• Brine Percolation, Flooding And Snow Ice Formation On Antarctic Sea Ice

      Maksym, Ted; Jeffries, Martin O. (2001)
      Modelling studies of brine percolation, flooding, and snow ice formation on Antarctic sea ice were undertaken to (1) determine the influence of brine transport processes on the salinity, porosity, and stable isotopic composition of snow ice and the underlying ice, (2) explain the range of salinities and isotopic composition observed in ice cores, and to provide a better estimate of the contribution of snow ice to the thickness of the winter pack ice, (3) better understand the microstructural controls on brine percolation and its effects on the properties of sea ice, and (4) understand the effects of meteorological forcing on snow ice formation and development of the ice cover. Snow ice thickness is most dependent on snow accumulation rates. Once snow ice begins to form on a floe, most of the subsequent thickening is due to snow ice formation. Results show that percolation in winter sea ice is most likely an inhomogeneous process. Flooding most likely occurs rapidly through localized regions of high permeability, such as in large, open brine drainage channels or cracks. Simulations of the freezing of a flooded slush layer show that focussing of thermohaline convection may form porous drainage channels in the ice and snow. These channels allow rapid desalination of the slush and exchange of H218O depleted brine with sea water. Significant positive shifts in delta18O are possible in the slush layer. This process can explain the range of delta18O observed in ice cores. Based on these results, a cutoff of delta18O < -2� is recommended for snow ice identification in the Ross, Amundsen, and Bellingshausen seas. Such a cutoff puts the amount of snow ice observed at 6--18% of the ice thickness. Although flooding appears to occur through spatially restricted regions of the ice, the precise nature of the flow and factors controlling onset of percolation are unclear.
    • Bringing broader impacts to the community via university K-12 partnerships: growth in and seed quality of Betula neoalaskana Sargent

      Kanie, Sayako; Dawe, Janice C.; Karlsson, Meriam; Yeats, Scott (2020-05)
      Betula neoalaskana Sargent is the most abundant birch species in Alaska. All parts of the tree can be used in creating timber and non-timber products, and birch stands provide high-value ecosystem services for ecotourism and outdoor recreational purposes. For these reasons, the OneTree Alaska program of the University of Alaska Fairbanks uses Interior Alaska white birch as the centerpiece of its work. This M.S. thesis is a contribution to OneTree Alaska's goal of raising the public's understanding of the effects of Interior Alaska's lengthening growing season on the growth and reproduction of the local birch resource. Specifically, the thesis relates to the growth and reproduction of the offspring of the original "one trees" harvested on Nenana Ridge in October 2009. The saplings have been growing in the Generation OneTree Research Plot in the T-field, north of the Smith Lake on the University of Alaska Fairbanks campus, since June 2011 and represent half-sibling families reared from the seed of 8 maternal trees. As seedlings, they were reared for growing seasons of variable length, both by students at the Watershed Charter School of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and by OneTree personnel in a University of Alaska Fairbanks growth chamber. Prior to this study, end of year measurements had been taken of the young trees in the T-field for all but one year and established that the length of the first growing season persistently affected the number of stems and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of the main stems. New findings in this thesis show that the elevation difference among trees impacts the number of infructescences and germination rates but not the number of male catkins. At least for the 2018 seed crop, seeds from trees planted at higher elevations in the T-field showed higher germination rates than those planted at lower elevations, while they produce fewer infructescences at up slope. Other findings demonstrate that sibling family does not have an effect on either vegetative or reproductive growth. Instead, the length of the first growing season provides for a diversity of canopy shapes across sibling families. The most significant finding is the effect of elevation on female reproductive growth: It suggests a number of next steps, tools, and analysis to better understand environmental variables that work alongside elevation in determining growth and reproductive success. Soil moisture and pH (H2O), Carbon/Nitrogen ratio, Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) to determine micronutrient composition, sensors to capture wind speed/direction and solar radiation, photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll concentration measurements could all be valuable in further elucidating the hypotheses being advanced by this research regarding the interactions between changing environment and reproduction.
    • Bringing Twygs to life: PACE based lessons in an adult ESL classroom

