• Aboveground Biomass Equations for the Trees of Interior Alaska

      Yarie, John; Kane, Evan; Mack, Michelle (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 2007-01)
      Calculation of forest biomass requires the use of equations that relate the mass of a tree or it's components to physical measurements that are relatively easy to obtain. In the literature individual tree relationships have been reported that estimate aboveground biomass on individual sites (e.g. Barney and Van Cleve 1973)and over large landscape areas where many data sets are combined (Jenkins et al. 2003). The equations presented in this report represent a compilation of aboveground biomass data collected within interior Alaska over the past 40 years.
    • Agricultural possibilities of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

      McCurdy, Richard E.; Johnson, Hugh A. (Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station, 1951-03)
      During the summer of 1950, an intensive study was made on the Kenai Peninsula to determine the extent of its agricultural development and the plans and problems of current settlers. All available settlers residing in accessible areas were interviewed. Notes were also collected concerning non-resident or absentee landholders. The resulting information consequently covers the agricultural community that has developed under existing conditions of help, hindrance and laissez faire. The study furnishes guides useful in formulating public settlement policies for the Kenai-Kasilof area and to individuals who might wish to locate in this or other sections of the Peninsula.
    • The Agricultural Potential of the Middle Kuskokwim Valley

      Lewis, Carol E.; Lewis, John S. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1980-06)
      Alaskans are concerned with the production of food . This is evident from the concern which has been expressed over the subsistence issue within the current Alaska lands legislation. The debate ponders who shall harvest the state's natural game resource and how the resource shall be harvested. Although this question is not settled , one point is coming to the fore: the game resource alone is not sufficient to satisfy the food needs of Alaska's growing rural population. In recent months, interest has been expressed in the agricultural potential of the lands in areas of Alaska which are removed from major population centers and from connecting surface transportation routes. One area in particular in southwestern Alaska has made significant progress in agricultural development. The Kuskokwim Native Association has maintained a community garden since 1976 in Aniak on the Kuskokwim River (Figure 1) (Lewis, Thomas, and Wooding, 1978). This effort could be expanded using existing transportation corridors to supply not only the Kuskokwim River valley, but also several villages located away from the river. The objective of this study is to provide an economic evaluation of the feasibility of producing and marketing vegetables in the Kuskokwim River valley area. Major considerations were the availability of markets, transportation, and a method of product distribution. All were based on production capability of the area and the capacity and time factors pertaining to vegetable storage.
    • Alaska Farm Facts

      School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1961-02
      This publication brings together agricultural statistics for the five years of 1953 through 1957, and compares them with the 1950 Census of Agriculture. Information on population, retail food prices, transportation charges, military purchases, and farm p-rices is included. This compilation provides a fairly complete picture of the size, and certain changes and trends in Alaska's food producing industry. It may suggest adjustments needed to meet changing times, and will serve as a basis of comparison for future years.
    • Alaska-Washington Trade Profile: Waterborne Commerce

      Casavant, Kenneth L.; Waananen, Martin L.; Thomas, Wayne C.; Logsdon, Charles L. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1978)
      The overall purpose of this study was to establish a profile of Alaska-Washington waterborne movements, emphasizing commodity and port components that determine the needs of a physical distribution system. Specific objectives of the report are : 1. To determine Washington's share of the total Alaska-bound, waterborne traffic. 2. To present selected Washington-to-Alaska, waterborne movements by commodity and destination ports. 3. To present selected Alaska-to-Washington, waterborne movements by commodity and origination ports. 4. To determine implications of the trade profile with regard to future transportation and marketing needs. It should be noted that there are sizable noncommodity trade flows between the regions, i.e., labor, capital, and services that are not in this data base. This report contains only data on major commodity grouping and principal ports in Alaska. Additional information is on file at the Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Alaska, and at the Department of Agricultural Economics, Washington State University.
    • Barley Production in the Delta-Clearwater Area of Interior Alaska

