• A computer processable storage and retrieval program for Alaska mineral information

      Heiner, L.E.; Porter, Eve (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1972)
      The Mineral Industry Research Laboratory has developed a storage and retrieval file for Alaska mineral information to facilitate resource studies. The basis for the computer-processable file is the Division of ecological Survey Mineral Kardex system which contains an entry for every mineral property in Alaska that has either been recorded in the literature or has been claimed under the mineral staking laws. Use of the file has greatly increased the research capability of the laboratory to compile resource-oriented reports such as M.I.R.L. Report No. 16, IIFinal Report - Mineral Resources of Northern Alaska," M.I.R.L. Report No. 18, JlKnown and Potential Ore Reserves, Seward Peninsula, Alaska", and M.J.R.L Report No. 27, "Copper Mineral Occurrences in the Wrangell Mountain - Prince William Sound Area, Alaska" and S.E. Alaska Mineral Commodity Maps. The programs have been given the name MINFILE. MINFILEJ refers to a program that stores mineral information on magnetic tape. MINFILE2 is a Retreival program, MINFILE3 is a program to correct and make additions to the file. MINFILE4 and MINFILE5 are utility programs used for maintenance of the system.
    • Conceptual design of a test bed for miner rescue

      Munny, Rowshon Ara Mannan; Hatfield, Michael; Wies, Richard; Bossert, Katrina (2019-08)
      In the mining industry, miners are constantly exposed to various safety and health hazards associated with often unpredictable conditions. When an accident occurs, it is difficult for the rescue team to come up with a proper plan for the rescue mission without having adequate knowledge of the situation. One possible approach to managing these hazards is to provide the rescue team with situational awareness such as real-time data regarding the environment (fire, poisonous or explosive gasses), as well as the location and physical condition of the trapped miners. Before starting the rescue mission, and in order to eliminate or reduce the dangers of exposing more humans to the explosive mining environment for information collection, a combination of unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is proposed. In this project, a conceptual test bed is designed to collect one specific set of information about a trapped miner (in this case, heartrate data). This test bed collects the required data from a heart rate sensor on the trapped miner and transmits it wirelessly to a nearby UAV which will receive the data and send it back to the rescue team via a UGV.
    • Conference on Alaskan placer mining, focus: gold recovery systems

      Beistline, E.H.; Cook, D.J.; Thomas, B.I.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1979)
      Alaska Miners' Association and the School of Mineral Industry, University of Alaska, Fairbanks conference proceedings of the Alaskan Placer Mining conference on Gold Recovery Systems.
    • Connecting Alaskans: mixed-use safety and accessibility challenges in rural environments

      Sorensen, Carrie L.; Belz, Nathan; Goddard, Scott; Barnes, David (2017-12)
      Connectivity in transportation networks, or lack thereof, is a challenge that many people have to deal with. Alaska has many rural communities that are inaccessible by conventional modes of transportation. In order for people to reach these communities and move between them unconventional modes of transportation are needed. However, very few studies have been done on unconventional transportation modes such as ATVs and snowmachines and the level to which they contribute to connecting people and how to help limit traumatic injuries of users. This study focuses on Alaska and three primary datasets. First, the Pacific North West Transportation Survey developed by the University of Alaska Fairbanks and the University of Idaho. Second, Alaska Trauma Registry data obtained from Division of Public Health and Safety. Thirdly, publicly available GIS transportation network and populated place data. These three data sets accomplish the following objectives: (1) document preferences and perceptions of mixed-use safety, (2) to better understand the reasons for injuries and fatalities involving ATVs and snowmachines, and (3) to identify potential mixed-use conflict areas by geographic mapping of traumas. From this analysis a better understanding of ATV mode use was discovered. ATVs are used for a variety of trip purposes including: commuting, running errands, chores, and recreation. ATVs are used on and near roadways 24% of the time. There are twice as many ATV-related traumas in connected places than in isolated places, and 3 times more ATV related traumas in highway connected places than secondary road connected places. Snowmachines are used on and near roadways 23% of the time and have 3 times as many traumas in highway connected places than secondary road connected places. Highway connected places have a significantly higher risk of having ATV and snowmachine traumas than road connected places. This indicates that part of the issue could be the amount of traffic in connected areas, or perhaps the frequency of use of ATVs rather than automobiles in non-connected areas leading to fewer mixed-use scenarios.
    • Constraints on the development of coal mining in arctic Alaska based on review of Eurasian arctic practices

