• Characterization of Alaskan HMA Mixtures with the Simple Performance Tester

      Li, Peng; Liu, Juanyu (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2014)
    • Characterization of Alaskan Hot-Mix Asphalt containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement Material

      Liu, Jenny; Zhao, Sheng; Li, Lin (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2016-06)
      In order to properly characterize Alaskan HMA materials containing RAP, this study evaluated properties of 3 asphalt binders typically used in Alaska, PG 52-28, PG 52-40, and PG 58-34, and 11 HMA mixtures containing up to 35% RAP that were either produced in the lab or collected from existing paving projects in Alaska. Various binder and mixture engineering properties were determined, including true high binder grades, complex modulus (|G*|), and phase angle (δ) at high performance temperatures, MSCR recovery rate and compliance, BBR stiffness and m-value, DTT failure stress and strain for binders, and dynamic modulus, flow number, IDT creep stiffness and strength for mixtures. Binder cracking temperatures were determined through Thermal Stress Analysis Routine (TSAR) software along with BBR and DTT data. Mixture cracking temperatures were determined with IDT creep stiffness and strength data. It was found that rutting may not be a concern with Alaskan RAP mix, while low-temperature cracking concerns may still exist in RAP mix in Alaska. A savings of $13.3/ton was estimated for a 25% RAP mix, with consideration of Alaskan situations. Many recommendations for future RAP practice and research are recommended based on testing results and cost analysis.
    • Characterization of Asphalt Treated Base Course Material

      Li, Peng; Liu, Juanyu (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2010)
    • Characterization of coal products from high temperature processing of Usibelli low-rank coals

      Rao, P.D.; Walsh, D.E.; Wilson, W.; Li, YuFu (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1991)
      This research project was conducted in association with Gilbert/Commonwealth Inc. as part of an overall techno-economic assessment of high temperature drying of low-rank coals. This report discusses the characteristics of the dried/pyrolyzed products of two high temperature, evaporative processes and the dried product from a hydrothermal process. The long term goal of this and other coal drying studies conducted at MIRL, was to define drying technologies that have significant and real potential to competitively move Alaska's, low-rank coals (LRCs) into the export, steam coal market of the Pacific Rim. In 1990, Japan imported 33 million metric tons (mt) of steam coal with an additional 39 million mt imported by other Far East nations(2). Australia dominates the export steam coal market to these Pacific Rim countries and exported 48 million mt in 1990 and an additional 61 million mt of metallurgical coal(2). The worldwide steam coal export market has been expanding rapidly, from 20 million mt in 1973 to 150 million mt in 1989, and is expected to double to nearly 300 million mt by the end of the century(3). Could Alaska capture only 3% of the projected new world steam coal market, which is not an unreasonable expectation, the value of the state's coal exports would soar from nominally $28 million per year to over $100 million per year. However, without development of economical methods for drying/stabilizing Alaskan LRCs, the only increase in export of Alaskan coals may be from the few "higher rank" coals within a "reasonable" transport range of the existing Alaska rail system or tidewater. Presently the coal from the Usibelli Coal Mine is the only low-rank coal exported internationally as a steam coal; primarily for its blending properties with other coal to improve combustion. But for Alaskan low-rank coals to truly stand on their own merits, economical drying processes must be developed that produce a physically and chemically stable dried product. The technologies that have the most potential for increasing the use of Alaskan coals are those that can reduce the moisture content of these coals economically, and produce a fuel that is accepted in the international market place. Drying technologies will no doubt differ, depending on the end use of the fuel; be it dried lump coal, briquettes or pellets for pulverized coal or stoker applications, or concentrated coal-water fuels made from hot water dried LRCs. There are a number of developing processes that may work with Alaskan coals. Some drying processes, however, have been plagued by the production of excessive amounts of coal fines, Since the demand for Alaskan coal is currently limited to lump size coal, large quantities of fines are a definite liability. In this study, two high temperature drying/pyrolysis processes and one hydrothermal process were investigated. The high temperature drying/pyrolysis processes were conducted at (1) the Western Research Institute, (WRI) an affiliate of the University of Wyoming Research Corporation, Laramie, WY, and (2) Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) of Brisol, VA. Hydrothermal processing was conducted at MIRL, University of Alaska Fairbanks. A summary of these processes and the products they produced follows.
    • Characterizing the berthing load demand at Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities Ferry Landings