      Lewis, Carol E.; Wooding, Frank J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1978-04)
      When oil from Prudhoe Bay on the northern coast of Alaska began to flow in the fall of 1977, it marked the beginning of another flow of perhaps equal significance. Eighty per cent of the revenue received by the State of Alaska in the foreseeable future will come from the oil industry. This prompts concern that long-term growth of the Alaskan economy is based on revenue from a single nonrenewable resource. Historically, nonrenewable resources have exhibited a boom-bust development pattern. Diversifying the economy of the state could contribute to economic stability. Of particular interest, when the development of renewable resources is considered, is the potential for agriculture. A half century ago, the Tanana Valley in interior Alaska produced a higher per-capita quantity of agricultural products for Fairbanks consumers than it does today. Now, more than 95 per cent of the food consumed in the area is imported from areas outside the state. Additionally, there is a growing worldwide concern abut increasing populations and the need for increased food production. This has created a new awareness of agriculture in Alaska as well as across the nation.
    • Biology and Management of White Spruce Seed Crops Reforestation in Subarctic Taiga Forests

      Alden, J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1985-03)
      Seed production is the most dramatic event in the life cycle of trees and is the first step in forest regeneration. Embryos of white spruce are fragile during germination, and they depend on vigorous seeds for survival and growth. Mortality of white spruce seeds and seedlings is high in northern forests because climate and microhabitat are often unfavorable for seed germination and seedling establishment. Large quantities of high-quality seed are required for natural and artificial regeneration of white spruce forests at high latitudes. The first chapter of this bulletin describes the reproductive process of white spruce and factors that affect cone and seed production and seed quality. Knowledge of the reproduction cycle and factors that affect seed production and quality of white spruce is essential for forecasting and managing seed crops. Evidence that white spruce is a genetically variable species in northern forests is summarized in the second chapter. This chapter includes recommendations for maintaining the gene pool of natural populations and for seed transfer in afforesting sites that do not have endemic populations. A procedure for delineating planting zones for adapted seed sources is described as an alternative for provisional seed zones that only reduce the risk of maladaptation from long-range seed transfer . The final chapter outlines steps in harvesting white spruce seed crops and can be used as a working manual . Practical procedures are described for evaluating quality and quantity of white spruce seed crops , certifying the geographic origin of seed parents , collecting cones , and processing seeds to mainatin viability for many years. The genetic structure of white spruce and the environment-embryology relationships that effect seed production and maturation have not been studied in detail . The need for research in the areas of genetics, biochemistry, physiology, and ecology is discussed in each chapter. The results of such research will help to improve seed yields and make the management of white spruce crops more profitable in Alaska and Yukon.
    • Birch Hill Park: A Case Study of Interpretive Planning