      Harris, Erica; Martelle, Wendy; Siekmann, Sabine; Stewart, Kimberly Aragon (2017-12)
      English grammar is a daunting subject for language learners and teachers alike. Traditionally, grammar is taught in an explicit manner in a teacher-fronted classroom. Rules are given and explained to students, who then practice with drills and example problems. As an alternative approach to teaching grammar, this project incorporates the PACE model (Presentation, Attention, Co-Construction, Extension) and task-based language teaching (TBLT). This method of teaching is a departure from traditional explicit-style teaching, and focuses more on the learner's role in the classroom than on the teacher's role. The PACE model uses stories to teach grammar, in this case English prepositions. Over the course of three weeks, a series of story-based lessons along with mini tasks were administered to a small academic writing class of adult ESL students. In addition to focusing on prepositions, the lessons were designed to allow practice for several other grammatical features appropriate to an academic writing class. The incorporation of PACE and task based activities showed that learners were able to understand the prepositions and use them appropriately in an original writing task.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. VII. : Heading, seed yield, and components of yield as influenced by seeding-year management and by time and rate of nitrogen application in subsequent years

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (University of Alaska Fairbanks, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, 1998-10)
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. I.Winter Survival and Forage Productivity of Bromus Species, Types, and Cultivars as Related to Latitudinal Adaptation

      Klebesadel, Leslie J.; Helm, D. J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1992-05)
      This report summarizes seven separate field experiments, conducted over more than two decades at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm, that compared strains within three bromegrass (Bromus) species for winter hardiness and forage production. Species were (a) smooth bromegrass (B. inermis Leyss.), (b) native Alaskan pumpelly bromegrass (B. pumpellianus Scribn.), and (c) meadow bromegrass (B. biebersteinii Roem. and Schult.), a species native to southwestern Asia.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. II. Autumn Food-Reserve Storage, Freeze Tolerance, and Dry-Matter Concentration in Overwintering Tissues as Related to Winter Survival of Latitudinal Ecotypes

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1993-05)
      The objective of this study was to acquire improved understanding of factors that influence winter survival of bromegrass (Bromus spp.) at northern latitudes. Four bromegrass strains of diverse latitudinal origins were used: (a) native Alaskan pumpelly bromegrass (B. pumpellianus Scribn.) adapted at 61° to 65°N, (b) the Alaska hybrid cultivar Polar (predominantly B. inermis Leyss. x B. pumpellianus) selected at 61.6°N, and two smooth bromegrass (B. inermis) cultivars, (c) Manchar selected in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (43° to 47°N), and (d) Achenbach originating from Kansas (34° to 42°N).
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. III. Effects of Planting Dates, and Time of Seeding-Year Harvest, on Seeding-Year Forage Yields and Quality, Winter Survival, and Second-Year Spring Forage Yield

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1993-12)
      Objectives of this study were to (a) determine yields and quality of forage that could be obtained in the seeding year from smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) seeded in spring without a cereal companion crop, and (b) determine whether planting dates and date of the seeding-year harvest influenced subsequent winter survival and forage yield in the following year. Bromegrass plots were harvested for forage yield once during the seeding year on several dates approximately 10 days apart during August, September, and early October; effects of those harvest dates were measured by comparing yields of all plots harvested on the same date in the second year of growth. Five of the six experiments were conducted at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska, and the other was at the Research Center in Palmer.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. IV. Effects of Various Schedules and Frequencies of Harvest on Forage Yields and Quality and on Subsequent Winter Survival of Several Strains

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1994-10)
      Effects of different annual harvest schedules and frequencies on several cultivars and strains of bromegrass (Bromus species) were measured in five field experiments at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6oN) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska. Most cultivars evaluated and compared were smooth bromegrass (B. inermis Leyss.). Native Alaskan pumpelly bromegrass (B. pumpellianus Scribn.) and the predominantly hybrid (B. inermis x B. pumpellianus) cultivar Polar, developed in Alaska, were included also.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. V. Heading and Seed Production as Influence by Time and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilization, Sod Disturbance, and Aftermath Management

