• S = k log W: and other stories

      Kostival, Benjamin C. (2001-05)
      The short stories in this collection explore how work and ideas affect human freedom. This exploration takes place in some context of collapse - economic, philosophical, and sociological. Conflict arises from the protagonists' struggles to extricate themselves from feelings of entrapment and powerlessness. The collection also claims science as legitimate literary subject matter. The text directly includes mathematics in an attempt to employ western literature's last unused language for its metaphorical import. Structurally, the two sections are composed of equal numbers of stories of virtually equal length, suggesting parity between the scientific stories of the first section and the more traditional stories of the second. Moreover, the order of the stories is determined by a 'mirrored resolution' aesthetic in that each story of the second section resolves its conflict similarly to its pair in the first.
    • S.O.S. Eisberg versus S.O.S. Iceberg - two nations' visualizations of arctic landscapes

      Aloia, Kerstin Anne; Schell, Jennifer; Stanley, Sarah; Carr, Rich (2018-12)
      This project is a comparison of the perspectives on Arctic nature that are featured in the 1933 films S.O.S. Eisberg and S.O.S. Iceberg. I am arguing that the director of each version was influenced by his cultural background in visualizing the relationship between Arctic nature and the white explorers that encounter it in their films. Both Arnold Fanck, who created S.O.S. Eisberg, and Tay Garnett, who created S.O.S. Iceberg, worked with the same documentary footage that was filmed at Greenland's Arctic shores, but turned it into two different films. S.O.S. Eisberg turns the Arctic into a space whose hostile forces have to be confronted with the iron will of a leader who demands utmost loyalty from his followers, thus anticipating the leadership cult of the Nazi era. S.O.S. Iceberg portrays the Arctic as an alternative Western frontier that humans have to encounter as a collective who collaborates and facilitates a sense of community, which perpetuates the American self-identification as a frontier nation of explorers. Being aware of the backgrounds of these culture-specific visualizations not only explains the differences between the two films, but, on a larger scale, will teach us to understand the extend of the influence that our cultural background has on our understanding of and interaction with nature.
    • Saami activism in the United Nations: an analysis of effectiveness internationally and at home

      Hicks, Christian Jakob Burmeister (2003-08)
      The Saami of Norway, Sweden, and Finland have been politically active internationally since the 1960s and 1970s. In the last fifteen years their presence has been a major force in indigenous politics and human rights. They have interacted with other indigenous groups, and in numerous national and international political arenas. The motivation for this study is based on the desire to understand the role of Nordic Saami actors in the rapidly changing world of international indigenous politics and how international indigenous politics influences national politics. This study is important to understanding not only Saami politics but also indigenous politics in the larger global perspective. The research shows that the Nordic Saami have been tremendously influential within the United Nations. In turn, Nordic Saami international influence has directly changed Nordic indigenous policy domestically. These international and in turn, national changes led to a significant and wide-reaching improvement in human rights conditions for the Scandinavian Saami people and ultimately for indigenous people world-wide. This thesis evaluates the influence of the Saami on the United Nations and in turn the United Nation's influence on Nordic indigenous policies.
    • Sablefish after the individual fishing quota program: an international economic market model

      Warpinski, Stephanie; Herrmann, Mark; Criddle, Keith; Greenberg, Joshua (2015-05)
      Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) are distributed from Baja California to western Japan. Alaska is the world's principal supplier of sablefish with the majority of commercial landings occurring in the Gulf of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. This demersal, long-lived fish is harvested in one of Alaska's highest valued commercial fisheries, primarily with fixed gear. The total value of the sablefish fishery is comparable to that of the Pacific halibut fishery, which is managed under the similar programs such as the federal IFQ program and various state programs. Although sablefish came to be managed under IFQs at the same time as halibut, the outcomes of IFQ implementation in this fishery have not received as much as attention as in the halibut fishery. Even twenty years after IFQ implementation, there is little published research on the impacts of IFQs on prices and revenues for sablefish. In this thesis project, I have described the various sablefish fisheries within Alaska and the international market conditions. A simultaneous equation market model for sablefish is developed to examine linkages between harvests, prices and revenues. The model is then used to examine the Alaska exvessel price and revenue effects that result from changes in landings, changes resulting from the implementation of the IFQs and changes to the Japanese economy.
    • Sacred trauma: Language, recovery, and the face of God in Ingmar Bergman's trilogy of faith