      Hutchinson, Jonathan; Metzger, Andrew; Hulsey, Leroy; Dong, YongTao (2011-08)
      This report provides design guidelines and recommendations for side-berthing loads on ferry landing structures. Berthing loads on ferry berthing structures are not well understood due to a lack of information and research for ferry class vessels. The load criteria for the design of ferry berthing structures are thus often based on a number of assumptions, often leading to uneconomical or unreliable structures. The Alaska Department of Transportation (AKDOT&PF) recognizes the need for an improved information base on berthing loads from ferry class vessels, for the design and operation of future facilities within the Alaska Marine Highway System (AMHS). This study involves a one year empirical investigation into side-berthing loads at the Auke Bay ferry landing located in Juneau, Alaska. Measurements of fender displacement, approach velocity, and pile strain were used to determine berthing loads from scheduled berthings from four different vessels. Measured parameters were analyzed statistically, and used to establish distributions and design recommendations for berthing energy, force, velocity, and berthing coefficient based on reliability theory. This study provides an assessment of load criteria currently used by the AK DOT&PF Marine Department, as well as design load recommendations for both service and ultimate side-berthing loads from ferry class vessels.
    • Characterizing the Load Environment of Ferry Landings for Washington State Ferries and the Alaska Marine Highway System

      Metzger, Andrew T.; Kwiatkowski, Jason; Hutchinson, Jonathan (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Washington State Department of Transportation, 2013)
    • Chemical and microbial characterization of North Slope viscous oils for MEOR application

      Ghotekar, Ashish L.; Patil, Shirish; Khataniar, Santanu; Dandekar, Abhijit (2007-12)
      Viscous oil reservoirs tend to be low-energy, low-gas/oil-ratio systems with high viscosities and are difficult to produce, transport and refine by conventional methods. Some of the commonly considered viscous oil recovery methods include processes such as steam flooding, in-situ combustion and miscible gas injection. The large viscous oil deposits in the ANS cannot be produced entirely by conventional methods like pressure displacement or waterflooding. Other methods such as miscible (gas injection and water alternating gas (WAG) also have limited success. Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the techniques for improving the oil recovery for viscous deposits. This method has not yet been applied to the ANS fields. This study includes experimental work to analyze the application of MEOR to the ANS oil fields. A microbial formulation was developed in order to simulate the MEOR. Coreflooding experiments were performed to simulate the improved recovery oil recovery and quantify the incremental oil recovery. Properties like viscosity, density and chemical composition of oil were monitored to propose a mechanism of oil recovery. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) was performed on the oil samples to qualitatively study the effect of the microbial formulation on a molecular scale.
    • Chemical characterization of liquefaction products of an inertinite enriched northern Alaska coals

      Mayasandra, Venugopal (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1989)
      A Northern Alaskan coal rich in inertinites was further enriched by density gradient separations. The degree of condensation of the enriched coal was estimated to be low, mainly 3 ring. The reactivity of the inertinite enriched coal was determined by comparing yields from direct liquefaction with H2 at 0 and 30 minute residence times, 425°C, using an H-donor solvent in one case and moly-catalyst in the other with H2 pressures of 500 and 1000 psig respectively. Solid products were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy while the hexane solubles were separated into various chemical classes, viz. alkanes, neutral polycyclic aromatic compounds, hydroxy polycyclic aromatic oxygen heterocycles, and secondary, tertiary amino polycyclic aromatic compounds. The chemical compounds in these fractions were further analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS)an dcapillary gas chromatography. This work confirmed earlier data showing that inertinites are not as determinental to liquefaction as previously thought.
    • Classification and signal processing of radio backscatter from meteors

      Klemm, Jared; Thorsen, Denise; Bossert, Katrina; Collins, Richard; Mayer, Charlie (2019-12)
      Ground-based radar systems are routinely used to detect the trails of ionized particles that are formed by meteoroids falling through Earth's atmosphere. The most common use for these meteor radar systems is for atmospheric wind studies of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (80-100 km altitude). Because these meteor trails are embedded in the background winds of the middle atmosphere, atmospheric winds in that region can be measured by observing the radial velocities of the trails. There has also been a considerable amount of research over the last few decades into estimation of neutral atmospheric temperatures using the measured decay time of meteor trails. Several methods exist for estimating atmospheric temperature using meteor radar observations, but there are limitations to these approaches. This thesis focuses on examining aspects of meteor radar signal and data processing, specifically interferometry and echo classification. Interferometry using the measured signal phase differences between antennas allows for the location of meteor trails to be unambiguously determined. Classification schemes are used to identify which echoes can be modeled as underdense meteors, overdense meteors, or other potentially non-meteor echoes. Finally, based on the proposed classification scheme, this thesis examines several temperature estimation methods for both underdense and overdense echoes and discusses the current issues in this area. Preliminary results from a newly installed meteor radar at Poker Flat Research Range are also presented.
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Data

