• The limnology of Lake Clark, Alaska

      Wilkens, Alexander Xanthus (2002-12)
      This study gathered baseline limnological data to investigate the thermal structure, water quality, phytoplankton, and zooplankton of Lake Clark, Alaska. Results indicate Lake Clark is oligotrophic and mixes biannually, but stratification is weak and thermoclines are deep. Longitudinal gradients were seen in measurements of temperature, suspended solids, turbidity, light penetration, algal biomass, and zooplankton density. Wind and tributary inputs determine the thermal regime. Glacially-influenced tributaries drive turbidity and light gradients by introducing suspended solids to the inlet end of the lake. Suspended solids likely create the algal biomass gradient by limiting the light available for photosynthesis in the inlet basin. Algal biomass and turbidity gradients may interact to create an area of high productivity and low predation risk, causing high zooplankton concentrations in the central basin. Oxygen supersaturation was discovered in the hypolimnion but remains unexplained. Because tributaries are glacially influenced, Lake Clark could be sensitive to global warming.
    • The Limnology of Two Dissimilar Subarctic Streams and Implications of Resource Development

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Nyquist, David (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-03)
      Because of the relatively undeveloped condition of arctic and subarctic Alaska, an opportunity is presented to draw up water quality management plans before extensive perturbation. These plans cannot, unfortunately , be based upon those drawn up for more temperate regions where much is known about natural stream conditions, for in these Alaskan areas, little is known about the natural physical, chemical, and biological cycles of streams or about their ability to handle the stresses that will be exerted on them should development take place. The Chena River, in subarctic, interior Alaska, near the city of Fairbanks, has been studied to evaluate the impact of pending construction and operation of flood control structures (Frey, Mueller and Berry, 1970). This river however has already been developed, especially along its lower reaches where the city of Fairbanks is situated. The watersheds of the two streams chosen for this study roughly parallel each other, although the Chatanika River watershed is about twice as long as that of Goldstream Creek. In addition to the dissimilarity in size, these two streams also differ in regard to terrain, at least along the respective stretches that were studied. The Goldstream Creek study area runs through a bog and extensive muskeg. The Chatanika River, however, was for the most part sampled in the area of mountainous terrain. The intent of this study was to obtain comprehensive physical and chemical data, to survey the resident invertebrates, and to evaluate the assimilative capabilities of both streams.
    • Linay'sdulkaas de': let's start sewing

      Shaginoff-Stuart, Sondra; Ts'akae, Kaggos; Siekmann, Sabine; Peter, Hishinlai'; Tuttle, Siri (2016-12)
      This paper proposes Task Based Language Teaching (TBLT) as a teaching method for Ahtna language learners. TBLT focuses on engaging learners in meaningful activities or tasks which they accomplish through using the target language, learning Ahtna in the process. TBLT incorporates deeper understandings and meaning by teaching students the language in a cultural context. For this paper, the focus activity will be making a beaded necklace. Beading has been an important activity for me, from the time of learning about my culture and people from my Aunt Katie Wade. The website accompanying the project and be found at: http://www.ourlanguagecameback.com/.
    • Linear partial differential equations and real analytic approximations of rough functions

      Barry, Timothy J.; Rybkin, Alexei; Avdonin, Sergei; Faudree, Jill (2017-08)
      Many common approximation methods exist such as linear or polynomial interpolation, splines, Taylor series, or generalized Fourier series. Unfortunately, many of these approximations are not analytic functions on the entire real line, and those that are diverge at infinity and therefore are only valid on a closed interval or for compactly supported functions. Our method takes advantage of the smoothing properties of certain linear partial differential equations to obtain an approximation which is real analytic, converges to the function on the entire real line, and yields particular conservation laws. This approximation method applies to any L₂ function on the real line which may have some rough behavior such as discontinuities or points of nondifferentiability. For comparison, we consider the well-known Fourier-Hermite series approximation. Finally, for some example functions the approximations are found and plotted numerically.
    • LingitX Haa Sateeyi, We Who Are Tlingit: Contemporary Tlingit Identity And The Ancestral Relationship To The Landscape