      Combs, David (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1979-03)
      The Fairbanks North Star Borough Parks and Recreation Department is responsible for the planning, acquisition, development, improvement, and maintenance of lands and facilities to meet the community's needs for park and open space lands in accordance with established standards. 1 Current department emphasis is on sports facilities and programs. Some small neighborhood parks and the Growden Park and Picnic Area are the only significantly developed areas in which organized sports are not emphasized. Birch Hill Park was acquired to expand the spectrum of recreational resources and opportunities available to borough residents. Cross-country skiing, both competitive and recreational, is an important winter activity, but the area's size and its natural environment provide for a variety of other uses. The park has a summer youth camp, and planned developments will enhance the opportunities for visitors of all ages to picnic, hike, and study nature. This paper presents a direct contribution to the diversification of the borough's recreational program by highlighting the interpretive resources and opportunities of the park and by making specific recommendations for the implementation of an interpretive program. The interpretive plan proposed here can be integrated with the comprehensive development planning for Birch Hill Park now underway at the Parks and Recreation Department. Preliminary research for this study was done as a University of Alaska class project in the spring semester of 1976. The students in LR 493, Interpretive Services, developed basic information on the natural and cultural resources of Birch Hill and its surrounding region. They also identified policy gaps and provided general guidance for interpretation in the park.2 The plan presented here is a fo llow-up to that work. Additional fieldwork and library research have been done to supplement the earlier effort, and the implementation aspects have been made more specific with regard to the trail and visitor center recommendations. The process followed in this study is adapted from Perry J. Brown's Procedures for Developing an Interpretive Master Plan.
    • Brief history of cattle breeding in Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1929-01)
      So far as is known the Russians were the first people of the Caucasian race to settle in Alaska. They early recognized the possibilities of Alaska for stock-breeding purposes and imported cattle from Siberia in the belief that the animals could be made to sustain themselves on the lush pastures abounding here and there in the new country. Cattle raising was in progress at each of the principal Russian settlements, including Kodiak, Kenai, Ninilchik, and Sitka, when the United States purchased the Territory from Russia in 1867. Some cattle were introduced from the States after the American occupation, but representatives of the original Russian stock were still in evidence when the first agricultural experiment station was established at Sitka in 1898. All the cattle at Kenai and at Ninilchik, on Cook Inlet, were descendants of those that had been introduced from Russia, and their progeny are still to be found at Ninilchick. The animals were small, slim in all proportions, and had a narrow head with thin, upright horns. The average weight of the mature cow was about 500 pounds. In color the stock was brown, or dark red, and occasionally the body Avas mottled. The milk yield was low and had a fat content of about 3 per cent. The cattle had deteriorated not only in general conformation, but also in milking qualities and in suitability for beef production. In 1906 when the Galloway breed was established by the stations as a foundation stock at Kalsin Bay, 15 miles from Kodiak, it was learned that cattle in considerable numbers had at some time in the past been maintained there by the Russians. The most convincing evidence supporting this fact was the discovery in the region of a large pile of thoroughly decayed cattle manure. The Russians, realizing that about 5,000 or 6,000 acres of land at the head of Kalsin Bay were adapted to cattle raising, had probably used the place as a breeding center whence they distributed stock to the settlements throughout the coast region. A few head of cattle of the dairy type were introduced with the establishment of salmon canneries at various points along the coasts. Some of the descendants of these animals remained in the country. At Kodiak, Sitka, Kenai, and other places where Americans had settled, a few head of cattle were kept for the supply of milk. More cattle were introduced into the country with the development of new settlements and camps. Dairies sprang up in the towns to meet the local demands for milk. These cattle, however, were maintained, excepting for the small amount of pasturage available during the summer, on feed which had to be imported from Seattle for the purpose. This is the situation even to-day, but it does not show that cattle can not be supported by locally produced feed. The winter maintenance of cattle is a matter that must be given careful consideration in all parts of the Territory. Experiments with the silo at the Kodiak station were so successful that winter feeding was not found to be the perplexing problem it would have been had the cattle been dependent upon hay and grain shipped in from Seattle. Any kind of green forage can be made into silage. Grown with peas or vetches, oats make excellent silage. The native grasses, especially wild beach rye (Elymus mollis) and a tall sedge {Carex cryptocarpa), have been relied upon for silage at Kodiak, sometimes supplying 90 to 95 per cent of the material put up annually. Sunflowers and horse beans have been successfully made into silage at Matanuska. Artichokes for silage have been grown at each of the stations. The tops are especially well suited to silage making in that the yield is heavy. In seasons unfavorable for haymaking, native bluetop (Calamagrostis langsdorjii) is utilized to some extent for silage. At times the silo at Kodiak has been kept filled with about one-third each of sedge, beach grass, and field crops consisting of oats, peas, barley, and vetch. At Matanuska, in 1925, 2-year-old heifers daily gained in weight and kept in thrifty condition when they were fed 16 pounds of silage, 8 pounds of straw, and 5 pounds of roots. Cows were maintained in a fair flow of milk when they were fed daily per 1,000 pounds of body weight, 25 pounds of silage, 10 pounds of straw, 12 pounds of roots, and 4 pounds of barley-oat chop. To-day the Alaska stations are maintaining a few head each of the Galloway and the Holstein-Friesian breeds. The Galloways are kept at Kodiak and the Holstein-Friesians and crossbred Galloway-Holsteins at Matanuksa. Some yak are being maintained at Fairbanks for crossing with Galloways.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. VII. : Heading, seed yield, and components of yield as influenced by seeding-year management and by time and rate of nitrogen application in subsequent years