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      The data contained in IWR-67 (Clearing Alaskan Supply Impoundments: Management and Laboratory Study) was collected to determine the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan reservoirs as a function of the extent of clearing in site preparation. The study developed a methodology for such analysis and made recommendations as to the best clearing alternatives for each reservoir site. For graphic presentation and evaluation of the data, refer to IWR-67 and IWR-67-A (Literature Review), published by the Institute of Water Resources, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska.
    • Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments : Literature Review

      Justice, Stanley R.; Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      This literature review was prepared in conjunction with a research project evaluating the effect on water quality of five proposed Alaskan Reservoirs and recommending clearing alternatives. For the results of the laboratory study and discussion of impoundment management in northern regions refer to "Clearing Alaskan Water Supply Impoundments, Management and Laboratory Study" (IWR-67). The data developed in the laboratory portion of the study is contained in IWR-67-B. Contact the Institute of Water Resources if access to this material is desired. Much of the material in this review was derived from the paper "The Effect of Reservoirs on Water Quality" which was prepared by Stan Justice in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Quality Engineering.
    • Clearing Alaskan water supply impoundments: management, laboratory study, and literature review

      Smith, Daniel W.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1976-04)
      Water supply impoundments in northern regions have seen only limited application. Reasons for the lack of use of such impoundments include the following: 1) little demand for water due to the low population densities and rustic life styles; 2) a lack of conventional distribution systems in many communities; 3) poorly developed technology for construction of dams on permafrost; 4) adequacy of existing river, lake, ice, and lagoon water supplies; 5) shortage of capital to finance the high cost of construction in remote regions.
    • Climate Change Impact Assessment for Surface Transportation in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

      Lee, Ming; MacArthur, John; Mote, Philip; Ideker, Jason; Figliozzi, Miguel (Alaska University Transportation Center, Washington State Department of Transportation, 2012)
    • Climatic and physiographic drivers of peak flows in watersheds in the North Slope of Alaska

      Hinzman, Alexa Marion Hassebroek; Stuefer, Svetlana; Arp, Christopher; Barnes, David (2017-08)
      The failure to accurately predict peak discharge can cause large errors in risk analysis that may lead to damage to structures and in some cases, death. Creating linear regression (LR) equations that accurately predict peak discharges without historic data provides a method to estimate flood peaks in ungauged watersheds on the North Slope of Alaska. This thesis looks at the independent variables that drive, or are significant in predicting snowmelt peak discharge in the North Slope watersheds. The LR equations created use independent variables from meteorological data and physiographic data collected from four watersheds, Putuligayuk River, Upper Kuparuk River, Imnavait Creek and Roche Moutonnée Creek. Meteorological data include snow water equivalent (SWE), total precipitation, rainfall, storage, length of melt. Physiographic data summarize watershed area (2.2 km2 to 471 km2) and slope (0.15:100 to 2.7:100). This thesis compared various Flood Frequency Analysis techniques, starting with Bulletin 17B, multiple USGS regional methods and finally created LR equations for each watershed as well as all four watersheds combined. Five LR equations were created, three of the LR equations found SWE to be a significant predictor of peak flows. The first equation to estimate peak flows for all watersheds used only area and had a high R2 value of 0.72. The second equation for all watersheds included area and a meteorological independent variable, SWE. While the evidence presented here is quite promising that meteorological and physiographic data can be useful in estimating peak flows in ungauged Arctic watersheds, the limitations of using only four watersheds to determine the equations call for further testing and verification. More validation studies will be needed to demonstrate that viable equations may be applied to all watersheds on the North Slope of Alaska.
    • Closest pair optimization on modern hardware

      Bright, Jason; Chappell, Glenn G.; Lawlor, Orion; Hartman, Chris (2019-05)
      In this project we examine the performance of several algorithms for finding the closest pair of points out of a given set of points in a plane. We look at four algorithms, including brute force, recursive, non-recursive, and a random expected linear time for numbers of points ranging from one hundred to one billion. In our examination, we find that on average the non-recursive is the fastest, except for limited cases of 100 points for the brute force, and 32 bit spaces for the random expected linear.
    • Coal in Alaska requirements to enhance environmentally sound use in both domestic and Pacific Rim markets

      Wilson, W.G.; Irwin, W.; Sims, John; Rao, P.D.; Noll, Bill (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1990)
      This document originates from three meetings held in 1989 with the leaders of the Alaskan Coal Industry and coal technologists from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)~ Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (MIRL) and Geophysical Institute - University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, the Alaska Science and Technology Commission, several of the Alaska Native Corporations, and a number of coal experts from private industries. The information included is intended to illustrate the vast resource base and quality of Alaskan coals, show the projected size of the Pacific Rim steam coal market, discuss policy changes necessary to facilitate the development of an expanded coal industry, and describe the technology development needs for Alaskan coals to compete in the world market. It is aimed at increasing the general knowledge about the potential of coal in Alaska and providing data for use in marketing the resource.
    • Cofiring coal and biomass at Aurora Power Plant in Fairbanks, Alaska