      Lynch, D.F.; Johansen, N.I.; Lambert, C., Jr.; Wolff, E.N. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1976)
      Arctic Alaska's enormous reserves of coal may be a significant future source of energy for the United States and for the Pacific Basin. Large coal reserves have been developed in the Arctic portions of Eurasia, where problems similar to those that might be encountered in Alaska have already been faced. To determine the nature of these problems, the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory of the University of Alaska, under contracts S 0133057 with the U.S. Bureau of Mines, has conducted a literature review on Eurasian coal mining and visited mines in Svalbard, Norway; Carmacks, Y.T.; and Healy, Alaska. The purpose was to establish the most significant physical constraints which may apply to the eventual development of Northwestern Arctic Alaskan coal.
    • Construction Dust Amelioration Techniques

      Moses, Thomas; Eckoff, Travis; Connor, Billy; Perkins, Robert A. (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2012)
    • Continued Field Evaluation of Precutting for Maintaining Asphalt Concrete Pavements with Thermal Cracking

      Liu, Jenny; Zhao, Sheng; McHattie, Robert (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-08)
      In continuation of a previously completed project entitled Evaluate Presawn Transverse Thermal Cracks for Asphalt Concrete Pavement, this project was a further effort to understand important variables in the thermal cracking process through continued field monitoring of three precutting test sites in Interior Alaska. The test sites included (1) Phillips Field Road, precut in 1984 (≈ west ¼ mile of this road), (2) Richardson Highway precut in 2012 (≈ MP 343–344), and (3) Parks Highway precut in 2014 (≈ MP 245–252). Preliminary results at relatively short periods (up to 4 years) indicate that precutting is an economically promising way to control natural thermal cracks. Even short-term economic benefits appear to range between about 2% and 21%. The degree to which precutting works for an AC pavement appears to be a function of the thickness and general structural robustness of new construction. Shorter precut spacing, along with stronger and/or thicker pavement structures, looks promising with respect to crack control. Continuing evaluation and monitoring of test sections are needed to recommend an effective design methodology and construction practice for Alaska and cold areas of other northern states.
    • Copper mineral occurrences in the Wrangell Mountains-Prince William Sound area, Alaska

      Heiner, L.E.; Wolff, E.N.; Grybeck, D.G. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1971)
      On January 9, 1970, the U.S. Bureau of Mines entered into an agreement with the University of Alaska based upon a proposal submitted by the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory. Under the terms of this agreement, the Laboratory undertook to compile information on copper occurrences in eight quadrangles covering what are loosely known as the Copper River, White River, and Prince William Sound copper provinces. If time permitted four other quadrangles would be added, and this has been possible. Information was to be obtained by searching published and unpublished records of the Bureau of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey, the State Division of Geological Survey, the University of Alaska, and the recording offices.
    • Cordova Floating Ferry Dock

      Metzger, Andrew T. (2014-12)
      This study began the evaluation of the Cordova floating ferry dock using the ANSYS AQWA software. The AQWA software models the effects of waves, wind and current on floating structures. Floating bodies are modeled as a point-mass with inertial and hydrostatic characteristics. As part of the study, the critical wave characteristic was defined. During the modeling it was found that AQWA can only model rigid bodies and that the Cordova floats experience a wide range of wave periods and directions. Consequently, AQWA requires adaptation to fully model the ferry dock at Cordova.
    • Correcting Oil-Water Relative Permeability Data For Capillary End Effect In Displacement Experiments

      Qadeer, Suhail (1988)
      By neglecting the effect of capillary forces, the relative permeabilities calculated by the method of Johnson, Bossler, and Neumann or Jones and Roszelle from low rate displacement experiments are in error.<p> In this study, steady state and displacement experiments were carried out. A history matching package along with a fully implicit numerical simulator and a Welge type model were developed and the displacement data were analyzed by history matching to quantify these errors. A modified centrifuge drainage bucket was used to obtain drainage and imbibition capillary pressure data.<p> The results show that in the case of drainage the non-wetting phase end point relative permeabilities and saturation exponents increase with an increase in rate. However the saturation exponent for the wetting phase decreases with rate. The wetting phase end point relative permeability stayed more or less constant with rate. In the case of imbibition these parameters did not indicate any meaningful rate dependent trend. <p>
    • Correlation of microstructure and thermo-mechanical properties of a novel hydrogen transport membrane

