my time there I discovered a real disconnect between what I saw in the field and what is taught in class. Wisconsin has its own lead rules that are more stringent than the EPA's. After taking a critical look at the EPA's Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule (RRP) curriculum, I saw where the problems lay. The required hands-on training does not present the skills in a logical order and the demonstration is not similar enough to reality to be retained and transferred to a worksite consistently. Instead of contractors and homeowners learning how to conduct a job safely from start to finish, they are presented specific skills broken down into 11 skill sets. Over a four month time span I took the EPA curriculum and wrote scripts, videotaped, edited and narrated training videos with the assistance of Department of Health Service staff to eliminate the disconnect between the classroom learning and the real world. The videos demonstrate lead-safe work practices in a manner intended to increase retention rates. The videos were released in July 2012, and since then inspection statistics show a 13 percent decrease in offenses from certified workers and a 31 percent decrease in violations overall. Data for the first half of 2013 also indicated a positive trend; violations by certified contracts are down an additional percent. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation conducted a study in 1996, finding that 62 percent of Alaska private homes were built prior to 1979. This means approximately 49 percent of all Alaskan homes contain lead-based paint, 14 percent higher than the national average. The use of lead-based paint in colder regions is not uncommon. Lead-based paint was praised for its durability and longevity, making it ideal for regions in the circumpolar north. Americans spend nearly 90 percent of their time indoors. In cold climates, such as the Arctic, people tend to spend even more time indoors (EPA, 2012). Increased time indoors allows for increased wear on friction surfaces in the home. For children, deteriorating lead-based paint and lead in house dust are the primary and often most concentrated sources of lead (CDC, 2012). The Center for Disease Control reports that in 2004 there were 143,000 deaths and a loss of 8,977,000 disability-adjusted life years attributed to lead exposure worldwide. The primary cause was lead-associated adult cardiovascular disease and mild intellectual disability in children. Children represent approximately 80 percent of the disease impact attributed to lead, with an estimated 600,000 new cases of childhood intellectual disabilities resulting from blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 10 υg/dL(CDC, 2012).
    • An indigenous teacher preparation framework

      Tom, Lexie J.; John, Theresa; Barnhardt, Ray; Amarok, Barbara; Marker, Michael (2018-05)
      The result of this research is a framework to support Indigenous Teacher Preparation within the Native Studies department at Northwest Indian College (NWIC). I attempted to answer three main questions in the duration of this dissertation research. The first question is, how do we recreate an Indigenous method for teaching and learning in a modern educational institution? The second question is, what does a Native Studies faculty member need to be prepared to teach classes? The third question is, how do we measure learning? Participants for this research included elders from the Lummi community, Native Studies faculty members at NWIC, and administrators. As an Indigenous researcher, I have defined my own Indigenous epistemology and this guided my research. I have chosen a qualitative research design to assist me in answering these research questions. The data were analyzed and coded into main themes. This analysis produced teacher competencies and methods of measurement that will be used within the Indigenous teacher preparation framework. This framework is important to the future of the Native Studies Leadership program and NWIC.
    • Linay'sdulkaas de': let's start sewing

      Shaginoff-Stuart, Sondra; Ts'akae, Kaggos; Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Tuttle, Siri (2016-12)
      This paper proposes Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) as a teaching method for Ahtna language learners. TBLT focuses on engaging learners in meaningful activities or tasks which they accomplish through using the target language, learning Ahtna in the process. TBLT incorporates deeper understandings and meaning by teaching students the language in a cultural context. For this paper, the focus activity will be making a beaded necklace. Beading has been an important activity for me, from the time of learning about my culture and people from my Aunt Katie Wade. The website accompanying the project and be found at: http://www.ourlanguagecameback.com/.
    • The malleability of disciplinary identity

