• Kamus Pengantar Bahasa Pantar Barat

      Holton, Gary; Lamma Koly, Mahalalel (Unit Bahasa dan Budaya GMIT, 2008)
      Practical dictionary of the Western Pantar language (ISO 693-3: lev), also known as Lamma or Pantar Barat, with introductory material including a sketch grammar. Western Pantar to Indonesian, with an Indonesian index. Coverage of all three dialects: Tubbe, Mauta, Lamma. In Indonesian.
    • Kanban teaching examples

      Remick, Karen J.; Genetti, Jon; Lawlor, Orion; Chappell, Glenn (2017-04)
    • The Kandik map: cultural exchange along the Yukon River

      Johnson, Linda R. (2007-05)
      The Kandik Map drawn in 1880 by Yukon Indian Paul Kandik and annotated by French Canadian fur trader François Mercier and U.S. Census Agent Ivan Petroff is a unique record in the documentary history of Northwestern North America. It traces the Yukon, Tanana, and Kuskokwim Rivers from their headwaters to the Pacific, showing trading posts, trails, and place names in several Athabascan languages, as well as French and English. As one of the oldest maps of the Alaska-Yukon borderlands it documents indigenous knowledge and the dynamic cultural exchange between Native residents and non-native newcomers along the Yukon River prior to the Klondike Gold Rush. Using oral traditions, archival and published sources, this thesis examines the significance and meanings of the map from 1880 to the present. The original map is preserved at The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley.
    • Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication and transcription activator regulates extracellular matrix signal pathway

      Pfalmer, Daniel; Chen, Jiguo "Jack"; Ferrante, Andrea; Hueffer, Karsten (2016-08)
      Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS) is a malignancy caused by infection with Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus [KSHV; also known as Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)] in which tumor cells show a characteristic ‘spindle-like’ morphology. The transcription factor RTA (Replication and Transcription Activator) is the viral protein responsible for reactivating KSHV from its latent state. Production of RTA in latently infected cells causes a number of viral proteins to be produced and leads to a cascade of gene expression changes in both viral and host genes. Previous work in our lab showed that RTA was capable of reprogramming cells in vitro to display a spindle-like morphology. In this study we aimed to identify the host gene expression changes caused directly by RTA which could be responsible for that reprogramming. To that end, Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells (MDCK cells) were chosen as a model for KSHV-naïve mammalian cells. Differences in host gene expression levels in a culture of MDCK cells transfected with a plasmid coding for expression of RTA compared to MDCK cells transfected with a similar plasmid lacking the RTA gene were measured by whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq). Cells containing the RTA-coding plasmid adopted a spindle-like morphology and showed at least a two-fold change in expression level in approximately 180 genes. Those 180 genes were then screened for known associations to signaling pathways in order to determine which might be involved with the morphological changes observed and/or biological significance. The expression levels of the 10 genes identified by that screening were then verified by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Of those 10 genes, eight were identified as potentially associated with the morphological changes, including three genes associated with extra cellular matrix (ECM) destruction (MMP9, CTSD, and CTSS) that were down-regulated; two genes associated with blocking ECM destruction (TIMP1 and TIMP2) that were pregulated; two ECM component genes (LAMC2 and COL1A2) that were upregulated; and one gene associated with blocking cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion (MUC1) that was downregulated. The remaining two genes (MAP2K1 and podoplanin) were identified as potentially biologically significant, but not directly involved in regulating morphology. MAP2K1 is associated with epithelial dedifferentiation and was down-regulated; and the lymphatic endothelial specific marker podoplanin (PDPN) was up-regulated. Taken together, the differences in morphology and gene expression between RTA-producing cells and controls suggest a possible role for RTA in the formation of the spindle cells that characterize Kaposi’s sarcoma.
    • Katabatic Winds In Adelie Land, Antarctica (Snow, Automatic Weather Stations, Pressure Gradient, Coreless Winter)

