Now showing items 1-20 of 6359

    • You say I can, I think I can: peripheral route persuasion as a contributor to employability self-efficacy for undergraduate students

      Uzzell, Brandon W.; Sager, Kevin; Arundale, Robert; Richey, Jean (2011-05)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the persuasive communication phenomenon between university students and professors concerning students' post-degree employability. Communicative interactions were examined as originating with the Elaboration likelihood model's peripheral route cues (persuasive messages) and the outcomes of these interactions as student's employability self-efficacy (beliefs about employability). Hypotheses predicted that a positive correlation exists between perceived peripheral route cues and employability self-efficacy of students. Senior level undergraduate students at a Northwestern university voluntarily completed an electronic survey containing need for cognition, peripheral route cues, and employability self-efficacy measures. Analysis indicated that employability self-efficacy could be successfully predicted by peripheral route cues. Results showed an overall significant positive correlation between the predictor and outcome variable. Implications of these results, limitations of the study, and future research directions are discussed.
    • A comparative analysis of legislative and policy support of indigenous cultural transmission in Alaska, Canada, and Azerbaijan

      Tobin, Löki Gale (2011-05)
      Does federal recognition of indigenous self-determination lead to federal support of indigenous cultural transmission? This thesis used a multiple-case analysis to answer this question. Research assessed the impact federal and non-federal legislation has had on indigenous cultural transmission in Alaska, Canada, and Azerbaijan respectively. Findings demonstrated that after federal recognition of indigenous self-determination, cultural transmission programs increased in Alaska and Canada. In Azerbaijan, where no such recognition exists, indigenous groups continue to face discrimination and national policies that negatively impact cultural transmission activities. Without federal recognition of indigenous self-determination, indigenous groups worldwide face situations hostile to their cultural survival.
    • Remote sensing and GIS analysis of the spatial and morphological changes of thermokarst lakes: Kolyma lowlands, northeast Siberia

      Tillapaugh, Meghan L. (2011-05)
      Thermokarst lakes develop when changes in the permafrost thermal regime cause degradation leading to surface subsidence and ponding. The degree of thermokarst development depends upon permafrost characteristics, topography, and geology. Changing thermokarst lake dynamics affect arctic ecosystems, hydrological patterns, albedo, and the carbon cycle through the mobilization of organic matter in the permafrost. This study used remote sensing and GIS techniques to relate lake dynamics in the Kolyma Lowlands, Siberia, to geology, elevation, geomorphological features, hydrology, and air temperature. Highest limnicity and largest lake sizes were found in regions with low elevation, limited alluvial processes, high ground-ice content, and lithologies with small particle sizes. New lake development and erosion occurred as well. One subregion studied showed lake area increases (Cherskii: +7.6%) while another showed a decrease (Duvanny Yar: -5.2%). Differences are attributed to variations in elevation and fluvial influences. A major cause of drainage was river tapping of lakes. Lake coalescence, flooding during river water level high stands, and lakeshore erosion were the main causes of lake expansion. The Kolyma Lowland soils have high ice and organic matter contents as well making the monitoring of thermokarst lake dynamics important as large amounts of freshwater and carbon could potentially be released.
    • Traditional knowledge and fish biology: a study of Bering cisco in the Yukon River Delta, Alaska

      Runfola, David Michael; Sutton, Trent; Carothers, Courtney; Norton, David W.; Schneider, William (2011-05)
      Relatively little is known about the biology of whitefishes (subfamily Coregoninae) in Alaska. To address this shortcoming, I combined social and biological science methods to examine whitefish in the Yukon River delta, Alaska. This study had two objectives: (1) to collaborate with Yup'ik subsistence fishers in sharing their knowledge of whitefish; and (2) to describe the life history of Bering cisco Coregonus laurettae. In August 2004, interview participants discussed Yup'ik traditional knowledge of whitefish. Participants shared knowledge of Bering cisco and other whitefish species. Interviews demonstrated the need for greater awareness of traditional knowledge, and the importance of communicating this knowledge with scientists. In addition, 120 Bering ciscoes were collected in August 2005 and 2006 with gill nets in the Yukon River delta, Alaska. Bering ciscoes ranged in fork length from 146 to 490 mm (mean = 321 mm) and in weight from 32 to 735 g (mean = 304 g). Fish ranged in age from 0 to 6, with one age-11 individual observed. Diet analysis showed that Bering ciscoes fed primarily on sticklebacks. My study records important social and biological data regarding Bering cisco, linking ethnography and fish biology as a means of investigating this poorly understood species.
    • Mobility and chemical fate of antimony and arsenic in historic mining environments of Kantishna Hills, Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska

      Ritchie, Vanessa J. (2011-05)
      Oxidative weathering processes of acid-forming sulfide minerals, such as pyrite (FeS₂), and associated arsenopyrite (FeAsS) and stibnite (Sb₂S₃), can have a significant impact on water quality associated with current and legacy mining operations. Concentrations of toxic metals and metalloids, such as antimony (Sb) and arsenic (As), in acid mine drainage can exceed drinking water quality standards by orders of magnitude. This study provides a detailed hydrogeochemical assessment of the mobility and chemical fate of antimony and arsenic in streams draining from historic antimony mines within Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Antimony and arsenic concentrations in stream water reach up to 720 parts per billion (ppb) and 239 ppb, respectively. Aqueous phase antimony and arsenic speciation was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Antimony in all water samples is predominantly found as Sb⁵ whereas arsenic was detected as mixtures of As³ /As⁵⁺ . Elevated antimony concentrations extend over 8 km downstream from the source, whereas arsenic quickly attenuates within 1.5 km. High correlation between antimony/arsenic and iron concentrations in fine-fraction streambed sediment indicates that sorption and (co)precipitation with iron (hydr)oxides is an important pathway for the attenuation of antimony and arsenic in natural waters.
    • "My language, your language": Thai mothers' expectations for their children's heritage language usage

      Piyamahapong, Janejira (2011-05)
      Immigrant parents who share the same ethnic background usually have high expectations and positive attitudes toward their children's heritage language usage. They are willing to put their time, money, and other effort in order to pass their heritage language on to their second-generation children. This research looked at some of the cross-cultural marriage couples--Thai mother and American father, who together have U.S. born children, and the mothers' expectations for their children's heritage language usage. Specifically, it examined these mothers' lived experience through conversational interviewing. Thematic analysis was utilized as data analysis. Four major themes emerged during the analysis of data: (a) It's my child's future, I want the best for them, (b) I was struggling when I first moved here, (c) This is OUR language, and (d) Embarrassment and resistance. These themes allowed and structured the results of this study. Directions for future research include a study incorporating American fathers and mother's education.
    • Interferometric modification of the Lockheed Martin PSTAR system to facilitate three dimensional airspace surveillance

      Otterbacher, Scott E. (2011-05)
      The Lockheed Martin PSTAR is a monostatic radar system that provides range, azimuth, and radial velocity information of detected targets. While this system is useful for airspace surveillance in remote locations due to its portability and durability, it lacks the ability to record target information and the ability to estimate target elevation angle, resulting in a vertical arc of possible target locations. Due to a desire to use the PSTAR for applications that require logging three-dimensional target information, a spatial interferometric modification has been implemented. The PSTAR estimates range from pulse propagation delay and azimuth angle from the orientation of the antenna on a rotating pedestal. Two PSTAR antennas were removed from their housings and mounted, vertically separated, in a custom enclosure allowing for the estimation of elevation angle through spatial interferometry. The reflected signal is received by both antennas, mixed to baseband, and then the two pairs of I/Q channels are simultaneously sampled at 1 MS/s. Target elevation angle is estimated by determining the phase difference of the target's reflection received by the two vertically spaced antennas. Range, azimuth, and radial velocity are also estimated. All data collection was implemented in LabVIEW and data post-processing was implemented in MATLAB.
    • The molecular basis of aerobic metabolic remodeling in threespine stickleback in response to cold acclimation