      Mericle, Megan E.; Stanley, Sarah; Farmer, Daryl; Brightwell, Gerri; Harney, Eileen (2017-05)
      This paper tracks the progress of a beginning undergraduate writer's disciplinary becoming. Much research in disciplinary identity focuses on graduate students and advanced undergraduate writers; however, sites of disciplinary identity formation also occur early on during the required first-year writing course. These sites are crucial because they inform the student writer's entrance into the academic conversation, and reveal the extent to which early assumptions about disciplinary roles affects further disciplinary identity formation. Drawing from Ivanič's framework of writer identity, this case study reveals the ever-shifting tensions of "disciplinary becoming." The analysis captures how a writer's discursive self shifts from a static disciplinary identity to a more malleable disciplinary identity through a cross-analysis of two separate writing assignments in order to learn how the student's petroleum engineer identity is performed, contradicted and re-negotiated. I argue that this shift will enable writing knowledge transfer and overall identity formation.
    • The Northwest Arctic institute: an indigenous approach to prevention

      Peter, Evon; Wexler, Lisa; Ramos, Judith; Leonard, Beth (2016-05)
      This paper will cover concepts of leadership in Indigenous contexts, Indigenous community development strategies, and Indigenous community healing and wellness, as they apply to the history and framework of the Northwest Arctic Institute (NWAI) program. The NWAI is a weeklong culturally based prevention program designed for Alaska Native peoples. The program incorporates Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy into the sharing of core teachings about resilience, adaptation, and cultural identity. It covers the impacts of rapid social, cultural, and political changes on the lives of Alaska Native peoples. The NWAI is for adults interested in furthering their own personal healing and in working on wellness within their families and communities. This paper explains an Indigenous approach to healing and the theoretical framework for supporting community level capacity building models among Alaska Native peoples. The paper also describes the NWAI planning process and methodology. In addition to the paper, which will meet completion requirements for the Masters in Rural Development at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, I will co-produce a documentary film on the NWAI to share our experience with the intention of raising awareness, fostering conversation, and inspiring others to action. The analysis and descriptions are based on the my life experience as an Alaska Native leader. I have served Indigenous communities for twenty years in roles spanning ten unique capacities, including education administrator, tribal administrator, tribal chief, national tribal non-profit executive director, for-profit Alaska Native owned corporate chief executive officer, tribal renewable energy manager, tribal wellness manager, and as a board member to regional, national, and international Indigenous organizations. The theoretical framework for leadership selection is derived from my work in developing, planning, and leading facilitation of the Northwest Arctic Institute, which was based on Indigenous youth leadership development and prevention experience at the local, national, and international levels. This history is covered within the Introduction and Program History sections.
    • Paluwiigum beksdid Sugt'stun aggaggtatuguut Port Graham's Sugt'stun workers plan

      LaBelle, Marleah Makpiaq; Ramos, Judy; Stern, Charlene; Mitchell, Roy; Jones, Jenny Bell (2015-12)
      This Sustainability Plan was written for the Native Village of Port Graham for their language program, Tamamta Litnaurluta. The Native Village of Port Graham, a federally recognized tribe that serves the Sugpiaq people of Port Graham, Alaska, received a three-year language immersion grant from the Administration for Native Americans (ANA) to provide language instruction for students ranging from Head Start through the 12th grade. The ANA grant will expire at the end of the 2015-2016 school year. This Sustainability Plan provides programmatic recommendations for the Native Village of Port Graham to consider for continuing Tamamta Litnaurluta beyond the life of the grant. The Sustainability Plan includes a funding plan, which contains grants the Tribe can pursue, and a sustainable income plan that address possible scenarios for the operating costs of the language program.
    • Quliangnanek litnauwilita - Let's teach through stories

      Branson, Candace; Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Thorne, Steve; Drabeck, Alisha (2015-12)
    • Quliriyaraq: storytelling using the pace model

      Strunk, Dora Emma Apurin; Martelle, Wendy; John, Theresa; Siekmann, Sabine (2015-12)
    • Taminek taiut

      Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Martelle, Wendy; Azuyak, Peggy (2015-12)
    • Teaching English language learners in Alaska: a study of translanguaging choices

