• 1985 Alaska Field Survey of Part-Loading of Diesel-Electric Generators

      Johnson, Ronald; Gray, John (1986-03)
      By conducting a survey by mail, by phone and in person, we obtained information on 356 diesel electric generator sets in Alaska in 1985. User groups surveyed included the Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), public school districts, those certified by the Alaska Public Utilities Commission, the Tanana Chiefs, and the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities. Our survey focused on part-load operation. We found that a lack of detailed site-specific data precludes making a general quantitative statement about part loading. The most detailed data, by far, are those collected by AVEC. Those data plus some other information indicate that many gensets (some for good reasons) are underloaded, especially in the summer. The simple algebraic average July and January loadings for the 44 AVEC systems surveyed are close to 35% and 50%, respectively. Minimum loads as low as 15% occurred in the summer. AVEC recognizes the potential for improvement and has increased its system-wide efficiency by 25% from 1980 to 1985.
    • 2007–2016 FATAL TRAFFIC CRASHES IN ALASKA, HAWAII, IDAHO, AND WASHINGTON AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TRAFFIC FATALITIES INVOLVING HAWAIIANS AND CSET MINORITIES

      Prevedouros, Panos; Bhatta, Kishor; Miah, M. Mintu (2019-04)
      Data for this comparative study were collected from the Fatality Analysis and Reporting System (FARS) for the years 2007 to 2016 for the states of Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, and Washington. The rates of roadway fatalities, especially those of American Indians (which include Aleuts and Eskimos), Guamanians, Samoans, and Native Hawaiians (which include part-Hawaiians) were the focus of the study; they are referred to as “CSET Minorities” in this report; all other races are referred to as “All Others.” Three main contributing factors for fatal crashes—alcohol use, speeding, and non-usage of restraint—were analyzed for each population group. CSET states are lagging behind many countries in terms of traffic safety. Significant differences in the involvement of alcohol, speeding, and non-usage of restraint were indicated between CSET Minority fatalities and All Others. For all types of crashes examined, CSET Minorities exhibited statistically significant differences, nearly all of them being higher or worse than All Others, except for motorcycle crashes. In Hawaii, the proportion of Hawaiians in the population is steady at approximately 21%, but their proportion in FARS database is at 28% and rising. Aggregate data analysis of traffic fatalities focused on three rural, indigenous, tribal, and isolated (RITI) communities in Hawaii, the entire Big Island of Hawaii, and the rural communities of Waianae and Waimanalo on the island of Oahu. All three locations are known for their relatively large number of Hawaiians and part-Hawaiians. The percentage of Hawaiians in traffic fatalities was 32% on the Big Island, 50% in Waianae, and 78% in Waimanalo.
    • Administrative Report of Progress: January 1 to December 31, 1951

      Irwin, Don L. (University of Alaska Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1951-12)
      This booklet is a compilation of annual administrative reports required of the Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, a public supported research institution. Shown here is a complete outline of research problems under study during the year just ended. Objectives financ ial support, accomplishments during 1951 and lines of aproach to be emphasized during the next crop season are a l l set forth in detail. Also indicated is the intricate cooperation established with allied agencies, perfected in an effort to eliminate overlapping in adjacent areas of interest. Staff assignments are presented in order to fix responsibilities and to give credit vhere due. A brief discussion of the physical plant is also included to show what progress has been made in the building program, now some three years old, and to point out certain housekeeping problems that, in the public interest must be solved in the near future.
    • Agricultural limestone demand requirements and supply production in Alaska, a thesis

      Sanusi, A.C. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      The need for agricultural limestone to neutralize acidic soils and enhance plant growth in the Agricultural Project Areas of the state has prompted this research project on limestone demand requirements and production in Alaska. Based on the possible maximum agricultural lands (500,000 acres) available for production within the next 10 years <1983-1992) and the average agricultural limestone requirements of 2 tons per acre, the maximum requirements of 1,000,000 tons or an average of 100,000 tons per year over the period have been determined. This study identifies limestone deposits in the State of Alaska and suggests three suitable outcrops for use as agricultural limestone. It further describes economic methods of mining, crushing and transporting the finished product from anyone of the selected outcrops to the agricultural areas and thereby arriving at the delivered cost per ton for each of three alternatives of $77.68, $78.00 and $91.24 respectively and $81.26 per ton when production is from one outcrop supplying all three agricultural areas. A simulation of cost benefit to Alaskan farmers under various scenarios is also presented. The evaluation of agricultural limestone production from native Alaskan limestone has shown that locally produced limestone is more economic for and attractive to Alaskan farmers than imported limestone costing $200 per ton.
    • Agriculture in Alaska