      Orczewska, Julieanna Inez (2011-05)
      Increases in mitochondrial density during cold acclimation have been documented in many fish species, however the mechanism regulating this process is not understood. The present study sought to characterize metabolic changes in response to cold acclimation and identify how these changes are regulated in oxidative muscle, glycolytic muscle and liver tissue of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Fish were warm (20°C) or cold (8°C) acclimated for 9 weeks and harvested during acclimation. Mitochondrial volume density was quantified using transmission electron microscopy and aerobic metabolic capacity assessed by measuring the maximal activity of citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase. The molecular mechanism mediating changes in aerobic metabolic capacity were assessed by quantifying transcript levels of aerobic metabolic genes and known regulators of mammalian mitochondrial biogenesis using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that while the maximal activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes increased in all tissues, mitochondrial biogenesis only occurred in oxidative muscle. Our results also suggest that the time course of metabolic remodeling is tissue specific. Lastly, we identified differences in the magnitude and timing of transcriptional and co-transcriptional activators driving metabolic remodeling between each tissue. These results suggest aerobic metabolic remodeling may be triggered by different stimuli in different tissues.
    • Investigation of the friction and noise of automotive rubber belt

      Narravula, Vikram R. (2011-05)
      The objective of this research was to study the frictional properties of an automotive v-ribbed belt-pulley system. In order to evaluate the friction and noise, a new test setup was constructed. The assembly was run under various environmental and operational conditions and the results were quantified, studied, and compared among themselves. The environmental conditions included dry interface and wet interface, conducted at both room temperature (23°C) and cold temperature ( -20°C). Operational parameters varied during the experiment were wrap angle, load attached, and acceleration. Frictional forces and associated noises generated were recorded. Some of the results generated were compared with previous research work, and the setup was also used to generate new data for conditions not previously studied. Dry room temperature results show close correlation with previous research. The presence of water in liquid state in the interface induces larger adhesion as water film in the interface changes friction mechanisms in the rubber belt-pulley interface. The high stiction of wet friction can lead to stick-slip vibrations and squeal noise. The theoretical stiction model for wet belt-pulley interface is presented. The stiction-related noise test is conducted, and the result is used to identify the spectrum pattern. The belt friction under cold conditions is found to have a higher value than that in room temperature conditions. The belt noise under cold conditions is found to have much higher squeal frequency than that in room temperature conditions.
    • Sense versus sentiment: emergent persuasive strategies of non-profit organizations in dichotomous economic climates

      Miller, Alexis S. (2011-05)
      This study seeks to explore the rhetoric employed by the United Way in contrasting economic contexts. With a theoretical framework of Aristotle's Theory of Rhetoric, this study employs rhetorical criticism. Interpretation of results suggests that pathos is most prevalent in crisis conditions, such as a recession, whereas logos is most prevalent under stable economic circumstances. Initial conclusions drawn from the study highlight the importance of community supportiveness appeals in crisis conditions.
    • Energetics and space use of female moose during winter

      Kraft, Benjamin Robert; Hundertmark, Kris J.; Harris, Grant M.; Hunter, Christine M. (2011-05)
      Space use and resource selection are processes linked by habitat availability that have direct consequences to fitness. Knowledge of such processes allows comprehension of wildlife-habitat relationships, which can improve the efficacy of wildlife management programs. I investigated energetic and space use parameters of a population of female moose wintering in two adjacent, but distinct, landscape types (lowlands and mountains) on the Kenai Peninsula, AK, USA. I also evaluated differences between four home range models. I found that mountain females started winter in better condition, but used fat reserves at a higher rate than lowland females resulting in similar body condition estimates of moose in both landscape types in spring. I also found evidence of the functional response of habitat selection at the home range scale within landscape types. I observed a strong positive correlation between daily movement rate and home range size indicating that when females move during winter, they do so to access new areas expanding their home range. Brownian bridge, minimum convex polygon, fixed kernel, and local convex hull home range models produced different area and overlap estimates. Minimum convex polygons are least similar of model types and are not recommended to estimate areas actually used by animals.
    • And other myths