      Kodama, Yuji (1985)
      Data from Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) on Adelie Land, Antarctica, were analysed. The findings are: (1) The high directional constancy of surface winds, which has been explained by the inversion strength and topography of the slope, was found at the slope stations even in summer when the inversion is weak or destroyed. An analysis of data and model simulations of diurnal variations of katabatic winds in summer show that synoptic geostrophic winds and eddy viscosity also effect the constancy of the wind direction in summer. (2) Wind directional constancies at the slope stations in winter, when the inversion is expected to be stronger than that in summer, are sometimes lower than the mean annual constancies. These low constancies are associated with warm air advection from maritime air brought into Adelie Land when the continental anticyclonic ridge lies to the east of Adelie Land. (3) There is a superadiabatic surface temperature change between the high plateau and intermediate plateau stations. The comparison of the terms in the total pressure gradient force showed that the superadiabatic surface temperature change along the slope could be of importance for surface flow when the buoyancy component is balanced or nearly balanced by an increase in depth of the katabatic wind layer. (4) The entrainment of blowing snow particles increases the density of the katabatic flow layer by two mechanisms: first, by the addition of snow particles to the air column; and second, by the sublimation of the snow particles. This increase in density in the katabatic flow layer leads to increased wind speed. This accelerative effect occurs primarily at wind speeds exceeding 12 m/s, since at those high wind speeds there is usually a large amount of blowing snow.
    • Keeper Of The Seal: The Art Of Henry Wood Elliott And The Salvation Of The Alaska Fur Seals

      Morris, Lisa Marie; Lee, Molly; Woodward, Kesler (2001)
      This thesis examines the art of Henry Wood Elliott (1846--1930) and its role in Elliott's successful crusade to save the Pribilof Island fur seals from probable extinction, its importance as a visual record of the nineteenth-century Pribilof Aleut people during a time of societal transition, and how the art reveals the guiding aspirations of the artist. Elliott was one of the first American artists to work in Alaska. An experienced field artist who had served on two prior government expeditions before his assignment to the Pribilof Islands, Elliott used his watercolors of the fur seals in a successful nationwide campaign to reverse the depletion of the herds. Less well known are Elliott's ethnographic watercolors of the Pribilof Aleut people. Created only a few short years after the 1867 Alaska Purchase, these works show the Native people accommodating their Aleut-Russian culture to American societal expectations. These images, then, are a significant visual record for safeguarding the Aleut people's past. Nettled by scientific opponents, Elliott also turned his artistic talents to retaliation. Just as William Hogarth (1697--1764) and Honore Daumier (1808--1879) used caricature to comment on society, Elliott created hundreds of cartoons (ca. 1910--1926) to ridicule his opponents and promote his own point of view. It is in these previously unexamined works that Henry Elliott achieved a synthesis of art and documentation. Elliott's art also reveals his own thwarted aspirations to achieve recognition as a serious artist. His experiences as an expedition artist encouraged both his enthusiasm for science and talent for documentation. Elliott's desire to pair his watercolors with descriptive written details and snippets of government documents, however, transformed them into visual record. Elliott may not have realized his dream of winning respect as an artist, but his documentary images aroused more interest in the declining fur seal herds than the thousands of pages of dry testimony documenting the controversy. The attention generated by his artwork was a major contributor to the successful resolution of the Pribilof Island fur seal debate.
    • Keeping The Home Fires Burning: The Effects Of Military Induced Separations On Marital Intimacy From A Female Perspective

      Cynar, Deborah J.; McWherter, Pamela (2008)
      In this study, a convenience sample of 56 female, married, military wives in northwestern community responded to a survey questionnaire concerning intimacy promoting communication skills, marital satisfaction, and military induced separations. The results indicated a strong correlation between marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. This study also explores the difference between the type and frequency of military induced separations and their influence on marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. To further describe this military population, several post hoc tests for difference found significance between military branch affiliation, and between those who had or had not received premarital counseling on levels of perceived marital satisfaction, and intimacy promoting communication skills. Further, no significant difference was found to exist between education level or employment status of the at home spouse on levels of perceived marital satisfaction and intimacy promoting communication skills. A description of the implications of the findings, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
    • Kelp bed variability and fish population dynamics in Kachemak Bay, Alaska