      Crace-Murray, Jacquelyn A.; Siekmann, Sabine; Parker-Webster, Joan; Marlow, Patrick; John, Theresa (2018-08)
      The number of English Language Learners continues to rise in U.S. schools. However, general classroom teachers are not equipped with English language acquisition methodologies and strategies to teach their increasingly diverse student populations. Because of the deficit views regarding bilingual students, and the monolingual ideologies present in today's public school system, these attitudes and perspectives impact teacher practices in the classroom. They negatively affect student language learning by neglecting to utilize the vast linguistic repertoires bilinguals bring with them to the classroom as resources. They also lead to the over-referral of English language learners for special education services and to teacher burn-out. Being drawn to the concept and utility of translanguaging, I conducted research on my own teaching practices as an English Language Learner Specialist in Alaska. From an autoethnographic stance, I focused on how I encouraged or discouraged translanguaging, what factors impacted my own attitudes and expectations towards translanguaging, and how those attitudes and expectations changed over the course of the action research. This occurred within the context of language moments and critical incidents with my students where I collected field notes, audio files, and reflexive journaling as data instruments. Using constructivist grounded theory for the analytic framework, I developed an informed awareness of my teaching, and how I can utilize translanguaging in the classroom to create meaning, invoke learning, and maximize communication. I found that I encouraged translanguaging with my students for 14 reasons/purposes. I categorized these reasons/purposes into three action-based categories: 1) Demonstrating Unity, 2) Working in Multiple Languages, and 3) Using Good Teaching Practices. The factors that impacted these practices included academic material and time constraint management, teacher/student language proficiencies, student dynamics, and school/classroom climate. Over the course of the study, my own attitudes and expectations towards translanguaging changed from an umbrella term for linguistic practices such as code-switching, code-mixing, and codemeshing to a strategic, purposeful, and intentional process along the language acquisition continuum. This change impacted how I use my languages in the classroom, and how I teach.
    • Updating the art history curriculum: incorporating virtual and augmented reality technologies to improve interactivity and engagement

      Bender, Brook; Healy, Joanne; Via, Skip; Lott, Chris (2017-05)
      This project investigates how the art history curricula in higher education can borrow from and incorporate emerging technologies currently being used in art museums. Many art museums are using augmented reality and virtual reality technologies to transform their visitors' experiences into experiences that are interactive and engaging. Art museums have historically offered static visitor experiences, which have been mirrored in the study of art. This project explores the current state of the art history classroom in higher education, which is historically a teacher-centered learning environment and the learning effects of that environment. The project then looks at how art museums are creating visitor-centered learning environments; specifically looking at how they are using reality technologies (virtual and augmented) to transition into digitally interactive learning environments that support various learning theories. Lastly, the project examines the learning benefits of such tools to see what could (and should) be implemented into the art history curricula at the higher education level and provides a sample section of a curriculum demonstrating what that implementation could look like. Art and art history are a crucial part of our culture and being able to successfully engage with it and learn from it enables the spread of our culture through digital means and of digital culture.
    • Visualizing second language learning: a microgenetic case study using pantomime comics for adult ESL students

      Darrow, Daniel J. (2012-08)
      Comics are regularly used in language classrooms. Most language teachers and researchers in applied linguistics justify the use of comics through individual characteristics such as motivation, humor, and aiding comprehension. Some studies use comics in social settings, but do not consider the images as a significant factor in language development. This study investigates the effectiveness of instruction using pantomime comics on both language acquisition and language development for adult English as second language (ESL) students. A mixed methods approach is employed to investigate individual acquisition and language development during a collaborative task. Analyses of written tests, transcriptions, and audio/video data using analytical foci, deixis, and transcription conventions following conversation analysis ascertains how comic images affect individual learners and contribute to language development between learners. Results suggest that comics can benefit the language learner individually and act as a powerful, mediational tool for language development and co-construction of knowledge between peers.
    • Yuuyaraq: a transformative approach

      Kaganak, Wanda; Siekmann, Sabine; John, Theresa; Martelle, Wendy (2015-12)