• Agricultural Research 1958

      University of Alaska Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1958-12-30
      An administrative report for the calendar year compiled by the staff in compliance with the several enabling acts, and in accordance with the rules and regulations of the United States Department of Agriculture.
    • Assessment of paper birch trees tapped for sap harvesting near Fairbanks, Alaska

      Trummer, Lori; Malone, Tom (United States Department of Agriculture, US Forest Service Alaska Region, State and Private Forestry Forest Health Protection, Anchorage Office, 2008-01)
      With increased growth in the birch sap extraction industry, the need for assessments of tree health and sustainability of birch tapping practices also grows. Site visits and evaluation of tapping practices were conducted at two commercial harvest locations in the Fairbanks area, Eva Creek in Ester and Cache Creek near Murphy Dome in 2007. In this evaluation we report on walk through observations and a pilot dissection study of tapped trees at each location. Numerous improper tapping practices are reported as well as breach of the Alaska Birch Syrupmakers’ Association (ABSA) “Best Practices Guidelines for Tree Tapping”. There will be a companion biological evaluation to this site visit report produced in 2008 by the same authors that will review the “Best Practices” guidelines developed by the ABSA and evaluate impacts to paper birch trees tapped for sap harvesting in Alaska.
    • A Bark Thickness Model for White Spruce in Alaska Northern Forests

      Malone, Thomas; Liang, Jingjing (Department of Forest Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2009)
      Here we developed a simple linear model to estimate white spruce bark thickness in the northern forests of Alaska. Data were collected from six areas throughout interior and southcentral Alaska. Geographic variation of bark thickness was tested between the Alaska statewide model and for each geographic area. The results show that the Alaska statewide model is accurate, simple, and robust, and has no practical geographic variation over the six areas. The model provides accurate estimates of the bark thickness for white spruce trees in Alaska for a wide array of future studies, and it is in demand by landowners and forest managers to support their management decisions.
    • Beyond “classroom” technology: The equipment circulation program at Rasmuson Library, University of Alaska Fairbanks

      Jensen, Karen (Taylor & Francis Group, 2008-09-30)
      The library at the University of Alaska Fairbanks offers a unique equipment lending program through its Circulation Desk. The program features a wide array of equipment types, generous circulation policies, and unrestricted borrowing, enabling students, staff, and faculty to experiment with the latest in audio, video, and computer technologies, for both academic and personal enrichment projects. The program enjoys great popularity and significant financial support by the University. The results of a recently conducted online patron survey demonstrate the need for continued support and further development of the equipment lending program.
    • A Bibliography of Alaskan Literature: 1724-1924

