• Microsatellite loci among Alaskan rabies hosts: Arctic and red fox

      Renshaw, Ben (2012)
      Little is known about the population dynamics between Arctic and red foxes in Alaska and consequences for rabies ecology. Both species carry different variants of rabies and inhabit different environments. As the global warming trends progress, the Arctic and red fox will have increased habitat overlap due to northward range expansion of the red fox into the historic habitat of the Arctic fox. Hypothesis: global warming trends will significantly influence the disease dynamics between red and Arctic foxes as well as their roles in disease dynamics in the far North. In order to better survey the movement of the variants of rabies among Arctic and red fox, microsatellites will be used to assess population structure of these host species.
    • The Origins of Post-eruption Insect Populations on the Aleutian Island of Kasatochi

      Sikes, Derek S.; Ridling, Sayde (2012)
      This project compares the dispersal and/or survival ability of insects on the recently erupted volcanic Aleutian Island of Kasatochi. The island erupted in 2008, two months after the island had been briefly surveyed for terrestrial arthropods. Having pre-eruption specimens provides biologists with a unique and rare perspective of island ecosystem assembly. We have analyzed the DNA of 47 pre- and post- eruption Scathophaga sp. specimens to determine the origins of post-eruption insect populations. This genetic work is especially important for the Aleutians arthropods because they are among the most understudied in the United States.
    • Phylogenetic Identification of Petroleum-Degrading Bacteria in Alaska Willow Soils

      Glover, Catherine (2012)
      • Certain plant species may promote growth and activity of pollutant- degrading microbes in the rhizosphere. • Naphthalene is an aromatic component of petroleum fuels, which are common soil contaminants in Alaska. • Willows are known to produce and release salicylate, an intermediate in the naphthalene degradation pathway that induces the expression of microbial naphthalene degradation genes. • A previous pot study (McFarlin et al. in prep) tested the ability of Salix alaxensis (Alaskan willow) to rhizo-remediate diesel-contaminated soil. • Willow growth treatments significantly decreased the concentration of diesel range organics in soil and increased the number of cultured diesel-degrading bacteria in comparison to unplanted controls. • The effects of willow on the identity and diversity of diesel-degrading bacteria in this pot study are unknown.
    • Pilot Study expert, guest artist education experiences for music students at the university level.

      Graf, Lydia (2012)
      Many Universities have opportunities to work with guest and visiting artists of every musical genre and instrumentation. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, mainly because of the extreme distance between peer and aspirational universities, does not often host a visiting artist. We wanted to gather data on how UAF music majors, students, and community members and Fairbanks high school students would respond to a visiting artist. Vijay Singh, currently on faculty at Central Washington University, has visited Fairbanks in the past. He has presented at UAF Jazz Fest and the Fairbanks Summer Arts Festival. Mr. Singh is also versed in several genres of music from jazz to choral and composition. After a performance by Vijay Singh on Saturday, April 28, we will survey attendees to garner data on how the performance was received. Our hope is that Fairbanks will grow and flourish from visiting artists and such visits will become common at UAF.
    • Post Natal Impact of Maternal Tryptophan Deficiency on Central CO2/PH Chemosensitivity

      Mosher, Bryan P. (2012)
      Cells and mechanisms underlying central chemosensitivity, are poorly understood and can be controversial. Our overarching hypothesis is that brainstem 5-HT and/or GABA neurons contribute to detection and response to changes in pH/CO2. Our experiments are designed to provide insight into respiratory physiology, and pathologies thought to result from chemosensory dysfunction such as the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). A deficiency of 5-HT resulting from maternal dietary restriction could enhance vulnerability to SIDS. It was recently shown that rat pups born to dams fed a tryptophan deficient diet have a reduced number of central 5-HT neurons and reduced ventilatory sensitivity to CO2 (Nattie et al. 2011). Unknown are the relative contributions of central vs peripheral chemoreceptors to this observation, or the residual contributions of 5-HT in the face of this deficiency. In the present study we are extending this initial description using a perfused in situ brainstem model to determine the degree of central chemosensory deficit imparted by maternal tryptophan restriction. We also repeat these studies with pharmacological blockade of a population of 5-HT receptors to illustrate remaining 5-HT and non-5-HT contributions to chemosensitivity. This work reveals important interactions between nutrition and ventilatory control that may aid in the understanding of SIDS.
    • Rabies on the Last Frontier: A Phylogeographical Look at Red (Vulpus vulpus) and Arctic (Vulpus lagopus) Fox with Respect to Mitochondrial DNA and the Spatial Diffusion of Rabies