      Hedla, Lenora (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1958-09)
      Alaska's agriculture is a growing industry. In 1957 some $4 Y2 million worth of food and feed grown by 200 full-time and 350 part-time farmers brought nearly $9 million in the market place. Crop volume doubled between 1950 and 1955. While Alaskan agriculture has been rapidly expanding, growers have been also keeping abreast of Stateside grading and packaging practices. They now offer homegrown products of the highest quality. A few farms are as modern as any in the States. Some farmers net $10,000 year or more, although the average is closer to $4,000 because many farms are small and others are in early stages of development.
    • Air Convection Embankment Experimental Feature Design

      Goering, Douglas J. (1997-12)
      Prior research work (Goering and Kumar, 1996; and Goering, 1996) has indicated that Air Convection Embankments are a promising technique for limiting the thaw settlement damage that often occurs when roadway embankments are constructed in regions of warm permafrost. These studies lead to the proposal of a full-scale experimental Air Convection Embankment (ACE) to be constructed through the Federal Experimental Features in Construction Program. A work plan for including an ACE in the Parks/Chena Ridge Interchange project (Federal Project No. I-0A4-5(7), State of Alaska Project No. 63538) was forwarded and approved in 1994. This project report discusses the design and construction of the Parks/Chena Ridge ACE expermimental feature which occurred during 1996 and 1997.
    • Air-Flow Dindows - an Evaluation of Their Potential for use in Arctic and Sub-Arctic Environments

      Lemon, Frank L. (1986-06)
      Air-flow windows, developed in Scandinavia, are being considered for application in arctic and sub-arctic environments. Air-flow windows consist of a double or triple-glazed outer sash and a single glazed inner sash. Room air is returned to the building heating, ventilating and air-conditioning system through the window every cavity existing between the inner and outer sashes, thus warming the inner pane of glass. Air-flow windows have the potential of improving room comfort and reducint building heat losses, particularly if the outdoor air requirement is greater than or at least can be matched to the air extracted through the windows. A sample air-flow window was tested in a guarded hot box at various air flow rates at cold side temperatures ranging from -50(degrees)F to +10(degrees)F. Based on the test results, U-values were calculated for winter night time conditions. The economics of this window system are discussed. The energy balance of an air-flow window is established.
    • Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Devices for Small Buildings

      Zarling, John P. (1981-01)
      With the escalation of fuel costs, many people are turning to tighter, better insulated buildings as a means of achieving energy conservation. This is especially true in northern climates, where heating seasons are long and severe. Installing efficient well sealed vapor barriers and weather stripping and caulking around doors and windows reduces cold air infiltration but can lead to damaging moisture buildup, as well as unpleasant and even unhealthy accumulations of odors and gases. To provide the necessary ventilation air to maintain air quality in homes while holding down energy costs, air-to-air heat exchangers have been proposed for residential and other simple structures normally not served by an active or forced ventilation system. Four basic types of air-to-air heat exchangers are suited for small scale use: rotary, coil-loop, heat pipe, and plate. The operating principles of each of these units are presented and their individual advantages and disadvantages are discusses. A test program has been initiated to evaluate the performance of a few commercial units as well as several units designed and/or built at the University of Alaska. Preliminary results from several of these tests are presented along with a critique on their design.
    • Air-to-Air Heat Recovery Devices for Small Buildings

      Zarling, John P. (1982-05)
      With the escalation of fuel costs, many people are turning to tighter, better insulated buildings as a means of achieving energy conservation. This is especially true in norther climates, where heating seasons are long and severe. Installing efficient well sealed vapor barriers and weather stripping and caulking around doors and windows reduces cold air infiltration but can lead to damaging moisture buildup, as well as unpleasant and even unhealthy accumulations of odors and gases. To provide the necessary ventilation air to maintain air quality in homes while holding down energy costs, air-to-air heat exchangers have been proposed for residential and other simple structures normally not served by an active or forced ventilation system. Four basic types of air-to-air heat exchangers are suited for small scale use: rotary, coil-loop, heat pipe, and plate. The operating principles of each of these units are presented and their individual advantages and disadvantages are discussed. A test program has been initiated to evaluate the performance of a few commercial units as well as several units designed and/or built at the University of Alaska. Preliminary results from several of these tests are presented along with a critique on their design.
    • Alaska coal-a bibliography