      Martindale, Vivian F.; Barnhardt, Ray (2008)
      Divergent views on the Tlingit ancestral relationship to the landscape of Southeast Alaska often leads to conflicts between Western-orientated government agencies, public entities, and the Tlingit people themselves. To better understand this subject, I collected nine personal narratives from research participants from within the Tlingit nation. The narratives provide insight into the dynamics at the intersection of conflicting worldviews, and the role this plays in shaping contemporary Tlingit identity. The results of exploring these diverging worldviews has illuminated three factors influencing contemporary Tlingit identity: the loss and struggle with maintaining the Lingit language, implementation of subsistence regulations and resultant conflicts, and diminishment of the ceremony called a koo.eex' (a memorial party). In addition, within the Tlingit worldviews there are oral histories, traditional values, and concepts such as balance, respect, and at.oow, which define ancestral relationships and identity. These findings also reveal that the means of imparting cultural knowledge and worldviews have changed. The narratives are organized into themes reflecting common factors: Residing in the ancestral landscape, Lingit language and thinking, the Tlingit artist and the ancestral relationship to the landscape, and contemporary Tlingit identity. The results demonstrate the significance of identity markers, such as the Lingit language, as a means for healing social trauma. Moreover, the lives of the Tlingit artists illustrate that maintaining an ancestral relationship utilizes both traditional and contemporary methods. In addition, the narratives provide documentation concerning the changes in a subsistence lifestyle that affect the social lives of the Tlingit in contemporary society.
    • Linkages between protein ubiquitination, proteasome activity and the expression of oxygen-binding proteins in Antarctic notothenioid fishes

      Oldham, Corey A.; O'Brien, Kristin; Dunlap, Kriya; Taylor, Barbara (2015-12)
      Antarctic icefishes lack hemoglobin (Hb), and some species lack cardiac myoglobin (Mb). As iron-centered proteins, Hb and Mb can promote the formation of reactive oxygen species that may damage biological macromolecules. Consistent with this, we find higher levels of oxidized proteins in some tissues of red-blooded notothenioids than in icefishes. Oxidized proteins are marked for degradation by the conjugation of the protein ubiquitin. I hypothesized that levels of ubiquitinated proteins and 20S proteasome activity (which degrades oxidized proteins) would be higher in +Hb and +Mb notothenioids than icefishes lacking the proteins. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins and rates of proteasome activity were measured in the heart ventricle, pectoral adductor, and liver of six species of notothenioids differing in Hb and Mb expression. Previous studies in notothenioids suggest that oxidative stress declines following acclimation to 4°C. I also hypothesized that levels of ubiquitinated proteins and 20S proteasome activity would decline in response to acclimation to 4°C. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins and rates of proteasome activity were measured in the heart ventricle, pectoral adductor, and liver of the red-blooded Notothenia coriiceps held at ambient temperature and acclimated to 4°C for 3 weeks. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins were higher in tissues of the red-blooded N. coriiceps compared to icefishes, but the activity of the 20S proteasome did not follow a similar trend, suggesting that icefishes do not incur an energetic benefit resulting from reduced rates of protein degradation. Levels of ubiquitinated proteins were equivalent in heart ventricle and oxidative skeletal muscle, and proteasome activities were equivalent in all tissues between acclimated N. coriiceps and those held at ambient temperature, suggesting that protein damage and rates of protein degradation are not altered in notothenioids by long-term exposure to 4°C.
    • Linked disturbance interactions in South-Central Alaska: implications for ecosystems and people

      Hansen, Winslow D. (2013-05)
      Communities and ecosystems in the Alaskan boreal forest are undergoing substantial change. People contribute to this change. They are also impacted by the consequences. For example, wildfire and spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks have increased in frequency and severity due to warming trends, affecting the ecosystem and services important to people. I conducted a study to explore the social and ecological implications of changing natural disturbances. I evaluated how the occurrence of spruce bark beetle outbreak has altered the probability of wildfire between 2001 and 2009 on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Modeling the effects of bark beetle outbreak on the probability of large wildfire (> 500 ha) and small wildfires (<500 ha), I found that the influence of the outbreak differed as a function of wildfire size. The occurrence and length of outbreak increased large wildfire probability. Small wildfires were mediated by human influence and less so by bark beetle outbreak. I also used spatial econometric techniques to estimate how wildfires and the bark beetle outbreak affected property values on the Kenai Peninsula in 2001 and 2010. I found that wildfires> 3.3 ha and the bark-beetle outbreak increased property values. Wildfires <3.3 ha decreased property values.
    • Linking climate history and ice crystalline fabric evolution in polar ice sheets