      Wickersham, James (Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, 1927)
      This volume is supposed to contain a complete list of the titles of all printed books of history, travels, voyages, newspapers, periodicals, and public documents, in English, Russian, German, French, Spanish, etc., relating to, descriptive of, or published in Russian-America, now called Alaska, from 1724 to and including 1924. With the exception of the Introduction it is a mere compilation of the titles of the books, etc., in which Russian-America, or Alaska, is described, or which were printed in Alaska, and are therefore in such intimate relation to the country as to be of value to the student who wishes to study the history of the Territory, or some of the various phases of the development of its material resources. When the compiler had the honor to be sent as Delegate to Congress from Alaska in 1908 he wished to secure for his official use such public documents as had been previously printed by the government, as an aid in his work. A list was prepared of such documents and sent to the Superintendent of Documents, with a request that the items therein be furnished for that use. They were forwarded, but with the information that there were many others. The interested student will notice that the list of United States Public Documents extends from number 6832 to 10,380, and contains 3,548 titles of public documents relating to Alaska. The compiler soon found there were many other books, foreign and domestic, of equal interest in the study of Alaskan problems, and innocently enough entered upon the making of a list of the titles of those which he thought might be needed in presenting to Congress and its committees a proper view of the great Territory, of its potential resources and governmental necessities. Gradually this list increased, as the search was conducted more widely, until the compilation now embraces more than 7,000 titles of general or private publications (not including public documents), in many languages, all relating to the region he represented in Congress. As the search thus begun grew wider in its scope, it grew more interesting in its materials, and the compiler and some of his assistants became chronic book collectors and students of Alaskan history and problems. While every reasonable effort has been made to secure every title of printed books or magazine articles relating to Alaska, and of every book or newspaper printed in the Territory, it is too much to expect that the compilation does contain every such title. So many books and articles in scientific and other periodical publications are so misleading in their titles that it has been found that these are not a fair index to their contents. From time to time new material relating to Alaska is being discovered which lies hidden from the bibliographer who does not read almost every book printed. The best we can say is that we have made a wide search for Alaskan books and have listed every title we could find. A great deal of very valuable matter about the Territory is contained in speeches made in Congress when Alaskan problems are considered by that body, but no attempt has been made to index this scattered material. It will be readily found by the student who will examine the general indexes to the Congressional Record. No attempt has been made, either, to. list the laws passed by Congress for the government of Alaska, except as they have been published in the Charlton Code, 7850, the Carter's Code, 4451, or the Compiled Laws of 1913, 9737, but the indexes to the various volumes of the United States Statutes at large will readily disclose their existence, location and contents, and those engaged in any particular research concerning Congressional matters are referred to those public indexes. Nor has any attempt been made to collect or index maps, private or public, of the Territory or its waters. These maps are usually published in the books or public documents, and will be found therein. Maps of the coast surveys and other public charts may be had, and information about them obtained, by application to the Department from which they are issued. The student is also advised that the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., publishes a Document Catalogue, of which fourteen volumes are now printed, in which a full and careful list is published of all documents issued by the Government. A careful examination of this Document Catalogue will disclose all the titles of books and general data published by the United States about Alaska. These titles are included in this volume to date, but reference to such Document Catalogues may be had for all others published hereafter.
    • Carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the Bering Sea clams Nuculana radiata and Macoma moesta

      Weems, Jared; Iken, Katrin; Gradinger, Rolf; Wooller, Matthew (Elsevier, 2012-06)
      We analyzed bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values (delta C-13 and delta N-15) of the benthic clams Nuculana radiata and Macoma moesta from the Bering Sea during controlled feeding experiments (spring of 2009 and 2010) using isotopically labeled sea ice algae. The aim was to determine the ability of these clam species to assimilate carbon and nitrogen from sea ice algae. Specimens were collected in the Bering Sea and placed into jars without sediment (2009, N. radiata only) or into natural sediment cores (2010, both species). The clams were offered isotopically enriched (both C and N) or non-enriched algal feeds for time periods of 42 (2009) and 18 d (2010). Isotopic assimilation rates for carbon and nitrogen were calculated using the change in the isotope ratios of the clams over the experimental time. N. radiata in the jar experiments had slow isotopic assimilation rates (0.01 to 0.23 parts per thousand d(-1)), with solvent-extractable organic matter/lipids taking up both of the isotope markers fastest and muscle tissue the slowest. Lipids may thus be particularly suitable to track the immediate ingestion of sea ice algal production in benthic consumers. M. moesta showed 30% higher isotopic assimilation compared to N. radiata in sediment cores, likely reflecting the different feeding behaviors of these two species. Based on our results, N. radiata is likely better able to utilize food sources buried in the sediment and may be more competitive over the sediment surface feeding M. moesta under conditions of reduced ice algal production in the northern Bering Sea. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Community-Based Lexicography

      Sikorski, Kathy R. (2002)
      The topic of lexicography generates interesting and diverse opinions and emotions about languages, not only within academics but also among the very people whose heritage languages are being preserved, or in some cases, revitalized. Some speakers and learners of heritage languages do not relate to linguistic terms found in academic works, but at the same time, junior dictionaries do not contain enough linguistic information to satisfy the academics. Can these issues be resolved?
    • Concentration-Discharge Patterns Across the Gulf of Alaska Reveal Geomorphological and Glacierization Controls on Stream Water Solute Generation and Export