      Hamilton, Judith Ann (2004-08)
      Understanding interactions between kelp beds and fishes is essential because anthropogenic changes and natural variability in these beds (composition, density, and distribution) may affect available habitat for fishes. In Alaska, little is known about the annual and seasonal variability of macroalgal cover in kelp beds and corresponding changes in associated fish populations. This study investigated natural variability using monthly SCUBA surveys in Kachemak Bay, Alaska from May 2002 to September 2003. Ten shallow (approximately 7m water depth) nearshore kelp beds with varying degrees of macroalgal cover were surveyed visually for fishes and kelp, and measurements of environmental variables were collected. These kelp beds had a persistent, perennial-dominated understory with sporadic, sparse populations of annual canopy kelp. Understory and canopy kelps had affinities with greater bottom structure, and annual kelp density was greatest during periods with higher temperatures. Hexagrammids, especially kelp greenlings, existed year-round in the more structurally complex beds and were typically more abundant during periods with higher temperatures, and at sites with denser annual kelp populations. Most other fishes were transient and generally present only during summer months. Monthly changes in kelp and fish communities reflected a strong seasonal component.
    • Kelp beds as fish and invertebrate habitat in southeastern Alaska

      Calvert, Elizabeth L.; Stekoll, Michael; Shirley, Thomas; Hillgruber, Nicola (2005-08)
      Throughout the temperate marine regime, the shallow subtidal is dominated by rocky reefs and algal assemblages. The ecological significance of high-latitude, cold-water kelp systems is poorly understood particularly for Alaska. Two large-scale experiments conducted near Juneau, Alaska were designed to study fish and invertebrate assemblages in regard to (1) canopy forming Nereocystis luetkeana (1500 m² manipulations) and (2) sub-canopy forming Laminaria bongardiana (600 m²). Fish and invertebrates were quantified using Standard Monitoring Units for the Recruitment of Fish (SMURFs), light traps, and visual surveys. The canopy kelp experiment revealed significantly greater abundance (X=0.57 fish/SMURF; X=0.28 fish/SMURF) and biomass (X=0.95 g/SMURF; X =0.23 g/SMURF) of benthic fishes at Nereocystis sites versus sites without canopy kelp. In contrast, a direct negative effect of Nereocystis was observed for schooling fish; significantly more fish were observed at sites without canopy kelp as compared to Nereocystis sites (X=27.3 fish/15 m³; X=4.2 fish/15 m³). Fish assemblages were independent of L. bongardiana, yet invertebrates were twice as abundant at sub-canopy sites. Nereocystis has direct and indirect effects on fish distributions through behavioral and habitat modifications. Overall, canopy kelps with associated sub-canopy kelps promote more abundant and rich fish assemblages in southeastern Alaska, while invertebrate assemblages are greater in sub-canopy areas.
    • Kelp forests and barren grounds: phlorotannin production and holdfast community structure in the Aleutian dragon kelp, Eualaria fistulosa

      Schuster, Martin D.; Konar, Brenda; Iken, Katrin; Coyle, Kenneth (2012-12)
      The canopy forming kelp Eualaria fistulosa inhabits two organizational states throughout the Aleutian archipelago, kelp forests and barren grounds. Urchin abundance and behavior determines which state dominates in any given area. Sporophyll phlorotannin content and holdfast epibiont fauna were investigated at multiple islands along the Aleutian archipelago to determine how the organizational state affects the production of secondary metabolites and the taxon richness, abundance and biomass of holdfast communities. Barren ground sporophylls had higher phlorotannin content than kelp forest sporophylls, although grazing rates on sporophylls from each state did not differ during in situ grazing experiments. The taxon richness, abundance and biomass of holdfast communities were similar between kelp forests and barren grounds at all islands, although these communities varied among islands and were mostly driven by holdfast volume. These results suggest that physical differences such as light and nutrient availability in the kelp forest structure between organizational states may be responsible for differences in phlorotannin content, but that these differences are not reflected in the holdfast community structure. It appears that barren ground holdfast communities are remnants of a once forested area.
    • Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability And Magnetic Reconnection At The Earth's Magnetospheric Boundary