      Kim, Edward (2011-05)
      I do not consider it my job to create meaning; that responsibility lies with the reader. I seek to point in a general direction and allow the reader to bring his/her own experiences to the poem and complete the dialogue between writer and reader. I employ this idea in And Other Myths by use of juxtaposition, by using leaps within a poem to create seams in which a reader may impart or implicate a sense of him/herself. A poem may appear simple but open itself up to complexity with further readings, this is what the poems in And Other Myths strive to do. The poems use myth and subtext/ambiguity to go outside the self and home as a way of looking back and exploring the experience of American culture, of identity. This experience is frequently explored through the scope of my family and Korean heritage, also by creating a myth of the mundane. The mythic form helps to impart a strong sense of legacy and ancestry, but through the lens of a Korean/American upbringing. The sense of the "other" in relation to identity strongly influences my work, not just in a cultural sense, but also in a human sense.
    • The measurement of anisotropic thermal conductivity in snow with needle probes

      Holbrook, Joshua (2011-05)
      A new method for measuring thermal conductivity is being adapted from the method of measuring isotropic thermal conductivity in snow with needle probes as used by Sturm, Johnson and others, in order to enable the determination of anisotropic thermal conductivities. This method has particular relevance to measuring thermal conductivity of natural snowpacks where conductivity can be strongly anisotropic due to structures that develop from vapor transport-induced metamorphism, self-compaction and other mechanisms, and where there are known discrepancies between density-conductivity relations empirically derived from guarded hot plate and needle probe methods. Both analytically-based solutions and finite element numerical solutions to the anisotropic case are used to calculate the expected effective thermal conductivity as a function of anisotropic thermal conductivity and needle orientation. Additionally, preliminary measurements of both anisotropic salt/sugar layered samples and of snow were taken. Both suggest that detecting anisotropy in such materials is possible, though made difficult by variability between measurements and the requirement of multiple measurements at various angles. These studies suggest that anisotropy in snow may be able to explain in part the discrepancies between guarded hot plate and needle probe measurements in certain cases.
    • Human well-being in recreation: an investigation of the expectancy-valence theory

      Harrington, Andrew M. (2011-05)
      Over the past 50 years, numerous approaches exploring the recreation experience have offered a multitude of concepts and terminology, resulting in a debate over which best represent recreation behavior. This study adopts one of these approaches, the motivational approach, and explores its underpinning theory, expectancy-valence; addresses its limitations presented in the literature; and investigates the potential for the integration with other approaches. A modified analytic induction methodology was applied to address five hypotheses developed to address study questions. Longitudinal, qualitative data were collected through two separate interviews one week apart with 16 individuals that captured their thoughts regarding their recreation activities. A codebook was developed and a kappa statistic revealed an acceptable (K = 0.61 to 0.80) level of inter-coder reliability. Codes were developed based on constructs from the expectancy-valence framework prior to examining the transcripts. Evidence of these codes in the transcripts provided support for the theory. Consistent with modified analytic induction, some hypotheses were confirmed, while one was modified when evidence to the contrary was found. Further examination of the data revealed the potential for integration of other approaches.
    • A study of the influence of media-based books on independent reading choices

      Fisk, Heidi Marie; Burmeister, Richard; Caldwell, Patricia; Kardash, Diane (2011-05)
      The purpose of the study was to discover if children's media programming influences the independent reading choices of students. With this purpose in mind, my research was designed to answer the following question: Did children's viewing exposure to the characters, setting, and story format in media-based books provide them with the essential scaffolding necessary to motivate them to read more independently? This project involved approximately 13 fourth grade students, male and female. All of the students have been asked to choose a book to read, fill out a summary sheet for the book, and participate in a reading conference. The researcher has observed the students during the independent reading times, recorded oral retells of the books and conducted interviews with the participants. The results of the study confirmed that students are indeed motivated to read media-based books more independently. It is recommended by the results of this research to offer media-based books for students' independent reading book selection.
    • Teaching adolescents conflict management skills

      DeLong, Debra M. (2011-05)
      In response to a parents request a workshop to teach a conflict management workshop to high school students was created. A pre-post test design to assess the effectiveness of the workshop was used, with the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument as the measurement. Responses were available for 76 students who were evenly divided between females and males. Overall preferences for using conflict styles did not show a statistically significant change; however, preferences for individual styles did change, with competition showing a statistically significant difference.
    • Body condition and reproductive strategies of female lesser scaup in the boreal forest of Alaska