      Kennedy, Joseph Huston; Pettit, Erin; Truffer, Martin; Bueler, Ed; Newman, David; Szuberla, Curt (2015-08)
      An ice sheet consists of an unfathomable number of ice crystallites (grains) that typically have a preferred orientation of the crystalline lattices, termed fabric. At the surface of ice sheets, the microstructural processes that control the grain structure and fabric evolution are influenced by climate variables. Layers of firn, in different climate regimes, may have an observable variation in fabric which can persist deep into the ice sheet; fabric may have 'memory' of these past climate regimes. To model the evolution of a subtle variation in fabric below the firn-ice transition, we have developed and released an open-source Fabric Evolution with Recrystallization (FEvoR) model. FEvoR is an anisotropic stress model that distributes stresses through explicit nearest-neighbor interaction. The model includes parameterizations of grain growth, rotation recrystallization and migration recrystallization which account for the major recrystallization processes that affect the macroscopic grain structure and fabric evolution. Using this model, we explore the evolution of a subtle variation in near-surface fabric using both constant applied stress and a stress-temperature history based on data from Taylor Dome, East Antarctica. Our results show that a subtle fabric variation will be preserved for ~200ka in compressive stress regimes with temperatures typical of polar ice-sheets. The addition of shear to compressive stress regimes preserves fabric variations longer than in compression-only regimes because shear drives a positive feedback between crystal rotation and deformation. We find that temperature affects how long the fabric variation is preserved, but does not affect the strain-integrated fabric evolution profile except when crossing the thermal-activation-energy threshold (~-10°C). Even at high temperatures, migration recrystallization does not rid the fabric of its memory under most conditions. High levels of nearest-neighbor interactions between grains will rid the fabric of its memory more quickly than low levels of nearest-neighbor interactions. Because FEvoR does not compute flow, an integrated fabric-flow model is needed to investigate the flow-fabric feedbacks that arise in ice sheets. Using the open-source Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) and FEvoR, we develop a combined flow-fabric model (PISM-FEvoR). We provide the first integrated flow-fabric model that explicitly computes the fabric evolution and includes all three major recrystallization processes. We show that PISM-FEvoR is able to capture the flow enhancement due to fabric by modeling a slab-on-slope glacier, initialized with a variety of fabric profiles. We also show that the entire integrated fabric-flow history affects the final simulated flow. This provides a further, independent validation of using an integrated fabric-flow model over a constant enhancement factor in ice-sheet models.
    • Linking freshwater growth to size-dependent marine survival of sockeye salmon: interactions between processes of climate, density, and natural selection

      Ree, Marta Elizabeth; Westley, Peter; Finkle, Heather; Beaudreau, Anne (2019-05)
      Due to the mediating role of body size in determining fitness, the 'bigger is better' hypothesis still pervades evolutionary ecology despite evidence that natural selection on phenotypic traits varies in time and space. For Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus), the size at which juveniles migrate to sea (i.e., smolts) has been linked to survival during the early marine period, where larger smolts typically survive at a higher rate than their smaller counterparts. However, the relationship of smolt size and survival becomes more ambiguous when considering confounding factors of age, ocean entry timing, and environmental variability. Despite equivocal results, smolt size appears to be a key trait and therefore changes in freshwater conditions may have consequences for population productivity. Furthermore, due to differences in site-specific habitats, trophic dynamics, and population traits the response of specific populations to these changes is likely to be context specific. The objective of this thesis was to 1) quantify the direction and magnitude of natural selection on smolt size for three age classes of sockeye salmon in a small watershed on Kodiak Island, AK and 2) explore stock-specific effects of temperature and conspecific density on smolt size over a multi-decade time-series to understand historic and possible future trends. To address our first objective, we calculated standardized selection differentials by comparing observed size distributions of out-migrating juvenile salmon to back-calculated smolt length from the scales of surviving, returning adults. Results reveal the magnitude of selection on size was very strong and consistent among years. However, the direction of selection on size consistently varied among age classes. The absolute magnitude of selection was negatively correlated to apparent marine survival and positively correlated to late mean ocean entry timing. To address our second objective, we back-calculated smolt size from returning adult scales to reconstruct a time-series of smolt length of two stocks within a small Alaska watershed on Kodiak Island. Using a dynamic linear model framework, we detected evidence that for one stock, temperature was important in explaining smolt length, and density effects influenced both stocks utilizing the same lakes. Furthermore, forecasts of smolt length showed highly variable responses under scenarios of increasing temperature and high and low densities. Collectively, these results demonstrate that interactions between processes of climate, density, and natural selection are highly context-specific in terms of both inter- and intra- population variability.
    • Linking local knowledge and fisheries science: the case with humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschian) in Interior Alaska