      Wright, Zackery; Huang, Daisy; Nicholls, David; Peterson, Rorik; Schnabel, William (2016-05)
      Biomass energy has been a topic of great interest over the previous few years in Alaska; especially when various fuel sources were priced at a record high. Interior Alaska has the potential to utilize woody biomass to offset the use of coal in many of its power generating facilities. In this study, woody biomass in the form of clean aspen (Populus tremuloides) chips was cofired with Usibelli coal at the Aurora Power Plant facility in downtown Fairbanks, Alaska. Biomass was successfully cofired at low average rates of 2.4% and 4.81% of total energy value. Combustion gasses were analyzed using measuring probes in the exhaust stack. The 2.4% biomass test saw, on average, an increase in CO and CO₂ by 95ppm and 2%, respectively. A decrease in NOx of 1ppm was observed. During the 4.81% biomass test, CO increased by 83ppm, NOx decreased by 18ppm, and CO decreased by 1%. Opacity increased by 0.1% during the 2.4% biomass test and 0.17% during the 4.81% biomass test. The challenges facing a small scale facility in Interior Alaska are also presented. The testing exemplified that the use of biomass in stoker/grate boilers in Alaska is technically feasible with relative ease. No technical barriers to cofiring at low levels on an on-going basis were found at the Aurora Power Plant and this conclusion would likely hold true at similar facilities in interior Alaska.
    • Cogeneration and Diesel Electric Power Production

      Johnson, Ronald A. (1989-09)
      We have developed a data acquisition system to both monitor the efficiency of a diesel-electric generator set in producing electricity and to evaluate its performance as part of a cogeneration system for producting both heat and electricity. We have used this system to evaluate the performances of a 45 kW system consisting of a Mitsubishi engine coupled to a Stamford generator and an 80 kW Caterpillar system. We find that, even though the efficiency of a generator set in producing electricity decreases appreciably as the electric load decreases, the cogeneration efficiency is relatively insensitive to load. The latter includes both the electric power produced and the rate of heat recovery from the jacket water as benefits. We also found that the engine temperature as measured by jacket water temperature can be maintained at high levels even at low loads if the cooling mechanism is restricted. We accomplished this in a laboratory situation by decreasing the water flow through an externally-mounted heat exchanger used to provide a source of cooling for the engine. We also found that the 80 kW cogeneration system at Coldfoot provided about one-third of the space heat needed by the maintenance shop. The payback period was less than 2 years for this system with about 2200 gallons of fuel oil being saved annually because of heat recovery from the jacket water. Volume I contains the main body of the report; appendices are contained in Volume II.
    • Cold climate water/wastewater transportation and treatment - a bibliography: completion report

      Tilsworth, Timothy; Smith, Daniel M.; Zemansky, G. M.; Justice, Stanley R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-12)
      This bibliography contains 1,400 citations, including published and unpublished papers, on cold-climate water and wastewater transportation and treatment systems. Sources listed include state and federal agency files which contain information on systems in Alaskan communities and the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company camps. References to systems in other northern countries are also included. The objectives of this study were to identify causes of the failure of Alaskan water and wastewater treatment and transportation facilities and to seek methods for design improvements. Originally, the investigators contemplated an evaluation of systems performance in remote areas in relation to the original conception, planning, design, and construction. Because of the tremendous amount of literature examined, the evaluation was undertaken in a subsequent study, "Alaska Wastewater Treatment Technology" (A-058-ALAS) by Dr. Ronald A. Johnson.
    • The combined use of a sand screw, hydrocyclones, and gel-logs to treat placer mine process water

      Chuang, YeKang (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1988)
      This study describes a low-maintenance tailings treatment system for placer mines. A sand screw and two 20 inch hydrocyclones were used to remove gravel, sand and silt from a sluice box discharge. Gel-logs were introduced subsequent to the main settling pond to reduce the suspended solids. Results drawn from a two year study at a placer mine in interior Alaska indicated that: (1) Most of the plus 50 mm particles can be removed from the sluice tailings by the combination of a sand screw and 20 inch hydrocyclones, (2) When using the hydrocyclone overflow, without further cleaning, in recycle operation, the performance of the sand screw and hydrocyclones change due to the build up of fine particles. (3) In laboratory testing cationic type gel-logs proved to be effective in reducing the turbidity of settling pond water from 4,000 NTU to 80 NTU. However, at the mine this test result could not be duplicated even though 14 logs were applied to treat 25% (c 500gpm) of the pond overflow. The cost of installation and operation of the sand screw and hydrocyclone system was about 11% of the total operational cost of the mine in 1986.