• Body Image and Disordered Eating Among UAF Female Athletes and Non-Athletes

      Montgomery, Jordyn (2012)
      •Disordered eating and poor body image is a problem in our society for many women •Most eating disorder patients are young females, and female athletes may be particularly at risk •Disordered eating is often associated with perfectionism, poor mental health, and other health-risk behaviors •This research explored associations between eating behavior, body image, perfectionism, depression, binge drinking, and alcohol consequences in a sample of female athletes and non-athletes •Analyses were conducted to determine differences in these variables between athletes and non-athletes, and between sports in the subsample of athletes
    • Research Gateway Management System for ARSC Projects

      Castro, Vincent (2012)
      The Research Gateway Management System (RGMS) is an account management system written in Python1 geared towards creating and facilitating user authentication and management for Arctic Region Supercomputer Center (ARSC) users on the ARSC systems. The intent of the RGMS is to forge an easy to use interface for clients to manage project information and for system administrators to manage projects and users. Utilizing this account management system will catalyze a transition towards the simplification of user and project requests and creation procedures as well as streamline user access to ARSC systems.
    • Isotopic dietary analysis and molecular sex identification of adults and juveniles from medieval Great Moravia

      Halffman, Carrin M. (2012)
      Like many complex agricultural societies, medieval European society was strongly patriarchal, with men favored in terms of property rights, political status, and household authority. However, it is unclear whether male dominance in medieval society was manifested in unequal access to food resources between the sexes. In this pilot study, we examine the pattern of sex-related differences in diet through biomolecular analyses of skeletal remains from Kostelisko, a suburban area within the early medieval Great Moravian site of Mikulčice. Mikulčice was a prominent center of Great Moravia, an early Slavic state that existed in the 9th and early 10th centuries AD, and was situated on the lower Morava River valley in the south-eastern corner of what is today the Czech Republic . Previous bioarchaeological studies of skeletal material from Mikulčice have revealed activity differences between males and females (Havelková et al., 2010), as well as health differences according to socioeconomic status (Velemínský et al., 2009). Here we present dietary reconstructions based on bone collagen carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses, and we evaluate a new method of molecular sex identification using high resolution melting analysis of ancient DNA.
    • Energy Saving Potential of Idle Pacman Supercomputing Nodes

      Lower, Brahm (2012)
      To determine the energy saving potential of suspending idle supercomputing nodes without sacrificing efficiency, my research involved the setup of a compute node power usage monitoring system. This system measures how much power each node draws at its diff erent levels of operation using an automated Expect script. The script automates tasks with interactive command line interfaces, to perform the power measurement readings. Steps required for the power usage monitoring system include remotely logging into the Pacman Penguin compute cluster power distribution units (PDUs), feeding commands to the PDUs, and storing the returned data. Using a Python script the data is then parsed into a more coherent format and written to a common file format for analysis. With this system, the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center (ARSC) will be able to determine how much energy is used during diff erent levels of load intensity on the Pacman supercomputer and how much energy can be saved by suspending unnecessary nodes during levels of reduced activity. Power utilization by supercomputers is of major interest to those who design and purchase them. Since 2008, the leading source of worldwide supercomputer speed rankings has also included power consumption and power efficiency values. Because digital computers utilize electricity to perform computation, larger computers tend to utilize more energy and produce more heat. Pacman, an acronym for Pacific Area Climate Monitoring and Analysis Network, is a high performance supercomputer designed for large compute and memory intensive jobs. Pacman is composed of the following general computational nodes: • 256 four-core compute nodes containing two dual core 2.6 GHz AMD Opteron processors each • 20 twelve-core compute nodes containing two six core 2.6 GHz AMD Opteron processors each • 88 sixteen-core compute nodes containing two eight core 2.3 GHz AMD Opteron processors each
    • Communicating UAF's Return on Investment in the Computational Sciences

      Bartholomew, Anne (2012)
      Using graphic design and statistics to analyze and present complex fiscal information in an easily understood format, my research focuses on mastering the dynamic process of communicating scientifi c information. Required for this process is the ability to evaluate the specifi c needs of an organization, to gather requirements, criteria and constraints of the information to be communicated, and to develop expertise using the Excel, Adobe Photoshop, Illustrator, and InDesign software applications. This poster will demonstrate the application of this process using various techniques to visually demonstrate fi scal information to inform and educate University Leadership about resource use at the Arctic Region Supercomputing Center for the 2011 fiscal year.
    • Rural Telemedicine in Alaska: A Look at Healthcare Through Telecommunications