      Clement, Christopher J. (2012)
      Vulpus vulpus and Vulpus lagopus are terrestrial animals that live in Alaska. They are also common carriers of the rabies virus. It has been determined that there are three different clades of rabies in Alaska being vectored by these two species of fox, but it is not clear why there are no endemic rabies in the Interior. We are interested in the migration patterns of Vulpus vulpus and Vulpus lagopus, the spread and maintenance of the rabies virus as a function of climate warming. We hypothesize that there is some element, whether biological or geographical, that restricts the virus from spreading into the interior and maintaining itself as much as it does in the coastal regions of Alaska. This research provides a model for determining how the virus spreads under retreating Arctic conditions, as the globe warms.
    • Remote Sensing Risk Assessment of Valdez Glacier Lake

      Soederstroem, Erik (2012)
      Can remote sensing techniques be used to determine the probability of an outburst from the Valdez Glacier Lake, and to detect downstream areas affected by a possible glacier lake outburst flood?
    • Research Gateway Management System for ARSC Projects

      Castro, Vincent (2012)
      The Research Gateway Management System (RGMS) is an account management system written in Python1 geared towards creating and facilitating user authentication and management for Arctic Region Supercomputer Center (ARSC) users on the ARSC systems. The intent of the RGMS is to forge an easy to use interface for clients to manage project information and for system administrators to manage projects and users. Utilizing this account management system will catalyze a transition towards the simplification of user and project requests and creation procedures as well as streamline user access to ARSC systems.
    • Resistance to multi organ damage after hemorrhagic shock induced ischemia/reperfusion in arctic ground squirrels

      Bogren, Lori; Olson, JM; Carpluk, J; Moore, JT; Drew, KL (2012)
      •Worldwide hemorrhagic shock is the number one cause of death in trauma patients, the majority of those die from multi organ dysfunction syndrome [1, 2]. •During hemorrhagic shock (HS), the body undergoes global ischemia as blood pressure drops below the threshold at which tissues can be adequately perfused with blood. •Resistance to ischemic injury is a characteristic of hibernating mammals, including ground squirrels. •There is debate on if this resistance is dependant on hibernation season or if it is an intrinsic plasticity of the organism. QUESTION: Are AGS protected from HS‐induced ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury on the whole organism and tissue–specific levels and if any protection is dependent upon their hibernation season.
    • Reversibility of Arctic Sea Ice Retreat - A Multi-Scale Modeling Approach

      Mueller-Stoffels, M. (2012)
      Arctic summer sea ice has been retreating rapidly over past decade. Climate model projections show further retreat under typical forcing scenarios. The mode of the retreat is a matter of debate. Low-order models show reversible and irreversible retreat depending on the shape of the albedo parametrization. Climate models do not show irreversible sea ice losses, but generally underestimate the current trend of retreat.
    • Rock debris on glaciers: a mechanism for reducing glacier sensitivity to climate change

      Herreid, Samuel (2012)
      Rock debris covering a glacier surface affects the local melt rate by regulating the amount of solar energy available for melting. Supraglacial debris with a thickness of about 2 cm or more insulates the ice, thereby reducing the heat flux. This reduction of melt rate allows heavily debris-covered glaciers to extend further down-valley than meteorological variables alone would suggest. Here we present a regional study of supraglacial debris cover in the Delta Mountains, a sub-range of the Alaska Range. Using remote sensing and in situ measurements we consider the following questions: -How does glacier and debris-covered area change from 1986 to 2010? -Can we estimate debris thickness remotely? -How does debris affect melt? -Will ice melt cease below two meters of debris? -Is there a correlation between geologic setting and debris cover?
    • Rockwell Kent’s Villagers and Village Children The Importance of Provenance in Art

      Guffey, Lisa (2012)
      The provenance of the Rockwell Kent paintings, Villagers and Village Children, currently housed at the Noel Wien Library in Fairbanks, Alaska, is under question. Scott Ferris, a specialist on Kent, visited the Library’s Kent Collection in 1993, and relayed notes on Kent’s works. Ferris believes they may be from the 1930’s, when Kent traveled to Greenland, rather than 1947 (Villagers) and 1962 (Village Children). Jake Wien, an independent curator and author on Kent, believes the dates on the paintings to be correct. By researching these paintings, I will show how the provenance can effect the historical value, as well as the financial value in works of art.
    • Rural Telemedicine in Alaska: A Look at Healthcare Through Telecommunications