      Robinson, Melissa Anne (2005-05)
      Humpback whitefish (Coregonus pidschian) are the main subsistence fish for the residents of the Athabascan village of Northway. Local residents' concerns over whitefish and gaps in knowledge in the scientific community about whitefish basic ecology provided a basis for collaboration between fisheries scientists, social scientists, and Northway Village. Through semi-directed interviews and participant observation, I documented and linked local and scientific knowledge about whitefish. Trust, formed in part by my engagement with the community, was essential to meaningful collaboration between local and scientific experts. Through collaboration, insights emerged about the long-distance migrations of whitefish (up to 230 km), their small-scale use of creek channels, annual site fidelity, and repeated long-term use of seasonal habitats. Partially due to gendered fishing roles, women and men differed in their knowledge about whitefish. Women observed seasonal and annual variation in the prevalence of parasite-infected whitefish, while both men and women observed increased sedimentation in area lakes. Questions surfaced about the behavioral response of whitefish to increasing water temperatures and the effects of siltation on their health. I argue that the fusion of local and scientific knowledge, gained through collaboration, enhanced the information required to make management decisions regarding whitefish in the Upper Tanana drainage and the resilience of this social-ecological system.
    • Linking proteomics to microbial kinetics

      Cherian, Suraj (2008-08)
      Oligobacterial physiology is mostly unstudied due to cultivation difficulty. New isolation techniques such as extinction culture have produced cultivable representatives of the aquatic environment namely Sphingopyxis alaskensis. Attempts were made to grow the bacterium in batch cultures using glucose and tyrosine as ideal substrates as determined from growth studies. Differential protein expression from cytoplasmic and membrane fractions of the putative culture were compared so as to identify key proteins involved in substrate uptake and metabolism followed by incorporation of protein quantities into mathematical models of oligotroph growth. However artifactual results from two dimensional gel electrophoresis led to the question of culture purity, which was eventually confirmed by light microscopy, flow cytometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This research gives better insight into the possible problems that can crop up while working with hard to culture marine oligobacteria. I demonstrate the rationale used to identify the contaminant, which was difficult to detect because its slow growth was similar to the target organism. A major achievement was successful cell fractionation as it has never been attempted in oligobacteria due to culturing difficulties and the procedure is different from the routine methods adopted in bacteria and fungi. Also the research demonstrates a complete protocol for eliminating uncertainties in culture purity.
    • List of Plant Species Present on Forest Permanent Sample Plots in Interior and Southcentral Alaska

      Malone, Thomas; Packee, Edmond C.; Liang, JingJing (Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2012)
      In 1994 the University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station began a project to establish permanent sample plots (PSP) throughout the forests of northern and southcentral Alaska. Objectives of the project are to establish and maintain a system of PSPs to monitor forest growth, yield, forest health, and ecological conditions/change (Malone et al., 2009). To date, 603 PSPs have been established on 201 sites throughout interior and southcentral Alaska. The PSPs are square and 0.1 acre in size and in clusters of three. PSPs are remeasured at a five-year interval. The number of plot remeasurements after establishment ranges from one to three times. A large amount of data is collected at each site at time of establishment and at subsequent remeasurements. Four databases contain all the data: tree measurement and characteristics, site description, regeneration, and vegetation data. Vegetation data collected on the 0.1 acre PSPs includes species (trees shrub, herb, grass, and non-vascular plants) and cover, an estimate of the amount of the plot covered by the crown of each species (cover class) (Daubenmire, 1959). The vegetation database can be used by land managers and researchers to study species diversity and forest succession in addition to long-term monitoring of forest health. The species listed in Appendix 1 and in the vegetation database are presented by categories: tree, shrub, herb, grass, rush, sedge, fern, club moss, lichen, moss, and liverwort.
    • Literacies and engagement: incorporating Yup'ik literacies in a language arts classroom