      Triplehorn, J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      Coal has been mined and used in Alaska for more than a century, and still is the principal source of energy for power generation for the interior Alaska region. Recent events that have caused increases in the cost of energy have spurred new world-wide interest in greater use of lower cost coal in place of oil. In the past few years, there has been increased interest in Alaska coal by private investors, evidenced by stepped-up exploration activity. Interest from the Pacific Rim nations is shown by the signing of contracts between Korean buyers and the Usibelli Coal Mine; and the entrance of Korean capital into exploring the Bering River Field. Japan is continuing pilot plant testing of Beluga coal. All of this indicates a rapidly growing interest in Alaska's coal and it seemed appropriate to have a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coals available to help the emerging coal mining industry in Alaska. Since a literature search is the first task of every company that wants to enter the Alaskan coal. mining industry, the time seemed appropriate to compile a comprehensive bibliography of Alaskan coal to eliminate duplication of effort and guarantee the industry the most comprehensive source of information. Julia Triplehorn is uniquely qualified for this task. She is a reference librarian by profession, with background in both geology and library science, and long experience in bibliographic searches on numerous other subjects. She has done an admirable job in searching all available sources, and has added an inclusive index that took time, dedication, and patience--a job well done. The School of Mineral Industry, Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, is pleased to make this bibliography available to industry and all those involved in research working toward the development of Alaskan resources.
    • Alaska mining and water quality

      Zemansky, Gil M.; Tilsworth, Timothy; Cook, Donald J. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-06)
      The Institute of Water Resources has sought financial assistance for some time in an attempt to initiate research relative to the impact of mining on water quality. Attempts were made as early as 1971 by Dr. Timothy Tilsworth and later by Dr. Donald Cook and Dr. Sage Murphy. These investigators anticipated growth in placer gold mining and the development of natural resources in Alaska during a period of national and environmental concern. The subsequent energy "crisis," the major increase in the price of gold on the world market, and dwindling nonrenewable resource supplies have resulted in large-scale mineral exploration in Alaska. This exploration, coupled with development of the trans-Alaska oil pipeline, has attracted considerable capital for potential investment and development in Alaska. Expected industrial growth has already started and major new projects are "just around the corner." Yet, as of 1976, no major research effort has occurred to determine the extent of or potential for water quality impacts from mining operations in Alaska. Recently a series of interdisciplinary research projects have been completed in Canada; however, the application of Canadian data to Alaskan problems is uncertain. Although, state and federal government agencies have been advised and are aware of this potential problem and lack of baseline data they have not sought out new information or rational solutions. Even now, with deadlines of Public Law 92-500 at hand, some regulatory agencies give the impression of attempting to ignore the situation. Interim limitations are proposed and permits are issued with no discernible rationale or basis. Data have not been obtained relative to the Alaskan mining operations and thus are not available for use in seeking solutions compatible with mining and environmental protection. Numbers appear to have been arbitrarily assigned to permits and water quality standards. When permits are issued, self-monitoring requirements are negligible or nonexistent. Nor have regulatory agencies demonstrated the ability or inclination to monitor mining operations or enforce permits and water quality standards. It was hoped that the project would bring together miners, environmentalists, and regulators in a cooperative effort to identify the problems and seek solutions. The investigators recognized the political sensitivity of the subject matter but proceeded optimistically. Relatively good cooperation, though not total, occurred early in the project. In April 1976, a symposium was held to exchange ideas and determine the state-of-the-art. Although the symposium had good attendance and an exchange of information occurred, the symposium itself was somewhat of a disappointment. With few exceptions, the participants aligned on one side or the other in preconceived fixed positions. Some even chose not to attend and were therefore able to avoid the issues. Little hard data was presented. Optimistically, some of the miners, environmentalists, and regulators are prepared to resolve their differences. This report, hopefully, will be of benefit to them. It is our experience that miners and environmentalists share a love of the land that is uniquely Alaska. We feel that technology is available for application to this problem for those who care about doing the job right in the "last frontier." Whether or not it will be effectively applied to protect Alaska's water resources is a question which remains unanswered.
    • Alaska Mining and Water Quality: Proceedings of the Symposium

      University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-04
      Very little information on Alaska mining activities and resulting environmental changes has been available. The objectives of this research were to: 1) review the literature pertinent to water quality deterioration resulting from mining activities, and 2) conduct a symposium, "Alaska Mining and Water Quality," in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Mining and Water Quality (IWR Report 74) was published in June 1976. The report covers effluent limitations and water quality standards, physical parameters, chemical/biological parameters, and effects of Alaska mining on water quality. Over 300 references are cited, and a description of settling pond theory is appended. The literature review Focused primarily on mining activities in Canada and the contiguous portion of the United States. The main emphasis of the literature review was directed at gold mining and coal mining operations; however, other mining activities relevant to Alaska were examined. The April 9, 1976, symposium was meant to achieve: 1) information dissemination, 2) increased and more effective communication, 3) env1ronmental awareness, and 4) identification of environmental problems and potential solutions associated with mining activities in Alaska. Although there was good attendance and an exchange of information, the other objectives of the symposium were not attained. With few exceptions, both speakers and participants were aligned in extreme positions, and they presented little actual data to support their conclusions. The purpose of this publication is to present differing viewpoints on important and controversial issues in Alaskan water resources with the hope that effective solutions can be achieved through consideration of all facets of the problems.
    • The Alaska Public Land Planning Directory