      Jenckes, Jordan; Ibarra, Daniel; Munk, Lee (2021-10-19)
      High latitude glacierized coastal catchments of the Gulf of Alaska (GoA) are undergoing rapid hydrologic changes in response to climate change and glacial recession. These catchments deliver important nutrients in the form of both inorganic and organic matter to the nearshore marine environment, yet are relatively understudied with respect to characterization of the sediment and solute generation processes and total yields. Using multiple linear regression informed by Bayesian Information Criterion analysis we empirically demonstrate how watershed characteristics affect suspended sediment and solute generation as represented by concentration-discharge relationships. We find that watershed mean slope and relief control solute generation and that solute yields are influenced most by glacier coverage. We contribute a new flux and concentration-discharge based conceptualization for understanding solute cycles across a hydroclimatic gradient of GoA watersheds that can be used to better understand future watershed responses to rapid hydrologic change.
    • Data-Driven Decisions for Library Liaisons: Exploring Strategies for Effectively Managing Diminishing Monograph Collections

      Jensen, Karen (Taylor & Francis, 2012-01-01)
      Many academic libraries have liaison programs as a means of building relevant and useful library collections and to promote library resources to campus users. Librarians have long served as liaisons without the benefit of much data to guide decisions. In this age of library budget cuts, librarians need to make every dollar count. What collection and use data help liaisons build a quality monograph collection that better meets the needs of library users? This article offers some ideas for providing the data needed by liaisons for more informed decision making and collection management and, ultimately, for ensuring that library materials purchased are needed and used.
    • An etymology for Galiyao

      Holton, Gary (2010)
    • Evidence of a Monopsony: The U.S. and Saudi Arabia before 1974

      Reynolds, Douglas (2019)
      A monopsony is a single buyer for multiple suppliers where the buyer forces the suppliers to pay lower than normal prices. An example of a monopsony is a single employer hiring multiple workers and where the workers have no competitive choice about where else to work and so are forced to accept lower than normal wages offered by the monopsonist. The same situation can happen with oil. Here we show a situation from 1965 to 1974 where Saudi Arabia and OPEC were forced to accept monopsonistic oil prices given by the U.S. and the West, a situation that may actually violate the U.S. Sherman act of 1890.
    • Evidentiality in Dena'ina Athabaskan

      Holton, Gary; Lovick, Olga (Holton, Gary and Olga Lovick. 2009. Evidentiality in Dena'ina Athabascan. Anthropological Linguistics 50(3-4).1-32., 2009)
      Dena'ina evidentials are enclitics with a complex paradigmatic morphology. Their first component varies with person, while the second com- ponent varies with animacy and number, thus marking source and nature of knowledge. Although evidentiality in Dena'ina is not coded as an obligatory inflectional category on the verb, it is also not scattered throughout the gram- mar. The existence of an incipient inflectional evidential system demonstrates the ability of Athabaskan languages to innovate morphological structures outside the verb. The uniqueness of the Dena'ina system demonstrates the heterogeneity of Athabaskan grammar beyond the verb word.
    • High-speed observation of sprite streamers

      Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.; Kanmae, T.; McHarg, M.G.; Haaland, R. (Springer, 2013-03-15)
      Sprites are optical emissions in the mesosphere mainly at altitudes 50–90 km. They are caused by the sudden re-distribution of charge due to lightning in the troposphere which can produce electric fields in the mesosphere in excess of the local breakdown field. The resulting optical displays can be spectacular and this has led to research into the physics and chemistry involved. Imaging at faster than 5,000 frames per second has revealed streamer discharges to be an important and very dynamic part of sprites, and this paper will review high-speed observations of sprite streamers. Streamers are initiated in the 65–85 km altitude range and observed to propagate both down and up at velocities normally in the 106–5 9 107 m/s range. Sprite streamer heads are small, typically less than a few hundreds of meters, but very bright and appear in images much like stars with signals up to that expected of a magnitude -6 star. Many details of streamer formation have been modeled and successfully compared with observations. Streamers frequently split into multiple sub-streamers. The splitting is very fast. To resolve details will require framing rates higher than the maximum 32,000 fps used so far. Sprite streamers are similar to streamers observed in the laboratory and, although many features appear to obey simple scaling laws, recent work indicates that there are limits to the scaling.
    • Impact of Daily Arctic Sea Ice Variability in CAM3.0 during Fall and Winter

