• The catalyst for contemporary jihad: the religious leaders and their strategies

      DeWitt, Ronnie; Duke, Rob; Skya, Walter; Sine, Don; Botros, Maged; Boylan, Brandon (2021-08)
      This dissertation provides insight in the methodologies utilized by leaders of jihadist terrorist organizations who create a dedicated following in their pursuit of establishing a global caliphate. The research in this project illustrates a linkage from these charismatic leaders to the sacred edicts of the Koran, the Hadith, the Sunna, Sharia (Islamic jurisprudence), and the prophet Muhammad. Moreover, it bears out a unique perspective in academic national security studies which delves deeper than similar published works regarding subject matter focused on both violent and stealth jihad (also known as the non-violent usurpation of non-Islamic cultures). These subjects are discussed in detail with real-world examples that focus on the surreptitious use of political propaganda and sustaining influence, which are key ingredients necessary to recruit empathetic followers into doing the bidding of Islamic-based terrorist organizations. Without studying the psychological aspect that motivates potential terrorists it would be a daunting task to develop countermeasures in defeating this global threat. This dissertation also reviews key literature related to this concept. This investigative study bears out a perspective that uniquely differs from any previously published work in this discipline due to the author's professional experience outside of academic research. This will become clear in chapter seven which focuses upon the infamous Day of Terror trial in the Southern District of New York Federal Court in 1995. This episode, coupled with other evidence, will prove that jihadists have been striving to establish a global Islamist caliphate by utilizing terrorism and cultural usurpation.
    • Perennial Grass Trials for Forage Purposes In Three Areas of Southcentral Alaska

      Mitchell, William W. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1986-04)
      Forage trials of seeded perennial grasses were conducted at four sites in three areas of southcentral Alaska on soils with pH readings generally below 5.5 (down to 4 .35) . Three trials were at forested locations and one at a subalpine site. Each trial was sustained for three to five harvest years under a two-harvest system. 'Engmo' timothy (Phleum pratense) , the standard forage grass on strongly acidic soils in the region, equaled or, more often , exceeded the other grasses in first-harvest yields, but often was surpassed in second-harvest yields. Grasses often substantially exceeding timothy in second-harvest yields included reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) and entries of tufted hairgrass (Deschampsia caespitosa) and Bering hairgrass (D. beringensis), sometimes providing more total yield than timothy. Some red fescues (Festuca rubra) and 'Nugget' Kentucky bluegrass .(Poa pratensis) also tended to surpass timothy in second growth. Smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) failed at sites with soil pH below 5.3, but persisted at one site with pH varying from 5.3 to 5.7. 'Garrison' creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus) also failed at these sites; its close relative meadow foxtail (A. pratensis), was better adapted to the strongly acidic sites. Indigenous polargrass (Arctagrostis latifolia) about equaled or surpassed timothy in yield at two of the sites, and bluejoint reedgrass (Calamagrostis canadensis) provided comparable but somewhat lower yields. Timothy tended to be higher in digestible dry matter than most grasses, but near to below average in CP, P, K, and Ca concentrations. Some deficiencies occurred in energy values (DDM) and, except for red fescue, in Ca concentrations of first-harvest herbage relative to the requirements of a growing 500-lb steer. Crude protein of second-harvest herbage was deficient for many grasses at two sites, and DDM was marginal to low for some, but especially for bluejoint reedgrass.