      Gehman, Michael J.; Hogan, Maureen; Leonard, Beth; Siekmann, Sabine (2017-05)
      The use of culturally relevant teaching practices and local literacies has been shown to increase student engagement in other studies. To observe the impact of Yup'ik literacies on student engagement, I designed and implemented a teacher, action research study that asked students to create a yuraq song to demonstrate their mastery of this topic. I spoke with members of the community to ensure the study was culturally acceptable and seen as beneficial, as well as to gain understanding about yuraq because I am an outsider to the culture. Students were observed and recorded throughout eight class periods while writing an academic essay and creating a yuraq song. Their actions in the classroom were analyzed to create an operational definition of engagement from a Yup'ik perspective, which was used, in conjunction with discussions with community members and students as well as student journals to determine if the yuraq task was able to foster deep, meaningful engagement. Their actions were also analyzed using James Paul Gee's work on "Big D" Discourse to identify the impact a local literacy had on their school Discourse. The data were able to illuminate a clear definition of Yup'ik engagement consisting of collaboration, physical action, and intense listening; deep student engagement similar to concept of Csikszentmihalyi's flow was observed in some but not all students; and the use of Discourse that matched the task and setting, but did not attempt to alter the power structure of the dominant Discourse in the school. The findings held a large degree of local validity for the participants, and were used to adjust teaching strategies to benefit this class.
    • Lithic analysis at the Mead Site, Central Alaska

      Little, Allison A.; Potter, Ben; Irish, Joel; Plattet, Patrick (2013-08)
      The purpose of this study is to understand chipped stone technological behaviors at the Mead Site located in central Alaska. Lithics from each cultural occupation ranging in age from 11,460BP to 1420BP were analyzed and compared. Specific objectives include (1) characterization of variability in raw material and use for each cultural component, (2) description of lithic stages of reduction represented in each component, (3) description of the basic lithic industries represented. and (4) the identification and characterization of spatial organization and lithic behaviors. Results indicate (1) the tools and debris from Cultural Zone (CZ) lb and CZ2 show preferential use of local materials, while the tools from CZ3b and CZ4 are largely manufactured using nonlocal materials, and the debitage assemblage is dominated by locally available material, (2) CZ1b was a long term occupation, while CZ2, CZ3b, and CZ4 were short term camps, and (3) CZ4 is characterized by intensive primary reduction of a local quartz, while CZ2 is characterized by biface production. These patterns suggest similar technological strategies were employed at Mead in the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene with an increase in tool form diversity and greater reliance on higher quality locally available materials during the Mid Holocene.
    • Lived ethnicity: identity, consciousness, and discursive practice in Grayling, Alaska

      Raymond-Yakoubian, Brenden (2000-12)
      This thesis is an analysis of data collected from academic, archival, and ethnographic inquiries into the lives, culture, and history of the residents of Grayling, Alaska. The main argument forwarded in this thesis is that forms of discursive practice provide a means, emic and etic, for critically engaging the historically and locally constructed web of meanings that inscribe and inform the lived social reality of ethnic identity of ethnic identity and consciousness in Grayling. Using a communicative-discursive theoretical framework, influences and forces which inform this 'lived ethnicity, ' the strands of the web, are understood dialogically - as discursive forms and 'voices'; they are presented in the shape of local narrative, theoretical debates, explorer's journals, social science observations, etc. The sociohistorical and individual construction of the concepts of 'culture, ' 'history, ' and 'identity' are given particular attention, using the above-mentioned discursive forms and their related contexts as guiding interpretive frameworks.
    • Living A Tattooed Life: The Female Experience

