• Subsistence salmon fishing in Beaufort Sea communities

      Cotton, Shelley S.D.; Carothers, Courtney; Craighead George, John (2012-12)
      Environmental change, combined with observations of increasing numbers of salmon in subsistence fisheries, has generated a need for more information about salmon use, abundance, and distribution in the Arctic. Ethnographic research was conducted in Barrow and Nuiqsut, Alaska, in 2010 and 2011 with 41 active fishermen and elders. Salmon catches were perceived to be increasing; however, perceptions about changing salmon abundance were mixed. While pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) have been observed in subsistence fisheries in the central North Slope region for over 50 years, only within the last 10 to 20 years has local use of these resources begun to increase. In this region, salmon are less important as a subsistence resource compared to whitefish species (Coregonus spp.). However, many fishermen participating in the Elson Lagoon gill net fishery near Barrow have begun to target salmon. Harvest estimates for this fishery in 2011 indicated that chum salmon and pink salmon catches comprise the majority of all fish caught (42% and 23%, respectively). Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) have been increasingly targeted, but catches are generally low. While sockeye salmon (O. nerka) numbers were perceived to have increased on the North Slope, catches of this species are rare. Only a few stray coho salmon (O. kisutch) have been captured in this region. Informants identified new stream systems where salmon are present and spawning, suggesting possible distribution shifts. Fishermen in both communities reported developing knowledge of salmon and are increasing their use of salmon as a subsistence resource.