      Ma, Xuanye; Otto, Antonius; Lummerzheim, Dirk; Newman, David; Ng, Chung-Sang; Zhang, Hui (2012)
      Magnetic reconnection and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability are the two most important mechanisms for plasma transport across the Earth's magnetospheric boundary layer. Magnetic reconnection is considered as the dominant process for southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and the KH instability is suggested to play an important role for northward IMF. It is interesting to note that this plasma entry is associated with a dramatic entropy increase, which indicates the existence of strong nonadiabatic heating during the entry process. Observations indicate a plasma entropy increase by two orders of magnitude during the transport from solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere. Therefore, it is important to examine whether magnetic reconnection can provide sufficient nonadiabatic heating to explain the observed plasma properties and to identify plasma conditions that allow strong nonadiabatic heating. This thesis demonstrates that the entropy can indeed strongly increase during magnetic reconnection provided that the plasma beta, i.e., the ratio of thermal to magnetic energy density is small. A realistic three-dimensional configuration of the Earth's magnetopause for southward IMF conditions includes large anti-parallels magnetic components with a fast perpendicular shear flow. Thus, it is expected that KH modes and magnetic reconnection operate simultaneously and interact with each other. This thesis provides a systematic study on this interaction between reconnection and KH modes by means of three-dimensional MHD and Hall MHD numerical simulations. It is demonstrated that both reconnection and nonlinear KH waves change the other modes onset condition by changing the width of the transition layer. It is shown that dynamics of the system can be strongly modified by a guide field or Hall physics. In the presence of plasma flow, magnetic reconnection is also associated with the generation of field-aligned currents (FACs), which play a critical role in the coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. This thesis also examines systematically the generation of FACs. It is demonstrated that such currents are generated either by a guide magnetic field, by shear flow, or by the inclusion of Hall physics already in two-dimensional magnetic reconnection.
    • Kennicott Glacier, Alaska: Ice Thickness Measurements using Ground Penetrating Radar (and Inexperienced Skiiers)

      Albert, Sarah (2013)
      What happens when you send a professor, a mentor, and seven inexperienced undergraduates into the field? Dr. Erin Pettit and UAF graduate student Christina Carr led myself and six other undergraduates onto Kennicott Glacier in hopes of teaching us about glacier dynamics and glaciology field techniques. We spent seven days on the glacier. During this time we learned various cold-climate survival techniques and successfully collected ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements to attain an idea of ice thickness. Kennicott Glacier is located in the Wrangell Mountain Range in southcentral Alaska. It stretches 43 km from the top of Mt. Blackburn to its terminus in McCarthy, AK. Previous studies have used GPS velocities to estimate ice thickness. Estimated thicknesses range from 550m to 1080m using one model, and 400m to 820m using a second model . We used GPR to measure ice thickness and compared our thickness measurements to previous estimates. Our data show the ice thickness ranges from 300m to 600m. This is more similar to the second model’s estimates, but around a 270m - 510m difference is present between the data.
    • Kern Canyon Fault Quartz Piezometry and Thermometry: How Weak are Rocks in a Deep Fault?

      Tsigonis, Rebekah (2012)
      This project is an investigation of the strength of rocks from 10-25 kilometers depth in the Kern Canyon Fault in the Sierra Nevada. When this fault was active, it behaved similarly to the San Andreas Fault in California and the Denali Fault here in Alaska. Deep sections of this ancient fault were brought to the surface of the Earth through erosion. Using a method known as piezometry, I was able to measure the sizes of deformed quartz grains in rock samples, which inversely relates to the amount of stress that the rocks experienced during faulting. I also used a technique known as titanium-in-quartz thermometry (TitaniQ) to determine the temperature of the rocks during faulting deformation episodes. Via the Electron Microprobe in the Analytical Facility at UAF, I was able to measure the amount of titanium present in the deformed quartz grains which directly correlates to the temperature at which these crystals formed. In combining the calculations for stress and temperature of deformation, the strain rate exhibited on these rocks was determined which is used to better understand how weak or strong rocks are at different depths within fault zones.
    • Kids Getting Away With Learning: Student Perceptions Of Learning In One To One Laptop Programs