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1996-06)
      This report summarizes five primarily exploratory experiment conducted at the University of Alaska's Matanuska Research Farm (61.6'N) near Palmer in southcentral Alaska. The problem addresses was the rapid decline in Polar bromegrass seed yields with each year of production.
    • Bromegrass in Alaska. VI. Effects of a Broad Array of Harvest Schedules and Frequencies on Forage Yield and Quality and on Subsequent Winter Survival of Cultivars Manchar and Polar

      Klebesadel, Leslie J. (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1997-09)
      Objectives of this study were to compare several schedules and frequencies of forage harvest of smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.): (a) for distribution of forage yields and total productivity in the year of differential harvests, (b) for percent crude protein in herbage in the various cuttings and for yields of crude protein, (c) for determining rates of growth (production of herbage dry matter) during the growing season, and (d) for effects of those different harvest schedules and frequencies on subsequent winter survival and on stand health and vigor the following year as measured by a uniform evaluation harvest in late June or early July. Two bromegrass cultivars, mid–temperate–adapted Manchar and subarctic–adapted Polar, were utilized in four experiments (Manchar in two, Polar in two) conducted at the University of Alaska’s Matanuska Research Farm (61.6°N) near Palmer in the Matanuska Valley in southcentral Alaska.
    • Brown Bear Bibliography

      Tracy, D.M.; Dean, F.C.; Anderson, C.M.; Jordan, T.M. (Alaska Cooperative Park Studies Unit, Biology and Resource Management Program, University of Alaska, 1982)
      The Bear Bibliography Project grew from mutual recognition by the Alaska Cooperative Park Studies Unit and the U.S. National Park Service of interest, need, and capability. The National Park Service is responsible for the preservation of both remnant and essentially undisturbed populations of brown and black bears and for the management of bear-human interactions in NPS areas. The Alaska Cooperative Park Studies Unit (ACPSU) proposed to conduct an exhaustive, synthetic, and computerized bibliographic project concentrating initially on Ursus arctos on a worldwide basis and Ursus americanus. Work on the first contract for this project started in September 1976.
    • Brucella suis type 4 in foxes and their role as reservoirs/vectors among reindeer

      Morton, Jamie Kay; Williamson, Francis S. L. (1989)
      Field and laboratory studies were conducted to test the hypotheses that (1) the reindeer/caribou organism, Brucella suis type 4, is incidentally transmitted to reindeer predators such as foxes but does not cause reproductive disease in them, and (2) infected predators such as foxes are terminal hosts and do not serve as reservoirs of infection for reindeer. In field collections, serologic prevalence of brucellosis was similar for male and female foxes (Vulpes vulpes and Alopex lagopus). B. suis type 4 was isolated from female Vulpes and Alopex. No association between reproductive status of foxes and brucellosis infections was observed. Serologic titers in Vulpes experimentally infected by oral exposure to Brucella suis type 4 were detected first by the standard tube and plate agglutination tests which were followed by the buffered Brucella antigen, rivanol, and complement fixation tests. Brucella suis type 4 was isolated from the feces 4 to 6 days post-exposure (PE) and from the oral cavity for as long as 3 weeks PE in Vulpes challenged with 10$\sp9$ or 10$\sp{11}$ colony forming units. Brucella suis type 4 was isolated frequently from regional lymph nodes in the head up to 18 weeks PE, and from only more distant nodes at 22 and 66 weeks PE. Organisms did not localize in the reproductive tract. Clinical effects of brucellosis in Vulpes experimentally-infected were not observed. Pathologic lesions were not detected in the male and non-gravid female reproductive tract. Due to breeding failure, effects of Brucella suis type 4 on the pregnant fox reproductive tract were not determined in experimental infections. Gross and microscopic pathology was limited to lymph nodes. Fox to fox transmission attributed to aerosols from products shed by infected foxes occurred readily. Transmission from Vulpes to lemmings (Dicrostonyx rubricatus) that were exposed to urine from infected fox occurred frequently. Transmission from infected Vulpes to two reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) occurred under conditions of close confinement. Ingestion of organisms passed mechanically in the fox feces was considered the probable source of infection. Fox saliva containing Brucella was also implicated in transmitting the organism through bites or aerosols.
    • A Builder's Guide to Water and Energy