      Dyer, Daniel; Carr, Richard; Coffman, Chris; Ruppert, Jim (2014-12)
      This thesis examines the three films that constitute director Ingmar Bergman's first trilogy, Through a Glass Darkly, Winter Light, and The Silence. In the thesis I take a multidisciplinary approach to analyzing the films' treatments of language, trauma, and God. Drawing on the Old Testament and work of psychoanalysts dealing with trauma, I argue for the similarities and reciprocity between trauma and communion with God and the ways in which the three films illustrate these relationships. Each film functions on a reflexive level to criticize the tools of filmmaking--images, dialog, and narrative--and points to discordance between symbols and reality. Bringing in Jacques Lacan's model of the imaginary and symbolic orders, I analyze the treatment of language and trauma in the trilogy and the potential for recovery suggested by the end of each film. The thesis culminates by tracing the trilogy toward a new vision of God and his role in the human psyche.
    • Sad soul saloon

      Sigler, Douglas L. (2006-05)
      'Sad Soul Saloon' is a collection of stories about, Nick Muldoon, as he comes of age and seeks adventure during the early 1950s. Raised by his father and a group of social misfits at his father's saloon, Nick realizes in 'A Time to Fly' that the saloon is a refuge for people who seek respite from their difficult life journeys. Advised by the weary to embrace a life created for him by his father, Nick decides that he cannot appreciate a journey's end without having taken his own journey. Stepping from his nest in 'Ultimate Sacrifices, ' Nick's puts himself the middle of the Korean War. Fighting in the trenches of Pork Chop Hill, he experiences the honor and horror of war as he struggles to survive. Learning to transcend his fear, Nick embraces his duty and follows his orders at all cost. In 'A Search for Courage' Nick struggles with physical and emotional battle wounds as he journeys home. Severely burned and haunted by the images of war, he seeks the end of his journey, hoping that the people he loves most will recognize in him and embrace him. Sad Soul Saloon is Nick's cyclical trek away from an appreciation for his home, friends and family to a realization at his journey's end that there is only home, friends and family.
    • Safe and Legal Fish Waste Composting in Alaska

      Chambers, Izetta (Alaska Sea Grant, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2011)
    • Safety Data Management: Gathering and Using the Data

      Perkins, Robert A; Bennett, F. Lawrence (2016-07-14)
      How are roadway crash data acquired, stored, and utilized in engineering and management decisions regarding highway projects? This research answers that question by interviewing the engineers and professionals involved with that safety data management from six states and asking – How are safety (crash) data acquired and used in their states. Since most safety projects are funded by the federal FHWA, through the HSIP, the general flow of the safety data is similar in the states interviewed. But there are many differences in details, especially the computer hardware and software. The methods of data movement between the responder and the DOT often involve an intermediate agency, often the DMV – this varies between the states. Likewise, the program to extract these data for the DOT varies. Another pronounced difference is the transfer of HSIP funding to local agencies. Also pronounced is the use of historical crash data in the SPFs. The older method of only looking at the crash data from the location in question is not uncommon, while the more modern method of using data from similar locations via an EB analysis is becoming more common and is the currently recommended method. Most analysis software is geared to the EB analysis. Historical crash data, before and after countermeasures are installed, may be used to evaluate SPF and CMF for particular states and localities, but there are practical problems with this application of crash data, due to the time required to acquire adequate data for comparisons.
    • Sagavanirktok River Particle Size Distributions

      Tape, Ken; Clark, Jason; Toniolo, Horacio (2017-10)
    • Sagavanirktok River Spring Breakup Observations 2015