      Stephens, Ethan (2012)
      •An average town in the United States will have a basic medical facility capable of treating its patients. If not, there is roadway access to a capable facility. •In Rural Alaska however, there is no way to drive to the nearest hospital. These communities are not connected to the major road system and the only way to reach a hospital is by air transport. •Although many villages have access to hub communities that maintain a clinic, the clinic may not have the capabilities to treat certain ailments and many villages have no access to a medical facility. •Providing adequate medical care for Rural Alaskans is difficult due particularly to the size of Alaska, the geographic isolation of many villages, and to the cost of transportation to these rural areas. •The most serious healthcare issues that have been seen in Rural Alaska are “too few physicians or services and [health] care is too expensive,” (Hagopian et al, 2000). •In hopes of overcoming these obstacles in rural medicine, many organizations initiated telemedicine and telehealth programs.
    • Shallow-water residency and limited dispersal of Atlantic halibut in the Gulf of Maine

      Evans, Mark D. (2012)
      • Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), once abundant in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) on the northeast coast, were overfished until the stock collapsed in the 1940s. • In 2007, a three-year tagging study using electronic tags was done by the Maine Dept. of Marine Resources. • The objective of the study was to determine if GOM halibut migrate to spawning grounds on the Scotian Shelf and mix with Canadian halibut stocks
    • Species Delineation of the Genus Claytonia in Alaska

      Jeffers, Stephany (2012)
      The genus Claytonia L. (Spring Beauty) is well recognized in Alaska for its attractive flowers. However, there is much confusion around the species delineation of Claytonia, and the number of species recognized in Alaska has ranged considerably. While phylogenetic studies using molecular data at the family level have found general agreement of subgeneric division in the genus, these studies did not resolve relationships among closely related species in Alaska. This project serves to offer further insight into the phylogeny of Alaskan members of this genus through more in-­‐depth sampling and testing the utility of additional molecular markers. Questions: Is morphological variation in Alaskan Claytonia accompanied by genetic differences? How are Alaskan species of Claytonia related?
    • The Study and Expression of Bharatanatyam Classical India Dance

      Lamb, Jessica (2012)
      Bharatanatyam is a classical Southern style of Indian dance originating from Tamil Nadu, and is now practiced all over the world. During my stay in India, I learned from Dr. Joshi, Nupur Bharatnattyam Nrityalaya. According to my teacher, this specific dance style is designed to accompany songs that honor and/or describe a God’s story. The dance can vary according to the song and its specific meaning or intent. In my Honors Capstone Project, I composed a fusion choreography using original Bharatnatyam movements performed to Eastern European Slavic Music (artist: Kitka). Every hand, eye, foot, and body movement has a meaning and was incorporated into this choreography. The choreography was then taught to the local dance troupe, Cold Fusion, and performed at Tundra Caravan’s showcase, featuring Suzanne DelVecchio. The performance of this choreography was well received and performed at many other local events. My Capstone Project helped lead the way for more Indian dance to be taught in Fairbanks, AK, as well as further expand my own knowledge.
    • Superoxide Dismutase Activity within Caribou Serum as an Indicator of Copper Status

      Pauling, Cassandra (2012)
      Copper concentrations measured in liver are the gold standard for evaluating the copper status of ruminants. For live ruminants, measuring copper status is problematic because serum copper concentrations fluctuate and are not consistently correlated to liver copper values. In an attempt to establish an accurate evaluation of copper status from serum in caribou, we examined the correlation between liver copper concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which uses the oxidation and reduction reactions of a bound copper ion in order to catalyze superoxide radicals. Our study focuses on SOD activity in the serum of 16 individual adult female caribou and compares that to known copper levels within the liver. Determining copper levels in ruminants has proven difficult and currently a true proxy to determine liver copper levels in a live animal is unknown.
    • Traditional Skin Preparation Methods

      Isaak, Joel (2012)
      I am an Alaskan Native artist who is trying to learn more about my culture and to pass the information on to others before it is lost. Alaska Native cultures have been working with animal skins for thousands of years. Very few people today possess the knowledge to work these materials. I am interested in the use of the material for home dwellings and clothing. I am researching different ways that animal skins are turned into leather, specifically moose and salmon skins. I conducted interviews with local elders. I investigated the contrasting chemical material process that modern industry uses to produce tanned skins. The research has culminated in an installation made out of moose hide and wood in the Regents Great Hall April 23-27, 2012. The space will provide the viewer with a life sized environment simulating a traditional skin dwelling. I took a traditional preparation method used for salmon skins and transformed them into pieces of contemporary native art.