      Zhang, Yongjun; 张咏君; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Trainor, Tom; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Nag, Nagendra (2014-05)
      A key part of the FutureGen concept is to support the production of hydrogen to fuel a 'hydrogen economy,' with the use of clean burning hydrogen in power-producing fuel cells, as well as for use as a transportation fuel. One of the key technical barriers to FutureGen deployment is reliable and efficient hydrogen separation technology. Most Hydrogen Transport Membrane (HTM) research currently focuses on separation technology and hydrogen flux characterization. No significant work has been performed on thermo-mechanical properties of HTMs. The objective of the thesis is to understand the structure-property correlation of HTM and to characterize (1) thermo mechanical properties under different reducing environments and thermal cycles (thermal shock), and (2) evaluate the stability of the novel HTM material. A novel HTM cermet bulk sample was characterized for its physical and mechanical properties at both room temperature and at elevated temperature up to 1000°C. Microstructural properties and residual stresses were evaluated in order to understand the changing mechanism of the microstructure and its effects on the mechanical properties of materials. A correlation of the microstructural and thermo mechanical properties of the HTM system was established for both HTM and the substrate material. Mechanical properties of both selected structural ceramics and the novel HTM cermet bulk sample are affected mainly by porosity and microstructural features, such as grain size and pore size-distribution. The Young's Modulus (E-value) is positively correlated to the flexural strength for materials with similar crystallographic structure. However, for different crystallographic materials, physical properties are independent of mechanical properties. Microstructural properties, particularly, grain size and crystallographic structure, and thermodynamic properties are the main factors affecting the mechanical properties at both room and high temperatures. The HTM cermet behaves more like an elastic material at room temperature and as a ductile material at temperature above 850°C. The oxidation and the plasticity of Pd phase mainly affected the mechanical properties of HTM cermet at high temperature, also as a result of thermal cycling. Residual stress induced in the HTM by thermo cycles also plays a very critical role in defining the thermo-mechanical properties.
    • Corrosion behavior and residual stress of microarc oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy for biomedical applications

      Gu, Yanhong; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar; Severin, Kenneth P.; Chen, Cheng-fu; Kim, Sunwoo (2012-08)
      Mg alloys are potentially new biomaterials for bone repair or replacement. Appropriate coating is, however, needed to make the Mg alloy more resistant to corrosion. In this research, protective microarc oxidation (MAO) coatings were produced on AZ31 Mg alloys in sodium phosphate electrolyte. The coatings were produced under varying pulse frequency, applied voltage, oxidation time and electrolyte concentrations. This research analyzed the effects of the above four MAO process control parameters on the residual stresses and the corrosion behavior. Optimization of the MAO control parameters would allow production of AZ31 Mg alloy with high corrosion resistance. It is well accepted that residual stress and corrosion behavior are two significant factors in the development of AZ31 Mg alloys. The residual stresses in the MAO coatings were evaluated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD)-sin²ψ method. A predictive model of the residual stresses is proposed and a principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted to determine the contribution of the MAO control parameter on the residual stresses. Long-term corrosion behavior of MAO-coated Mg alloys was evaluated by the potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests. The porosity of the samples after various immersion durations was evaluated by the potentiodynamic polarization method. The pre- and post- corrosion microstructures and the phase composition of MAO-coated samples were studied. Post-corrosion phase identification showed that hydroxyapatite (HA) was formed on the surface of the samples. The ratio of Ca/P in HA was determined by the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique. The degradation of the MAO-coated AZ31 alloys is reduced due to the MAO coating and the formation of a corrosion product layer. A predictive model of the corrosion current density is proposed and a PCA was conducted to determine the contributions of the individual MAO control parameter on the corrosion rate. The corrosion process and mechanism of MAO-coated AZ31 alloys in SBF were modeled based on the electrochemical corrosion results and the pre- and post-corrosion surface analysis. It is believed that under optimized control parameters, the MAO-coated AZ31 Mg alloy is superior implant material for biomedical applications.
    • Corrosion behavior of microarc oxidation and polycaprolactone coatings applied to AZ31 magnesium alloy evaluated in simulated body fluid and balanced salt solution