      Toniolo, H.; Youcha, E.K.; Gieck, R.E.; Tschetter, T.; Engram, M.; Keech, J. (2015-12)
      Alaska’s economy is strongly tied to oil production, with most of the petroleum coming from the Prudhoe Bay oil fields. Deadhorse, the furthest north oil town on the Alaska North Slope, provides support to the oil industry. The Dalton Highway is the only road that connects Deadhorse with other cities in Interior Alaska. The road is heavily used to move supplies to and from the oil fields. In late March and early April 2015, the Dalton Highway near Deadhorse was affected by ice and winter overflow from the Sagavanirktok River, which caused the road’s closure two times, for a total of eleven days (four and seven days, respectively). In mid-May, the Sagavanirktok River at several reaches flooded the Dalton from approximately milepost (MP) 394 to 414 (Deadhorse). The magnitude of this event, the first recorded since the road was built in 1976, was such that the Dalton was closed for nearly three weeks. During that time, a water station and several pressure transducers were installed to track water level changes on the river. Discharge measurements were performed, and water samples were collected to estimate suspended sediment concentration. Water levels changed from approximately 1 m near MP414 to around 3 m at the East Bank station, located on the river’s east bank (about MP392). Discharge measurements ranged from nearly 400 to 1560 m3/s, with the maximum measurement roughly coinciding with the peak. Representative sediment sizes (D50) ranged from 10 to 14 microns. Suspended sediment concentrations ranged from a few mg/L (clear water in early flooding stages) to approximately 4500 mg/L. An analysis of cumulative runoff for two contiguous watersheds—the Putuligayuk and Kuparuk—indicates that 2014 was a record-breaking year in both watersheds. Additionally, an unseasonable spell of warm air temperatures was recorded during mid-February to early March. While specific conditions responsible for this unprecedented flood are difficult to pinpoint, runoff and the warm spell certainly contributed to the flood event.
    • Sagavanirktok River Spring Breakup Observations 2016

      Toniolo, H.; Tape, K.D.; Tschetter, T.; Homan, J.W.; Youcha, E.K.; Vas, D.; Gieck, R.E.; Keech, J.; Upton, G. (2016-12)
      In 2015, spring breakup on the Sagavanirktok River near Deadhorse was characterized by high flows that destroyed extensive sections of the Dalton Highway, closing the road for nearly 3 weeks. This unprecedented flood also damaged infrastructure that supports the trans-Alaska pipeline, though the pipeline itself was not damaged. The Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT&PF) and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company made emergency repairs to their respective infrastructure. In December 2015, aufeis accumulation was observed by ADOT&PF personnel. In January 2016, a research team with the University of Alaska Fairbanks began monitoring and researching the aufeis and local hydroclimatology. Project objectives included determining ice elevations, identifying possible water sources, establishing surface meteorological conditions prior to breakup, measuring hydrosedimentological conditions (discharge, water level, and suspended sediment concentration) during breakup, and reviewing historical imagery of the aufeis feature. Ice surface elevations were surveyed with Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques in late February and again in mid-April, and measureable volume changes were calculated. However, river ice thickness obtained from boreholes near Milepost 394 (MP394) in late February and mid-April revealed no significant changes. It appears that flood mitigation efforts by ADOT&PF in the area contributed to limited vertical growth in ice at the boreholes. End-of-winter snow surveys throughout the watershed indicate normal or below normal snow water equivalents (SWE 10 cm). An imagery analysis of the lower Sagavanirktok aufeis from late winter for the past 17 years shows the presence of ice historically at the MP393–MP396 area. Water levels and discharge were relatively low in 2016 compared with 2015. The mild breakup in 2016 seems to have been due to temperatures dropping below freezing after the flow began. Spring 2015 was characterized by warm temperatures throughout the basin during breakup, which produced the high flows that destroyed sections of the Dalton Highway. A comparison of water levels at the East Bank Station during 2015 and 2016 indicates that the 2015 maximum water level was approximately 1 m above the 2016 maximum water level. ii Maximum measured discharge in 2016 was approximately half of that measured in 2015 in the lower Sagavanirktok River. Representative suspended sediment sizes (D50) ranged from 20 to 50 microns (medium to coarse silt). An objective of this study was to determine the composition and possible sources of water in the aufeis at the lower Sagavanirktok River. During the winter months and prior to breakup in 2016, overflow water was collected, primarily near the location of the aufeis, but also at upriver locations. Simultaneously possible contributing water sources were sampled between January and July 2016, including snow, glacial meltwater, and river water. Geochemical analyses were performed on all samples. It was found that the overflow water which forms the lower Sagavanirktok aufeis is most similar (R2 = 0.997) to the water that forms the aufeis at the Sagavanirktok River headwaters (Ivishak River), thought to be fed by relatively consistent groundwater sources.
    • Sailing through a granite quarry: the Northwest Passage and the voyage of the SS Manhattan