      Stephens, Ethan (2012)
      •An average town in the United States will have a basic medical facility capable of treating its patients. If not, there is roadway access to a capable facility. •In Rural Alaska however, there is no way to drive to the nearest hospital. These communities are not connected to the major road system and the only way to reach a hospital is by air transport. •Although many villages have access to hub communities that maintain a clinic, the clinic may not have the capabilities to treat certain ailments and many villages have no access to a medical facility. •Providing adequate medical care for Rural Alaskans is difficult due particularly to the size of Alaska, the geographic isolation of many villages, and to the cost of transportation to these rural areas. •The most serious healthcare issues that have been seen in Rural Alaska are “too few physicians or services and [health] care is too expensive,” (Hagopian et al, 2000). •In hopes of overcoming these obstacles in rural medicine, many organizations initiated telemedicine and telehealth programs.
    • Using GPS as a reference frame for SAR images applied to a post eruptive period for Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

      Miller, Summer A. (2012)
      While high spatial coverage makes InSAR a popular tool to study active volcanoes its use can possess challenges for certain environments. Volcanoes along Alaska's Aleutian chain are difficult targets for InSAR as their seasonal snow cover causes decorrelation close to the volcanic caldera, their exposed location in the North Pacific renders them prone to severe atmospheric phase artifacts, and their location on small islands prevents the selection of suitable reference points necessary for deformation analysis. Existing GPS networks define a known reference frame in which SAR is better understood. Okmok volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Island Chain and shows significant non-linear deformation behavior as it progresses through its eruption cycles. A stack of L-band imagery acquired by the SAR sensor PALSAR on board the JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite produced a post eruption deformation time series between August 2008 and October 2010. This data along with a merged DEM comprised of AirSAR SRTM and Worldview-1 stereo pair data, and GPS data from 3 continuous and 3 post eruption campaign sites was used for this study. In this research, a comparison and combination of InSAR and GPS time-series data will be presented aimed at the following research goals: 1) What is the accuracy and precision of InSAR-derived deformation estimates in such challenging environments; 2) How accurate can the deformation of the InSAR reference point be estimated from a joint analysis of InSAR and GPS deformation signals; 3) How non-linear volcanic deformation can be constrained by the measurements of a local GPS network and support the identification of residual atmospheric signals in InSAR-derived deformation time series. Further research into the combination of GPS and InSAR applied to the nonlinear aspect of volcanic deformation can enhance geodetic modeling of the volcano and associated eruption processes.
    • The Origins of Post-eruption Insect Populations on the Aleutian Island of Kasatochi

      Sikes, Derek S.; Ridling, Sayde (2012)
      This project compares the dispersal and/or survival ability of insects on the recently erupted volcanic Aleutian Island of Kasatochi. The island erupted in 2008, two months after the island had been briefly surveyed for terrestrial arthropods. Having pre-eruption specimens provides biologists with a unique and rare perspective of island ecosystem assembly. We have analyzed the DNA of 47 pre- and post- eruption Scathophaga sp. specimens to determine the origins of post-eruption insect populations. This genetic work is especially important for the Aleutians arthropods because they are among the most understudied in the United States.
    • Trapping as a Wildlife Management Tool in Interior Alaska

      Lonewolf, Xavier (2012)
      In the present day the Alaska Department of Fish and Game utilizes furbearer trapping as an important Wildlife Management tool. Historically, people have depended on furbearer trapping for required nutrients provided, by meat and also fur for clothing, bedding and shelter. But, modern day advances have impacted the trapping society and resulted in decline of participates. As time persists will the Alaska Dep. of Fish and Game have to replace the benefits that the trapping community provides us? It is important to see what simple solutions could possible restore the downfall. One simple outlook is to understand who all is participating and why. More importantly, are the future generations participating? Because the future holds the key.
    • Superoxide Dismutase Activity within Caribou Serum as an Indicator of Copper Status

      Pauling, Cassandra (2012)
      Copper concentrations measured in liver are the gold standard for evaluating the copper status of ruminants. For live ruminants, measuring copper status is problematic because serum copper concentrations fluctuate and are not consistently correlated to liver copper values. In an attempt to establish an accurate evaluation of copper status from serum in caribou, we examined the correlation between liver copper concentrations and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which uses the oxidation and reduction reactions of a bound copper ion in order to catalyze superoxide radicals. Our study focuses on SOD activity in the serum of 16 individual adult female caribou and compares that to known copper levels within the liver. Determining copper levels in ruminants has proven difficult and currently a true proxy to determine liver copper levels in a live animal is unknown.
    • Species Delineation of the Genus Claytonia in Alaska

      Jeffers, Stephany (2012)
      The genus Claytonia L. (Spring Beauty) is well recognized in Alaska for its attractive flowers. However, there is much confusion around the species delineation of Claytonia, and the number of species recognized in Alaska has ranged considerably. While phylogenetic studies using molecular data at the family level have found general agreement of subgeneric division in the genus, these studies did not resolve relationships among closely related species in Alaska. This project serves to offer further insight into the phylogeny of Alaskan members of this genus through more in-­‐depth sampling and testing the utility of additional molecular markers. Questions: Is morphological variation in Alaskan Claytonia accompanied by genetic differences? How are Alaskan species of Claytonia related?
    • Characterization of ibogaine analogs on the hα3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