      Cleveland, Kara G.; Brown, Jin (2008)
      The present research is rooted in Human Science, and employed the epistemology of Constructionism, as well as the theoretical perspective of Social Construction of Reality. I used Narrative Inquiry as methodology and conversational interviewing as my method of collecting data. I interviewed six women who provided narratives of their lived experience of constructing their identities through tattoos. Three emergent themes, along with three sub-themes, are discussed in regards to the lived experiences of tattooed women: (1) becoming tattooed constructs who you are; (2) becoming tattooed develops relational identity with (a) friends, (b) the tattoo community, (c) family; and (3) the communication of "tattoo remorse" is differentiated from an earlier recognition of tattoo regret. This research provides insight into the lived human experience of tattooed women through their own natural language.
    • Living the frontier myth in the twenty-first century

      Tyrrell, Laurel Beach (2002-05)
      On the cusp of the millennium, a small number of people live near the community of Central, Alaska in the heart of the state that calls itself 'The Last Frontier'. On the edge of largely uninhabitated lands this group of people have chosen a way of living consistent with traditional American ideals of self-reliance, independence, solitude, and wilderness. Seeking a place to build a quality life integrating meaning and value, far from crowded situations, they have planted themselves in a wild and natural setting. Their narratives display the influence of the physical environment on their view of themselves, others, and the broadening of their inner capabilities. Their stories communicate the fear that this distinct way of living is being brought to an end through conservation efforts and government regulation. Preserving this lifeway is important as it contributes to the richness of human diversity and expresses universal themes in its stories.
    • Loading Deformation On Various Timescales Using Gps And Grace Measurements

      Fu, Yuning; Freymueller, Jeff (2012)
      Tidal, seasonal and long-term surface mass movements cause the earth to deform and the gravity field to change. Current geodetic satellites, GPS and GRACE, accurately measure these geophysical signals. I examine the effect on GPS solutions of using inconsistent reference frames to model ocean tidal loading (OTL). For seasonal loading, I choose two study areas, Nepal Himalaya and southern Alaska, and compare GPS-measured and GRACE-modeled seasonal hydrological ground loading deformation. Globally distributed stations are employed to compare GPS coordinate solutions with OTL corrections computed in different reference frames: center of mass of the solid Earth (CE), and center of mass of the Earth system (CM). A strong spectral peak at a period of ~14 days appears when inconsistent OTL models are applied along with smaller peaks at ~annual and ~semi-annual periods. Users of orbit/clock products must ensure to use OTL coefficients computed in the same frame as the OTL coefficients used by the analysis centers; otherwise, systematic errors will be introduced into position solutions. Continuous GPS measurements of seasonal deformation in Nepal Himalaya are compared with load model predictions derived from GRACE observations. The GPS seasonal height variation and GRACE-modeled seasonal vertical displacement due to the changing hydrologic load exhibit consistent results, for both amplitude and phase. GRACE indicates a long-term mass loss in the Himalaya region, which leads to crustal uplift since the earth behaves as an elastic body. We model this effect and remove it from GPS observed vertical rates. Then most GPS vertical rates can be explained by interseismic strain from the Main Himalayan Thrust. In southern Alaska, vertical seasonal loading deformation observed by GPS stations and modeled displacements due to seasonal hydrological loading inferred from GRACE are highly correlated. The effects of atmosphere and non-tidal ocean loading are important. Adding the AOD1B de-aliasing model to the GRACE solutions improves the correlation between these two geodetic measurements, because the displacements due to these loads are present in the GPS data. Weak correlations are found for some stations located in areas where the magnitude of the load changes over a short distance, due to GRACE's limited spatial resolution.
    • Local control in economic development: an urban - rural comparison in the North

      Herschleb, Anne L. (2002-05)
      This thesis examines economic development proposals in two communities in Alaska: Girdwood, a small urban community in the south-central area of the state; and Nuiqsut, a small rural community on the North Slope. Each community in located within a larger, regional government and has little formal control over economic development within its jurisdiction. The study's framework is based on an examination of contemporary urban political theories and their application to non-urban settings; inherent in the framework is an emphasis on historical, cultural, and social values to understand the political dynamics that affect decision making in communities. The study finds that the structure of local government may lead to a lack of historical, social, and cultural considerations in economic development decisions made by the more dominant government entities, unless the dominant government shares the values of the affected community. A major implication is to expand current explanations of economic development in urban and rurual communities by including the influences of historical, social, aand cultural values of affected communities, as an alternative to the market model.