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, 1998-10)
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. I.Winter Survival and Forage Productivity of Bromus Species, Types, and Cultivars as Related to Latitudinal Adaptation

      Klebesadel, Leslie J.; Helm, D. J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1992-05)
      This report summarizes seven separate field experiments, conducted over more than two decades at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm, that compared strains within three bromegrass (Bromus) species for winter hardiness and forage production. Species were (a) smooth bromegrass (B. inermis Leyss.), (b) native Alaskan pumpelly bromegrass (B. pumpellianus Scribn.), and (c) meadow bromegrass (B. biebersteinii Roem. and Schult.), a species native to southwestern Asia.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. II. Autumn Food-Reserve Storage, Freeze Tolerance, and Dry-Matter Concentration in Overwintering Tissues as Related to Winter Survival of Latitudinal Ecotypes

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1993-05)
      The objective of this study was to acquire improved understanding of factors that influence winter survival of bromegrass (Bromus spp.) at northern latitudes. Four bromegrass strains of diverse latitudinal origins were used: (a) native Alaskan pumpelly bromegrass (B. pumpellianus Scribn.) adapted at 61° to 65°N, (b) the Alaska hybrid cultivar Polar (predominantly B. inermis Leyss. x B. pumpellianus) selected at 61.6°N, and two smooth bromegrass (B. inermis) cultivars, (c) Manchar selected in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (43° to 47°N), and (d) Achenbach originating from Kansas (34° to 42°N).
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. III. Effects of Planting Dates, and Time of Seeding-Year Harvest, on Seeding-Year Forage Yields and Quality, Winter Survival, and Second-Year Spring Forage Yield

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1993-12)
      Objectives of this study were to (a) determine yields and quality of forage that could be obtained in the seeding year from smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) seeded in spring without a cereal companion crop, and (b) determine whether planting dates and date of the seeding-year harvest influenced subsequent winter survival and forage yield in the following year. Bromegrass plots were harvested for forage yield once during the seeding year on several dates approximately 10 days apart during August, September, and early October; effects of those harvest dates were measured by comparing yields of all plots harvested on the same date in the second year of growth. Five of the six experiments were conducted at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska, and the other was at the Research Center in Palmer.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. IV. Effects of Various Schedules and Frequencies of Harvest on Forage Yields and Quality and on Subsequent Winter Survival of Several Strains

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1994-10)
      Effects of different annual harvest schedules and frequencies on several cultivars and strains of bromegrass (Bromus species) were measured in five field experiments at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska. Most cultivars evaluated and compared were smooth bromegrass (B. inermis Leyss.). Native Alaskan pumpelly bromegrass (B. pumpellianus Scribn.) and the predominantly hybrid (B. inermis x B. pumpellianus) cultivar Polar, developed in Alaska, were included also.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. V. Heading and Seed Production as Influence by Time and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilization, Sod Disturbance, and Aftermath Management

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1996-06)
      This report summarizes five primarily exploratory experiment conducted at the University of Alaska's Matanuska Research Farm (61.6'N) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska. The problem addresses was the rapid decline in Polar bromegrass seed yields with each year of production.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. VI. Effects of a Broad Array of Harvest Schedules and Frequencies on Forage Yield and Quality and on Subsequent Winter Survival of Cultivars Manchar and Polar

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1997-09)
      Objectives of this study were to compare several schedules and frequencies of forage harvest of smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.): (a) for distribution of forage yields and total productivity in the year of differential harvests, (b) for percent crude protein in herbage in the various cuttings and for yields of crude protein, (c) for determining rates of growth (production of herbage dry matter) during the growing season, and (d) for effects of those different harvest schedules and frequencies on subsequent winter survival and on stand health and vigor the following year as measured by a uniform evaluation harvest in late June or early July. Two bromegrass cultivars, mid–temperate–adapted Manchar and subarctic–adapted Polar, were utilized in four experiments (Manchar in two, Polar in two) conducted at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6°N) near Palmer in the Matanuska Valley in southcentral Alaska.
    • A Bunker Silo for Alaska Farms