      Ross, Jordan (2012)
      Nicotine addiction is a global health problem that affects nearly one-third of the population. Animal models have shown that the beta-4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) expressed in the habenulointerpeduncular pathway plays a particularly important role in modulating many of the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal in mice. Ibogaine, a naturally occurring compound extracted from the root bark of a West African shrub, has been shown to reduce drug self administration in animal models of addiction. Ibogaine is considered to be a dirty drug due to its nonspecific interaction at a variety of receptor subtypes. This “nonspecificity” contributes to its hallucinogenic, tremorigenic, and cardiovascular compromising properties. It is thought that the anti-addictive effects of ibogaine are due to its antagonism of the α3β4 nAChR. In this study we explore the interaction of ibogaine on the α3β4 nAChR with the hope of developing more selective, more effective therapeutics in the treatment of addiction.
    • Attitudes, Knowledge, and Beliefs on Cancer and its Prevention in Northwestern Rural Alaska

      Schmidt, Jenna (2012)
      Rural Alaskans face unique challenges in accessibility. Most villages and cities are not connected to road systems, limiting travel between rural and urban areas. This also limits connectivity between small communities. Residents rely heavily on air travel. The accessibility of health care and education is limited due to geographical isolation of communities (State of Alaska, 2006). The State of Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (2009) cites cancer as the leading cause of death in Alaska since 1993. Early detection and treatment is key as it reduces the risk of mortality due to different forms of cancer. Accessibility of cancer education, screening, treatment, and other needs are restricted by cost and the availability of transportation (State of Alaska, 2006). This study aims to provide regionally relevant information focusing on current Northwestern rural Alaskan knowledge, beliefs, and perspectives on cancer and its prevention. Assessment of these topics will provide useful information to rural Alaskan health care providers. The information can be used by these providers to focus their resources toward needed areas. This can help in the provision of a tailored health education approach, which may increase effectiveness of educational communication to each distinct community.
    • Identifying Morphological and Functional Changes in a Caenorhabditis elegans Neuronal Aging Model of Huntington’s Disease

      Parker, Cyrena (2012)
      • Evaluate the effects of aging on neuronal morphology and gentle touch response in a C. elegans model of Huntington's disease • Establish that our RNAi method in our two genetic strains, Huntington’s disease model ID1 and control ID245, is selective and specific in silencing targeted genes in neurons
    • Rockwell Kent’s Villagers and Village Children The Importance of Provenance in Art

      Guffey, Lisa (2012)
      The provenance of the Rockwell Kent paintings, Villagers and Village Children, currently housed at the Noel Wien Library in Fairbanks, Alaska, is under question. Scott Ferris, a specialist on Kent, visited the Library’s Kent Collection in 1993, and relayed notes on Kent’s works. Ferris believes they may be from the 1930’s, when Kent traveled to Greenland, rather than 1947 (Villagers) and 1962 (Village Children). Jake Wien, an independent curator and author on Kent, believes the dates on the paintings to be correct. By researching these paintings, I will show how the provenance can effect the historical value, as well as the financial value in works of art.
    • Microsatellite loci among Alaskan rabies hosts: Arctic and red fox

      Renshaw, Ben (2012)
      Little is known about the population dynamics between Arctic and red foxes in Alaska and consequences for rabies ecology. Both species carry different variants of rabies and inhabit different environments. As the global warming trends progress, the Arctic and red fox will have increased habitat overlap due to northward range expansion of the red fox into the historic habitat of the Arctic fox. Hypothesis: global warming trends will significantly influence the disease dynamics between red and Arctic foxes as well as their roles in disease dynamics in the far North. In order to better survey the movement of the variants of rabies among Arctic and red fox, microsatellites will be used to assess population structure of these host species.
    • Transient spatiotemporal chaos collapses into periodic and steady states in an electrically-coupled neural ring network

      Keplinger, Keegan (2012)
      Chaotic behavior in a spatially extended system is often referred to as spatiotemporal chaos. The trajectories of a system as it evolves through state space are described by irregular spatial and temporal patterns. In mathematical biology, spatiotemporal chaos has been demonstrated in chemotaxis models (Painter & Hillen, 2011) predator-prey models (Sherratt, J. & Fowler, A., 1995) and the Hogdkin-Huxley neural model (Wang, Lu, & Chen, 2006). Transient chaos is a special case of chaotic dynamics in which the system dynamics collapses without external perturbation. Rather, collapse is an intrinsic property of the system. Here, we diff usively couple many spiking neurons into a ring network and fi nd that the network dynamics can collapse on to two diff erent species of attractor: the limit cycle and the steady-state solution.