      Coen, Ross Allen (2005-05)
      Upon the discovery of the Prudhoe Bay (Alaska) oil field in 1968, North America's largest crude oil reservoir at roughly twenty billion barrels, Humble Oil devised an all-marine transportation method for bringing the reserves to markets in the eastern U.S. The proposal called for a fleet of icebreaking tankers to haul crude directly from the Alaska North Slope to New York through the fabled Northwest Passage. In 1969, Humble chartered the SS Manhattan, the largest tanker in the American fleet, to complete an experimental voyage in order to test the logistic and economic feasibility of the ice-choked Arctic passage as a commercial trade route. After extensive renovations that strengthened her hull with additional layers of steel, the icebreaking Manhattan became the first commercial vessel in history to successfully transit the Northwest Passage, but the experiment established the impracticability of the method for shipping oil. The history of the Manhattan demonstrates how landscapes shape both our interactions with and attitudes toward the natural world. The approach to development taken by Humble, with its emphasis on science and economics, brings into focus a host of other social issues that inform the relative values of the Arctic environment.
    • Saline Conversion and Ice Structures from Artificially Grown Sea Ice

      Peyton, H. R.; Johnson, P. R.; Behlke, C. E. (University of Alaska, Arctic Environmental Engineering Laboratory and University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1967-09)
      The environment of cold regions is generally viewed as inhospitable, primarily due to application of ideal processes and techniques suitable to temperate zones. The work herein is a step toward solving two environmental problems. The first involves the supply of inexpensive, potable water in Arctic regions, the lack of which is a severe detriment to development. Although water does exist in the Arctic, it is neither available in potable form during many months of the year nor does it occur in sufficient quantity near the point of use. Principally, this lack is caused by the aridness of the Arctic and the shallowness of fresh water sources which, for all practical purposes, do not exist but freeze completely each winter season. The remaining liquid water source is the sea. Arctic problems are then similar to other arid regions where the conversion of sea water to potable water or the transmission of potable water to desired locations is necessary. Cold temperatures generally preclude transmission except over very short distances. Desalination by freezing sea water is a much reported process and has been included among the desalination processes under study worldwide. The advantage of this method in the Arctic is the cold winter-time temperature for freezing and the existence of adequate solar energy in the summer for melting self purified ice. Power requirements are greatly reduced using these natural phenomena. The second aspect of this study concerns the use of artificially grown sea ice as a structural material, thinking primarily in terms of coastal facilities such as docks, jetties, islands, platforms, etc. At sufficiently high latitudes, the summer ablation can be controlled to the point where major structures can be maintained intact during the summer. The unit cost of material is quite low because of low energy requirements. The results of this study show that each of these sea water uses have considerable promise. Desalination to potable level was accomplished. Ice growth rates were obtained which indicate that ice structures of substantial size can be built.
    • Salmon, cosmology, and identity in Elim, Alaska