      Dammann, Dyre O.; Bhatt, Uma S.; Langen, Peter L.; Krieger, Jeremy R.; Zhang, Xiangdong (2013-03-15)
      Climate projections suggest that an ice-free summer Arctic Ocean is possible within several decades and with this comes the prospect of increased ship traffic and safety concerns. The daily sea ice concentration tendency in five Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations is compared with observations to reveal that many models underestimate this quantity that describes high-frequency ice movements, particularly in the marginal ice zone. To investigate whether high-frequency ice variability impacts the atmosphere, the Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.0 (CAM3.0), is forced by sea ice with and without daily fluctuations. Two 100-member ensemble experiments with daily varying (DAILY) and smoothly varying (SMTH) sea ice are conducted, along with a climatological control, for an anoma- lously low ice period (August 2006–November 2007). Results are presented for three periods: September 2006, October 2006, and December–February (DJF) 2006/07. The atmospheric response differs between DAILY and SMTH. In September, sea ice differences lead to an anomalous high and weaker storm activity over northern Europe. During October, the ice expands equatorward faster in DAILY than SMTH in the Siberian seas and leads to a local response of near-surface cooling. In DJF, there is a 1.5-hPa positive sea level pressure anomaly over North America, leading to anomalous northerly flow and anomalously cool continental U.S. temperatures. While the atmospheric responses are modest, the differences arising from high temporal frequency ice variability cannot be ignored. Increasing the accuracy of coupled model sea ice variations on short time scales is needed to improve short-term coupled model forecasts.
    • An improved glimpse into earthquake activity in northeastern Alaska

      Buurman, Helena (2018-09-04)
      The northeastern Brooks Range is long known to be seismically active, but meaningful analysis of the earthquake activity has been limited by the lack of instrumentation. The seismic record in the area dates back to the mid-1970s, and shows a broad northeast-trending zone of earthquake activity. Improvements made in the past 20 years to the permanent seismic network along with new data collected by the temporary USArray network of seismometers located throughout northeastern Alaska have dramatically lowered the earthquake detection threshold in the area. It is now possible to identify patterns within the earthquake data including spatial distribution and occurrence rates, which indicate the presence of previously unrecognized active fault systems. I highlight several such features within the data: a 110 km (60 mi) line of recurring earthquakes near the village of Beaver that strongly suggest a singular fault system; a cluster of earthquakes near the village of Venetie that are likely occurring on a complex active fault system; a years-long mainshock-aftershock sequence of earthquakes near the Draanjik River that began in 2006; and two swarms separated by 50 km (30 mi) in distance and 7 years near the Hulahula River.
    • Internal classification of the Alor-Pantar language family using computational methods applied to the lexicon

      Robinson, Laura C.; Holton, Gary (Brill, 2012)
      The non-Austronesian languages of Alor and Pantar in eastern Indonesia have been shown to be genetically related using the comparative method, but the identified phonological innovations are typologically common and do not delineate neat subgroups. We apply computational methods to recently-collected lexical data and are able to identify subgroups based on the lexicon. Crucially, the lexical data are coded for cognacy based on identified phonological innovations. This methodology can succeed even where phonological innovations themselves fail to identify subgroups, showing that computational methods using lexical data can be a powerful tool supplementing the comparative method.
    • Learning 2.0: A Tool for Staff Training at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Rasmuson Library

      Kingsley, Ilana; Jensen, Karen (Electronic Journal of Academic and Special Librarianship, 2009)
      This paper describes a Learning 2.0 library staff training project completed in September, 2007 at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Rasmuson Library. The project planning process, curriculum creation, implementation, incentives, and outcomes are included, along with a summary of survey results from program participants. Recommendations for implementing this free and useful staff training tool by other academic libraries are included, as well as a link to the Library’s Learning 2.0 blog.
    • Malone saying goodbye to UAF job but not to Alaska forests

      Tarnai, Nancy (University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2014-04-03)
      Research Forester Tom Malone retires from UAF.
    • Managing Library Electronic Resources Using Google Sites

      Jensen, Karen (Routledge, 2013-06-04)
      After attempting to use a home-grown Drupal database to administer electronic resources and later a vendor-provided electronic resources management (ERM) system, the University of Alaska Fairbanks Libraries created a Google Site that quickly proved to be more efficient than either previous system. Although this new system may not be a permanent solution, as ERM software continues to evolve, this original answer to a complex problem streamlines workflow, allows for further innovation and development and, best of all, comes with a Google mail account, and no formal training is needed.
    • Nanook News, Vol. 01, No. 01 (2 October 1959)

      University of Alaska, 1959-10-02