      Todd, Susan (University of Alaska Fairbanks. Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 2001-12)
    • Alaska Research Natural Areas. 4: Big Windy Hot Springs

      Juday, Glenn Patrick (University of Alaska Fairbanks. School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management. Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1998)
      The 65 ha Big Windy Hot Springs Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Steese National Conservation Area of central Alaska is managed by the Bureau of Land Management. It contains a vent that issues hot water at about 61° C flowing at about 8 liters per minute from the largest of a system of small springs and seeps. Geothermal water seeping over the face of a cliff has intensely weathered the local granitic bedrock into gruss. The fracture of massive boulders from the possibly fault-related cliff is one of the most distinctive features of the RNA. Small boulders from the cliff have fallen into Big Windy Creek where they have been caught in the swirling current of Big Windy Creek and ground potholes into the bed of the high-gradient stream. Big Windy Creek is constricted to a narrow canyon. The main geothermal pools are lined with thermophytic algal and cyanobacteria mats. Undescribed high-temperature aquatic species may be present. geothermal heat in the vicinity of the main vents promotes a lush growth of vegetation including Phalaris arundinacea and Ranunculus cymbalaria, two species that occur here north of their previously reported distribution in Alaska. The RNA contains contrasting north- and south-facing canyon slopes. Diffuse geothermal heating of soil around the vents is associated with a large and productive mature white spruce forest on the south-facing slope. A paper birch forest with a minor white spruce component covers most of the south-facing slope. The north-facing slope is underlain with permafrost; areas of boulder talus are subjected to periglacial weathering processes. Low paper birch forest, black spruce woodland, and dwarf birch tundra provide the main vegetation cover. The lowland east-central Alaska region has experienced a strong climate warming trend since the late 1970s. Radial growth of white spruce at Big Windy Hot Springs is generally negatively related to summer temperature. The Big Windy Hot Spring site is a mineral lick heavily used by a local population of Dall sheep that roam from nearby alpine habitats into the RNA. A collection of the water shrew (Sorex palustris) in the RNA is several hundred km from other known populations and is the new northern limit for the species in North America.
    • Alaska Spinach: Savory, Succulent Salad Selection

      Lewis, Carol E.; Holloway, Pat; Matheke, Grant (University of Alaska Fairbanks. Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1999)
      Spinach salad is a new, exciting choice for the table! There is an increasing use of a variety of greens in salads by U.S. consumers, spinach among them. The fresh quality demanded by Alaska consumers could be met by Alaska producers from June through August if a spinach cultivar that did not bolt early in the season could be identified. For the past 30 years, horticulturists at the Fairbanks Experiment Farm, now a part of the Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, University of Alaska Fairbanks, have tested spinach cultivars looking for a cultivar that will not bolt early in the growing season.
    • Alaska Wastewater Treatment Technology

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      This report is intended to be an assessment of wastewater treatment technology in Alaska today. It is not a study of the politics of environmentalists vs. industry, the environmental laws now existing, nor of the design of utilidors in the Arctic. These and other important topics have been dealt with elsewhere. The study is subdivided into three major areas: 1) individual home treatment systems, 2) municipal and military systems, and 3) industrial wastewater treatment. With each category, the existing situation in Alaska is summarized and examples of technology currently being used are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are discussed with suggestions made for methodologies particularly appropriate to Alaska. Although the bulk of the report is drawn from the "Alaskan experience," results obtained in other parts of the world are cited where appropriate.
    • Alaska Water Resources Research Needs for the 70's: A seminar, Oct. 27-28 Anchorage, Alaska

      Carlson, Robert F.; Butler, Jacqueline (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • Alaska's Dairy Industry: The Relationship Of History and Statistics

      Lewis, Carol E.; Pearson, Roger W. (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, 1988-03)
      The Alaska Crop and Livestock Reporting Service of the United States Department of Agriculture has provided an annual publication detailing the quantity and value of agricultural products in Alaska since 1960. Although the statistics are an excellent source of information, they do not provide a historical insight into events which might have effected rises and falls in product quantities and values. To quote: What statistics cannot always show us is why such trends have occurred (and) what factors have influenced their progress. These are a matter o f interpretation. (Weaver, Alaska Crop and Livestock Reporting Service 1987a). Indeed, one of the challenges of agricultural statistical interpretation is to reflect economic, political, and social events locally, nationally, and internationally.
    • Alaska's Feeds for Alaska's Livestock

      Husby, Fred; Krieg, Ken (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1987-11)