      Raymond-Yakoubian, Julie M.; Schweitzer, Peter; Koester, David; Plattet, Patrick; Carothers, Courtney; Lowe, Marie (2019-05)
      This dissertation is the result of sociocultural anthropological research in and about the community of Elim, Alaska. Elim is a small community of approximately 330 (primarily Inupiaq and Yup'ik Eskimo) people in Norton Sound. This research began with a focus on the topics of salmon and identity in the community. The focus on salmon was particularly important because the communities of this region have often traditionally been understood in the social sciences through the lens of relationships with marine mammals. The research involved participant observation in the community, a variety of forms of ethnographic interviewing (free listing, structured, and semi-structured interviews), focus groups, storytelling sessions, and archival research. Over 80 adults in the community participated in the project through interviews. I also completed extensive photo-documentation of the community and various aspects of peoples' relationships with subsistence activities. Much of this work began with inquiries about the importance of salmon to people in Elim, as well as an examination of other things which were important to Elim residents, and how people come to understand themselves. In this I also examined and learned about aspects of Elim residents' relationships with fish and other animals, with the environment, with the spiritual world, and with each other. This process led me to insights not just about identity in Elim - what matters, what is meaningful and valued, how people understand and define themselves and their community, and so on - but it also led to me an understanding of how Elim residents think about the nature of the world in general (i.e., cosmology). My main argument in this dissertation is that my research in and about Elim revealed that identity and cosmology are co-created - and it revealed how this is the case. I discovered that salmon are 'good to think with' in order to see that. This co-creation of identity and cosmology occurs within a particularly visible hybrid cosmological landscape of (primarily) 'traditionally Indigenous' and Christian ideologies. This landscape in lived culture and context is marked by a patterned heteroglossic 'condition' which includes a dominant (and indigenized) Christian discourse. This heteroglossia is constituted, represented, and evidenced by a (markedly) heterogeneous multiplicity of discourse, practice, and belief. This cosmological landscape and its heteroglossic condition are visible, and made, in various respects in co-implicated, co-indexical, interlocking instantiations of human-animal relationships, spirituality, systems of proper behavior, place attachments, and identity processes and formations.
    • Salmonid Phenology, Microevolution, And Genetic Diversity In A Warming Alaskan Stream

      Kovach, Ryan P.; Tallmon, David; Lindberg, Mark; Milo, Adkison,; Gharrett, Anthony (2012)
      Climate change is a formidable challenge for fish and wildlife conservation because it will directly influence the ecology and evolution of wild populations. Though climate-induced temporal trends in phenological events are common in many populations, there remains considerable uncertainty in the patterns, mechanisms, and consequences of phenological shifts. To address this, and clarify how climate change has impacted salmonid migration timing and microevolution in a warming (0.34�C per decade) Alaskan stream, long-term demographic and genetic data were used to answer these questions: how has migration timing changed in multiple salmonid species; what sources of variation influence migration timing; are changes in migration timing a result of microevolution; and does migration timing and change in migration timing influence intra-population genetic variation? For most salmonid species, life stages, and life histories, freshwater temperature influenced migration timing, migration events occurred earlier in time (mean = 1.7 days earlier per decade), and there was decreasing phenotypic variation in migration timing (mean 10% decrease). Nonetheless, there were disparate shifts in migration timing for alternative life history strategies indicative of biocomplexity. Population abundances have been stable during these phenotypic changes (lambda ≈ 1.0), but adult salmon availability as a nutrient resource in freshwater has decreased by up to 30 days since 1971. Experimental genetic data spanning 16 generations in the odd-year pink salmon population demonstrate that earlier migration timing is partly due to genetic changes resulting from selection against late-migrating fish and a three-fold decrease in this phenotype. However, circadian rhythm genes hypothesized to influence migration timing in Pacific salmon showed no evidence of inter-generational selective change. Migration timing itself influences the distribution of genetic variation within pink salmon, as there were genetic differences between early- and late-migrating fish. Despite shifts in migration timing, genetic structure and the genetic effective population size were both stable across years, indicating that in the absence of demographic change patterns of genetic diversity are resilient to climate change. These findings indicate that climate change has significantly influenced the ecology and evolution of salmon populations, which will have important consequences for the numerous species, including humans, who depend on this resource.
    • Salt Lake speed seduction

      Ferguson, Dean A. (2000-08)
      This satirical novel is written in first person and alternates between two story lines: a present tense story and a past tense one. It follows characters who are living the Gen X. life: low paying jobs, lots of drugs, lots of sex, and an unearned sense of superiority. Their search for direction and meaning in a society that is increasingly voyeuristic and paranoid illustrates the futility of such a journey in late 20th century America. The main character's placement as the accidental leader of a cult makes him the target of governmental aggression. The opposition of religious institutions, local and state governments, and the media forces these characters to reject mainstream attitudes and assumptions.
    • Salt redistribution during freezing of saline sand columns with applications to subsea permafrost