      Allen, Lee (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1961-10)
      Farm storage of silage is essential in Alaska. Weather conditions make it nearly impossible to dry hay after early July. Economy of construction without sacrificing structural stability has been achieved in this bunker type silo. Locally available materials and simple construction technique s a r e all that are needed to produce an adequate bunker silo. Braced poles support the walls and absorb lateral loads, with the floor being subjected to simple vertical loading. Silos of this type serve the beginning dairy farmer until he is financially able to provide more convenient storage wherein less spoilage may be anticipated.
    • Cereal growing in Alaska

      Georgeson, C. C.; Gasser, G. W. (Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 1926-05)
      Prior to the establishment of the Alaska Agricultural Experiment Stations it was almost universally believed that Alaska was a frozen, inhospitable wilderness, and therefore worthless for agricultural purposes. Even as late as 1899 it was declared wholly unreasonable to expect anything like cereals to grow so far north, this statement being fortified by an account of the glaciers and ice fields that the tourist sees in the coast region. To-day, however, public opinion is favorably changing as the result of experiments carried on by the stations; and it is beginning to be realized that the country has great agricultural possibilities, its productive power being merely a matter of development. (Fig. 1.)
    • Comparative Winterhardiness of Cultivated and Native Alaskan Grasses, and Forage Yield and Quality as Influenced by Harvest Schedules and Frequencies, and Rates of Applied Nitrogen

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1994-07)
      Objectives of this investigation were to compare certain traditional forage grasses with several native Alaskan grass species for forage yield, forage quality as measured by percent crude protein and digestibility (in vitro dry-matter disappearance or percent IVDMD), and comparative winterhardiness in three separate experiments. Management variables included different harvest frequencies (2, 3, and 4 times per year), and five different rates of applied nitrogen (N). Experiments were conducted at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska. All species were tall-growing, cool-season perennials. Traditional forage grasses included ‘Polar’ hybrid bromegrass (predominantly Bromus inermis x B. pumpellianus), ‘Engmo’ timothy (Phleum pratense), ‘Garrison’ creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus), and a non-cultivar, commercial meadow foxtail (A. pratensis). Native Alaskan species were Siberian wildrye (Elymus sibiricus), slender wheatgrass (Agropyron trachycaulum), arctic wheatgrass (A. sericeum), bluejoint (Calamagrostis canadensis), and polargrass (Arctagrostis arundinacea).
    • Controlled Environment Agriculture: A Pilot Project

      Lewis, Carol E.; Thomas, Wayne C.; Norton, Robert A. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1980-09)
      The controlled-environment agricultural (CEA) project discussed in this report was first conceived for the Wildwood Air Force Station in Kenai, Alaska, in 1972. The region contained high unemployment and a U.S. Air Force Station that had just closed. The Kenai Native Association, Inc. (KNA), was to take possession of the Air Force Station through land transfers associated with the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, and this corporation was interested in expanding business and employment opportunities for local people. The University of Alaska Agricultural Experiment Station (AES) contacted KNA to determine if it had a facility which might be adaptable for use in a research and development program in controlled- 1 environment agriculture. It was determined that such a facility was available. Subsequently, AES and KNA contacted the General Electric Company (GE) in Syracuse, New York, to determine its interest in such a project. GE had extensive background in lighting technology and environmental control systems and the engineering capability to develop a total system for CEA production. It was agreed that GE would provide technological expertise and AES would provide horticultural and economic expertise for the growing and marketing of a variety of salad crops. KNA would manage the project, employ the nontechnical people, and provide the building. The Wildwood site was selected because it contained two buildings which were thought to be well suited for CEA production. One building would provide sufficient inside space for a 1/4-acre pilot production plant, nine small research modules , a laboratory , offices, a training area, and space for preparing the crop for shipping. A second building near the first contained three diesel generators which were to be converted to natural gas to provide power for the production facility.