      Seifert, Richard D.; Dwight, Linda Perry (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1980-08)
    • Building a toolset for fuel cell turbine hybrid modeling

      Burbank, Winston S. (2006-12)
      Fuel cell/gas turbine hybrids show promise of high efficiency power generation, with electrical efficiencies of 70% or better shown by modeling, although these efficiency levels have not yet been demonstrated in hardware. Modeling of such systems is important to optimize and control these complex systems. This work describes a modeling tool developed to examine steady-state operation of different hybrid configurations. This model focuses on the area of compressor-turbine modeling, which is a key component of properly controlling fuel cell/gas turbine hybrids. Through side-by-side comparisons, this model has been tested and verified by Dr. Wolf of Brayton Energy [1]. This modeling tool will be used in further work to evaluate various configurations of turbines and fuel cells in hybrid configurations, focusing on both the performance and cost of such systems.
    • Building Blocks Of Self -Organized Criticality

      Woodard, Ryan; Newman, David (2004)
      Why are we having difficulty developing economical nuclear fusion? How can a squirrel cause a statewide power blackout? How do correlations arise in a random complex system? How are these questions related? This thesis addresses these questions through a study of self-organized criticality (SOC). Among the systems that have been proposed as SOC are confined fusion plasmas, the Earth's magnetosphere and earthquake faults. SOC describes how large-scale complex behavior can emerge from small-scale simple interactions. The essence of SOC is that many dynamical systems, regardless of underlying physics, share a common nonlinear mechanism: local gradients grow until exceeding some critical gradient and then relax in events called avalanches. Avalanches range in size from very small to system-wide. Interactions of many avalanches over long times result in robust statistical and dynamical signatures that are surprisingly similar in many different physical systems. Two of the more well-known signatures are power law scaling of probability distribution functions (PDFs) and power spectra. Of particular interest in the literature for approximately a century are 1/f spectra. I studied the SOC running sandpile model and applied the results to confined and space plasmas. My tools were power spectra, PDFs and rescaled range ( R/S) analysis. I found that SOC systems with random external forcing store memory of previous states in their local gradients and can have dynamical correlations over very long time scales regardless of how weak the external forcing is. At time scales much longer than previously thought, the values of the slope of the power spectra, beta and the Hurst exponent, H, are different from the values found for white noise. As forcing changes, beta changes in the range 0.4 <math> <f> &lap;</f> </math> beta &le; 1 but the Hurst exponent remains relatively constant, H &ap; 0.8. The same physics that produces a 1/f spectrum at strong forcing produces a f -0.4 spectrum at weaker forcing. Small amounts of diffusive spreading added to the two dimensional SOC sandpile greatly decreases the frequency and maximum size of large transport events. More diffusion increases the frequency of large events to values much greater than for systems without diffusion.
    • Building Safe Families Through Educating on Adverse Childhood Experiences

      Dabney, Katie E.; Dahl, Heather; McMorrow, Samantha; Henze-Nelson, Brenda (2018-05)
      There is a strong correlation between families that work with child welfare agencies and the prevalence of maltreatment during childhood. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to poor health outcomes but are much more negatively correlated when 3 or more ACEs have been experienced during a childhood (Hunt, Slack & Berger, 2017; Crouch, Strompolis, Bennett, Morse, & Radcliff, 2017). Teaching parents about the impacts of ACEs and how they may more safely parent, can reduce the recidivism of future maltreatment in at-risk families who work with child welfare agencies. Education can give parents the power and motivation to make better decisions for themselves and for their families.
    • BULB GROWING IN ALASKA

      Georgeson, C.C. (Alaska Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1928-10)
      The information in this circular is intended for the use of settlers and homesteaders in Alaska who are interested in the more general growing of hardy flowering bulbs in the Territory. Alaska is very poor in native ornamental plants, and although the Alaska agricultural experiment stations do not specialize in flower growing, the Sitka station in 1923 began -an experiment which was later extended to the stations in the interior, to determine the possibility of growing bulbous plants in the Territory. The experiment has demonstrated that hardy flowering bulbs, including narcissus, tulips, English iris, gladiolus, the Regal lily, and hyacinths can be propagated on a commercial scale in Alaska. Lovers of these beautiful flowers should grow their own bulbs so far as possible, as some varieties can no longer be obtained in commercial quantities from foreign countries on account of the risk of introducing pests. Narcissus bulbs, shipped interstate by American growers, are required by a Federal quarantine to be inspected and certified to be free from pests and diseases, and certain States have placed similar restrictions on the sale of other kinds of bulbs.
    • Bullying in middle school: the role of school counselors and teachers in preventing bullying