      DeGroot, Kristin A.; Lindberg, Mark; Barboza, Perry; Schmutz, Joel (2011-05)
      In many waterfowl species, body condition of breeding females can contribute to reproductive success by influencing factors such as egg size, clutch size and ability to incubate eggs. In turn, changes in female condition at the population level could affect population growth rates. Large-scale declines in populations of Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) raised concerns that poor female body condition was contributing to declines by reducing reproductive output. However, little was known about changes in body condition over time and about the contribution that stored body reserves make to egg production, especially in boreal forest regions where most scaup breed. My objectives were: 1) examine temporal changes in body condition of pre-breeding female lesser scaup on the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska and the relationship between body condition and breeding status; 2) examine the role of body reserves (protein and lipid) in egg production using stable isotope techniques. I found no evidence for a decline in female body condition as compared to historic measures. However, females that had entered rapid follicle growth (the early stages of egg production) were significantly fatter than birds that were not currently producing eggs. In addition, I found that female lesser scaup use both body reserves and dietary nutrients for production of egg yolk.
    • The low back vowel in mid-coast Maine

      Davidson, Gail (2011-05)
      In mid-coast Maine, the words cod and caught sound like they contain the same vowel phoneme, employing the sound [a], a low back vowel. The word father contains a separate contrasting phoneme, spoken as [a], a low central vowel. This paper attempts to show that this perceived similarity in [a] and difference from [a] is in fact real. Unlike in the area of the Northern Cities Chain Shift, where the sound of the vowels in cod, caught and father all approach [a], the vowel in cod and caught in mid coast Maine remains low and back, occasionally rounded, more often not, while that in father is low and central. Twenty-six current speakers of varying ages, most residents since early childhood, were interviewed to compare these sounds. Each speaker was recorded reading a prepared story and a set of words included in a frame sentence. Formant frequencies for this recorded data were then analyzed. Statistical tests, including t-tests and ANOVAs, were run to compare the vowels and to test the validity of the hypothesis. Normalizing the data for one single vowel sound proved to be unworkable, so men and women were treated separately, as were Narrative and Frame data. The low back vowel was found to be stable in mid-coast Maine, including the same sound in cod and caught, and it was found to contrast with the low central vowel in father. Available historical evidence points to these vowels having been stable in this region for over a hundred years. This contrasts with changes in the vowel sound in the same words in the rest of the United States.
    • Creep of grouted anchors in ice-rich silt

      Chen, Liangbiao (2011-05)
      Creep is a critical consideration for designing anchors in ice-rich silt. In this study, creep was evaluated for grouted anchors in ice-rich silt by laboratory tests. A total of nineteen staged-load pullout tests were conducted on smooth grouted anchors. The anchors were loaded until either a tertiary creep stage or the capacity of the load system was reached. Soil temperatures evaluated in this study ranged from 32 °F to 26.6 °F. It was found that the onset of tertiary creep for smooth anchors was around 0.03 inches, which was much smaller than that suggested in the literature for rough anchors (1.0 inch). Given the same shear stress and soil temperature, the observed creep displacement rates for smooth anchors were greater than those given by the existing design guidelines for rough anchors. A new creep model was proposed in which soil temperature was included as an additional variable. Model parameters were developed as a function of soil temperature and moisture contents by using the test data. The model predictions were compared with the laboratory tests. It was found that the creep displacement rates decreased with the decreasing of soil moisture contents and temperature. Based on the analysis of laboratory test data, design charts were provided to give the allowable pullout capacity for smooth anchors in ice-rich silt.
    • A vast tapestry of madness

      Burger, Hans (2011-05)
      "A Vast Tapestry of Madness" is a collection of fictional works exploring the unique conditions of life in Pacific Northwestern America of the early twenty-first century. In three stories and two novellas, it explores the consequences of economic and political upheavals, the cultural complexities of sexuality, and the filters which the media impose on thought and perception, through characters obsessed with the masks they present to the world, yet never quite able to maintain those fronts against the reader or themselves.