• An Evaluation of Herbicides for Control of Wild Oats in Barley: Efficacy, Phytotoxicity, and Barley Variety Susceptibility Studies

      Conn, Jeffrey S. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1986-02)
      The control of wild oats (Avena Jatua L.) in Alaskan spring-planted barley was investigated in a series of experiments conducted from 1981-1984. Rates and times of applications of triallate (a preemergence, soil-incorporated herbicide), diclofop, barban, and difenzoquat (postemergence herbicides) were investigated in relation to control of wild oats and barley yield in 1981-1982. Because of very high wild oats populations. none of the herbicides controlled wild oats to the point of· allowing a barley harvest. Generally, wild oats were best controlled when herbicides were applied at an early growth stage and at the highest application rates. Control of wild oats with triallate was the same whether incorporated using parallel or perpendicular passes of a spike-tooth harrow. In 1983-84 both single herbicide treatments and combinations of herbicides were studied. Barban, diclofop, and difenzoquat were applied alone or with triallate applied in the fall or spring in emulsifiable concentrate or granular formulation. Wild oats population levels were lower in these 2 years, and applications of even single herbicides provided good wild oats control. Of the individual herbicides, diclofop provided the best control of wild oats. In general, when triallate was applied in conjunction with diclofop, barban, or difenzoquat, control of wild oats was better and higher barley yields were obtained than when a single wild oats herbicide was applied. When triallate was applied in the fall, the granular formulation provided better control of wild oats than the emulsifiable formulation. In a study of the response of eight barley varieties ('Eero', 'Paavo', 'Galt', 'Otra', 'Otal', 'Datal', 'Udal', 'Weal') to high rates and late times of application of the four herbicides, none of the varieties were differentially susceptible. Diclofop decreased heights of all varieties and decreased test weights.
    • Postemergence Broadleaf Weed Control in Barley

      Conn, Jeffery S.; DeLapp, John A. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1984-09)
      Experiments were conducted from 1981-1983 to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of postemergence herbicides used to control broadleaf weeds in spring-planted barley. The following herbicides were evaluated: MCPA amine (0.37, 0.75, 1.5 lb/A, active ingredient), 2,4-D amine (0.25, 0.5, 1 lb/A), bromoxynil (0.21, 0.43, 0.86 lb/A), and metribuzin (0.11, 0.21, 0.43, 0.86 lb/A). In 1982 and 1983, three additional herbicides were included: dinoseb (0.25, 0.5, 1 Ib/A), dicamba (0.09, 0.18, 0.36 lb/A), and chlorsulfuron (0.04, 0.07, 0.14 lb/A). Weed control was determined through measurements of weed biomass in each herbicide and control plot. Phytotoxicity was measured by barley yield and test weight in all years, and additionally by germination of seed produced in 1982. None of the herbicides except dicamba in 1982 significantly reduced the yield or test weights of barley below that of the control. Common lambsquarters was the only weed present in 1981 and 1982. Bromoxynil and metribuzin provided both early-and late-season control MCPA, 2,4-D, and j dinoseb took longer to control common lambsquarters but provided adequate control by midseason. Dicamba did not control common lambsquarters as well as the other herbicides. In 1983, prostrate knotweed was also present at the study site. None of the herbicides significantly reduced the number of prostrate knotweed below that of the control Germination of 'Galt' barley was not \, affected by treating parent plants with any of the herbicides tested. The following barley varieties were screened for susceptibility to metribuzin injury in 1982: Galt, Lidal, Weal, Otal, Datal, Eero, Paavo, Otra, and Klondike. Only 'Klondike' was highly sensitive to metribuzin.