• An Evaluation of Herbicides for Broadleaf-Weed Control in Rapeseed: Efficacy, Phytotoxicity, and Soil Persistence Studies

      Conn, Jeffery S.; Knight, Charles W. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural Experiment Station, 1984-03)
      At the recommended rates (1.0 lb/A for trifluralin, ethalfluralin, EL5261; 0.75 lb/A for dinitramine; 1.2 lb/A for nitrofen), none of the herbicides we evaluated in these studies reduced rapeseed stands, yields, or test weights. However, at higher rates (1. 5, 3.0 lb A), dinitramine reduced rapeseed stands, but this did not result in decreased yields. None of the other herbicides reduced rapeseed stand, yield, or test weights when applied at up to four times the recommended rate. No trifluralin residues were detected in rapeseed whole-plant or seed samples. All of the herbicides provided adequate control of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.). Corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.) was controlled by trifluralin. ethalfluralin. EL-5261, and nitrofen. All of the herbicides except nitrofen controlled chickweed [Stellaria media (L.) Cyrillo]. In 1979, 51 per cent of the trifluralin applied remained at the end of the growing season in one study while 26 per cent remained in another study. The rate of degradation at three sites in 1979 were as follows (greatest to least); Delta Junction, Matanuska Valley, Fairbanks. Degradation rates of trifluralin were not significantly different in three soil types or at two different application rates. Trifluralin showed no signs of leaching through the soil profile. In 1981, 25 per cent of the trifluralin, 8 per cent of the ethalfluralin, and 24 per cent of the EL-5261 applied remained at the end of the growing season. Despite the relatively long persistence of these preplant, incorporated herbicides, yields and test weights of barley planted in succeeding years were not reduced. A benefit of these persistent residues was control of broadleaf weeds in the succeeding barley crop.