      Palmer, Paula Nicole; Topkok, Sean; Barnhardt, Ray; Roehl, Roy (2017-05)
      Research suggests that bullying is a problem in schools throughout the nation. Children spend the vast majority of their life attending school. School counselors and teachers are in a unique position to identify, prevent and educate students about bullying. The purpose of this project was to examine the role of school counselors and teachers in the Fairbanks North Star Borough School District (FNSBSD) in preventing bullying in their schools. The participants of this study were 8 school counselors and teachers from four middle schools in the FNSBSD. Data for this research was collected using an anonymous online survey utilizing www.SurveyMonkey.com. The results of the survey indicated that bullying is an issue in the four middle schools selected for the study in FNSBSD. Of the four major types of bullying discussed in my research (cyber, relation, physical, and verbal), there was a consensus among the participants that cyber and relational bullying were the most prevalent and problematic in their schools. Recommendations for future research include expanding on this study to include a larger sample of schools and participants, suggestions for strengthening staff training and implementing school based youth courts in FNSBSD schools as part of the bully intervention and prevention program.
    • A Bunker Silo for Alaska Farms

      Allen, Lee (School of Agriculture and Land Resources Management, Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, 1961-10)
      Farm storage of silage is essential in Alaska. Weather conditions make it nearly impossible to dry hay after early July. Economy of construction without sacrificing structural stability has been achieved in this bunker type silo. Locally available materials and simple construction technique s a r e all that are needed to produce an adequate bunker silo. Braced poles support the walls and absorb lateral loads, with the floor being subjected to simple vertical loading. Silos of this type serve the beginning dairy farmer until he is financially able to provide more convenient storage wherein less spoilage may be anticipated.
    • Buoyancy Effects On Building Pressurization In Extreme Cold Climates

      Bargar, Harold Edward; Das, Debendra K.; Goering, Douglas J.; Johnson, Ronald A.; Lin, Chuen-Sen; Quang, Pham X. (2003)
      This research investigates building pressurization due to buoyancy effect. The American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) presents an idealized equation to calculate the buoyancy effect. This dissertation compares differential pressure measurements from an actual building exposed to extremely cold temperatures to this idealized model. It also presents new statistical models based on the collected data. These new models should provide engineers with improved tools to properly account for building pressurization for designs in extreme cold climates. Building pressurization, the differential pressure between the interior of a building and its exterior surroundings, is an important design consideration. Pressurization is the driving force in building infiltration/exfiltration. It also affects air flow within building zones. Improper calculation of pressurization can result in under-sizing the building's heating and cooling systems, improper operation of air distribution systems, improper operation of elevators, and freezing and failure of water distribution and circulation systems. Building pressurization is affected by: wind (speed and direction), exterior-to-interior temperature difference, and mechanical equipment operation. In extreme cold climates, the predominant effect is air buoyancy due to temperature differences across the building envelope. The larger the temperature difference, the larger the buoyancy effect. In extreme cold climates, the largest temperature differences often occur at times when wind speed is negligible. This dissertation also demonstrates the use of existing data sources such as building automation systems to collect data for basic research. Modern systems automation provides a tremendous amount of data that, in the past, had to be collected through separate instrumentation and data acquisition systems. Taking advantage of existing automation systems can provide the required data at greatly reduced costs when compared to previous industry practices. The statistical analysis approach taken in this research expands the tools for engineering design. Actual interactions of real world variables are analyzed and used to produce prediction models. These techniques allow the model to incorporate relationships which may not be fully understood at the underlying principle level but are evidenced in the data collected from actual installations.* *This dissertation includes a CD that is compound (contains both a paper copy and CD as part of the dissertation). The CD requires the following applications: Internet Browser; Adobe Acrobat; Microsoft Office; Image Viewer.