      Baker, Grant Cody; Osterkamp, T. E. (1987)
      Laboratory experiments were designed to investigate salt redistribution during the freezing of saline sand columns and to obtain information on salt movement in saturated sands and reconstituted subsea permafrost samples. The results of these experiments were combined with results from field investigations of subsea permafrost at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to develop an improved understanding of salt redistribution during freezing and the movement of salt in the seabed sediments. These processes can produce soil solution salinities in the sediments greater than about 50 ppt. Comparison of spring and fall salinity profiles indicate salt movement with velocities of at least 2 m/year. Laboratory freezing (downward) tests of saline sand columns show significant salt redistribution at growth rates between 0.1 and 2 cm/day. Salt movement was observed with velocities of at least 2 cm/day. Salt movement in the unfrozen soil solution in partially frozen sand appears to be the result of gravity drainage. Freezing upward produced no significant salt redistribution. Salt fingering experiments showed that salt fingers could move with velocities of several cm/hr and suggest that it may be a major mechanism for rapid salt movement in subsea permafrost. Fingers (freshwater) at a thawing fresh ice boundary overlain by thawed saline soil solution displayed similar rapid movement behavior. Laboratory measurements of the hydraulic conductivity, K, of subsea permafrost samples yielded values that were 10$\sp2$ to 10$\sp3$ times greater than previously reported in-situ measurements. While it is difficult to apply the laboratory results to subsea permafrost under field conditions, these greater values for K and the large salt fingering velocities suggest that gravity-driven convection, in the form of salt fingering, should be considered as a primary mechanism for rapid salt transport in subsea permafrost.
    • Sample Preparation — the First Step of Successful Research

      Miao, Yan (2013)
      The overall goal of our research project is to study the unfrozen water mass and mobility in frozen soils. Frozen samples of standard clays with different adsorbed cations will be analyzed to determine their surface potential, micro-fabric, and how they interact with unfrozen water. To be successful, our first step was to develop standard procedures for sample preparation. During the past six months, we have developed and tested a set of methods for preparing clay samples, which included crushing source rocks into clay- sized samples with a suitable grain size distribution and exchanging cations for each type of clay. We experimented with different crushing methods, including using a ball mill, and mortar and pestle. Repeatable hydrometer test results indicated that our final combination of methods will produce clay samples with grain size distributions that are acceptable for future testing. Next, we exchanged the adsorbed cations with Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and Na+ using chloride salt solutions, and flushed the excess chloride from the soil. Each cation-saturated clay required a different number of flushes due to the changes in surface chemistry. Sample preparation may seem simple, but all great research begins with a sound scientific foundation.
    • Sand dune field paleoenvironment, paleoecology, and human environmental interaction in the middle Tanana River Valley near the Gerstle River, subarctic Alaska: the late glacial to the middle Holocene

      Bowman, Robert C.; Reuther, Joshua D.; Potter, Ben A.; Clark, Jamie L. (2017-08)
      This study was conducted to explore paleoenvironmental change within the Gerstle-Sawmill Dune Field (GSDF), located just west of the Gerstle River in the middle Tanana River valley, Interior Alaska from the late Glacial to the middle Holocene. Specifically, this study was undertaken to document human-environment interaction on the landscape. Geoarchaeological methods were used in order to determine the history of sand dune development across the area, how the local ecological systems changed through time, and determine prehistoric human use of environment and response to environmental and ecological change. The data collected from these locations was used to create a model for sand dunes and human land use regarding local ecological stability and dynamic sand dune deposition. Patterns of human land use within the GSDF were then compared with data collected from sites in proximity to the GSDF to determine how this portion of the environment operated within the larger geographic area. This geoarchaeological research aids in understanding ecological patterning within terrestrial lowland systems from the Late Glacial to the Middle Holocene, with regard to human land use dynamics within a changing geomorphological system.