      Standley, Mark; Monahan, John; Crumley, Robert; Jorgensen, Spike; Lang, Rob; Richey, Jean; Roehl, Roy (2012)
      This research explores students' perceptions of learning in one to one laptop programs in rural Alaska. This research used constructing grounded theory methods by conducting five focus groups in rural high schools in order to gather and analyze data from the students themselves. The research intent was to let the students' words and experiences shape a new theory how about they learn with these laptop programs. From an epistemological standpoint the goal of this qualitative research was to create a more complete picture of learning in one to one programs using grounded data through gathering, analyzing, and working directly with the students in these programs as "co-participants" to learn from their perceptions of learning using laptops. The new literacies student develop through being 21st century learners were reflected in the student perceptions in one to one programs and challenge researchers to re-examine learning theory in light of the ubiquitous nature of digital learning. This research was part of a larger collaboration with the Tech Cohort (Appendix A) to conduct mixed methods research using the same population to create a more complete picture of the research topics and participants.
    • The kinetics of glucose limited growth by a marine yeast

      McNab, Allen David (1969-05)
      The kinetics of glucose limited growth by a marine yeast, shown to be a Rhodotorula species, have been studied in a continuous culture apparatus. The saturation constant, in synthetic media, has been calculated to be 0.25 mg/l, on the assumption that saturation kinetics are followed, The maximum growth rate was determined in both synthetic media, and artificial sea water. On the basis of inhibition kinetics, the kinetic behavior of this yeast in the marine environment has been predicted. The effect of temperature on the maximum growth rate has been determined and, on the assumption of a similar effect on the saturation constant, the saturation constant has been postulated to be in agreement with similar values determined for other microorganisms.
    • King eider migration and seasonal interactions at the individual level

      Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby; Murphy, Edward; Verbyla, Dave; O'Brien, Diane (2008-12)
      Seasonal interactions describe how events during one season of the annual cycle of a migratory bird affect its fitness in subsequent seasons. Understanding the strength and mechanism of seasonal interactions is important to predict how migratory birds will respond to future challenges caused by habitat loss and climate change. This dissertation explores seasonal interactions between different stages of the annual cycle in an arctic-breeding sea duck, the King Eider (Somateria spectabilis). Concerns over recent population declines and potential effects of climate change on marine habitats used by the species highlight the need for a better understanding of its life history. I used satellite telemetry to describe migration routes, timing of migration events, and geographic regions used by King Eiders throughout the year. I found highly variable movement patterns, and wide dispersion of King Eiders to three regions in the Bering Sea during winter. I then developed stable isotope techniques to examine seasonal interactions at the individual level. First, I examined the relative contribution of body reserves to egg production using stable isotope analysis of egg components and blood. I found that most birds use only small proportions of body reserves to produce eggs, but rather rely on nutrients obtained on breeding grounds to form a clutch. Thus, contrary to general expectation, King Eiders use an income strategy to produce eggs, and I hypothesize that they may retain body reserves for incubation. Body reserves may reflect the residual body condition from the previous winter. I further examined whether females wintering in different regions in the Bering Sea had different rates of nest survival. The northern Bering Sea has a higher benthic biomass and is closer to breeding grounds than winter regions farther south. However, nest survival rates of female King Eiders in northern Alaska did not differ between females that had wintered in the northern or southern Bering Sea. Overall, I found large individual variation in movement and breeding strategies, and little evidence for strong seasonal interactions between winter, spring, and summer. This indicates that King Eiders are a very adaptable species that depend on resources acquired on breeding grounds to a larger extent than previously assumed.
    • King eider wing molt: inferences from stable isotope analyses

      Knoche, Michael J. (2004-12)
      The western North American population of the king eider is thought to have declined by over 50% between 1974 and 1996 without an apparent cause. The non-breeding period of king eiders consists of 80-100% of their annual cycle if not impossible by observation. I used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of feathers and muscle to examine the wing molt and migration ecology of king eiders in 2003. Eider primary feathers were isotopically homogenous along the length of the feather, implying invariable diets during wing molt. Captive eiders in their hatch-year did not fractionate nitrogen isotopes, potentially indicating preferential protein allocation associated with growth. Six percent of female eiders sampled molted primary feathers on their breeding grounds, which had not been previously substantiated. Tissue samples from both genders corroborated dietary shifts inherent in switching from a marine to terrestrial diet. Carbon isotopes of feathers from satellite-transmittered males were correlated with longitude of their known wing molt locations indicating that the gradient of carbon isotopes can be used to draw inferences about molt location of eiders.