      Wilke, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Lei; Peterson, Rorik; Zhang, Junqing; Chen, Cheng-fu (2015-08)
      Recent research in orthopedic implant materials has focused on the use of magnesium alloys as a base material due to its mechanical properties similar to that of human bone. Rapid corrosion of magnesium materials in aqueous environments poses a significant hurdle to their application as a biomedical implant. A variety of coatings have been shown to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium based materials in simulated body fluid environments including microarc oxidation and polymer coatings. However, formulation and corrosion rates vary significantly between solution types. Furthermore, in vivo results have shown that many common in vitro solutions over estimate corrosion rates. In addition to variations between solutions needing to be resolved, there has been little work performed to characterize large sample corrosion under stress. This is an essential step in evaluating concept performance at a macro scale, for application as a human implant. The experiments performed and presented in this thesis primarily involve the comparison of conventional simulated body fluid (c-SBF) and Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS). Samples evaluated in these environments are microarc oxidation (MAO) coated AZ31 magnesium alloy and polycaprolactone dip-coated AZ31. MAO coated samples were created for a range of process settings to observe the effect of processing on corrosion performance. A dependence of MAO coating thickness on process voltage was found which augmented the initial corrosion resistance values observed via electrochemical testing. Both MAO and PCL coatings were found to improve the corrosion resistance of the samples as compared to uncoated AZ31. It was found that all variations (MAO, PCL, and uncoated) showed a reduced corrosion rate in EBSS as compared to c-SBF. This corrosion reduction was apparent through potentiodynamic scanning, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and visual inspection. Preliminary mechanical corrosion results, in the form of constant extension testing, showed no dependence of corrosion on stress level. Future work may be aimed towards expanding modes of mechanical testing and further refining simulated body fluids to fit with in vivo test results.
    • Corrosion behavior of titanium dioxide (TiO₂)-coated Al alloy in saline environment

      Rabbey, Md Fazlay; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Junqing; Huang, Daisy; Peterson, Rorik (2018-08)
      Al alloys have been used in many applications, however, they are susceptible to corrosion when exposed in saline environment. In this work, TiO₂ nanoellipsoids with aspect ratios (AR) of 1, 2, 4 and 6 were synthesized, TiO₂ coatings of AR 1, AR2, AR4, and AR6 were fabricated on AA2024-T3 Al alloy substrate, and their corrosion behaviors in the saline environment were investigated by analyzing the scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, potentiodynamic polarization scans and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. TiO₂-coated Al samples showed better corrosion performance compared to the bare Al sample. Among the coated samples, TiO₂ AR6 coated samples showed lower corrosion rate compared to other samples. Although TiO₂ nanoellipsoids coatings show good corrosion resistance, it is noted that TiO₂ coatings are porous, which allows the penetration of corrosive media through the pores to reach the surface of the substrate. A polystyrene (PS)-TiO₂ AR6 nanocomposite coating was fabricated, where the pores of the coatings were sealed by polystyrene, which is expected to further improve the corrosion resistance of TiO₂ coatings.
    • A Corrosion Monitoring System for Existing Reinforced Concrete Structure

      Shi, Xianming; Ye, Zhirui; Muthumani, Anburaj; Fang, Yida; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Hui (Alaska University Transportation Center, Oregon Department of Transportation, 2013)
    • Corrosion of Steel in Calcium-Magnesium-Acetate (CMA) Deicier

      Venkatesh, Eswarahalli S.; Kutterer, Stephanie (1985-01)
      The corrosiveness of a new road deicer, Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), was determined under various conditions of temperature, pH, and concentration. The corrosion rates of steel in CMA solutions were generally found to be of the order of 2 mils per year (mpy). In comparison, for the currently used chloride salt deicers the corrosion rates can range from 25-80 mpy. CMA is generally found to be a non-corrosive medium compared to sodium and calcium chloride. Although this preliminary corrosion research indicates that CMA is less corrosive to steels than salts, further work is necessary to confirm the corrosion characteristics of CMA on other materials. Additional studies should be performed on environmental and aesthetic aspects before widespread application of CMA as a road deicier.
    • Cost of exploration for metallic minerals in Alaska

      Grybeck, D; Peek, B.C.; Robinson, M.S. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1976)
      The high cost of exploration for metallic minerals in Alaska not only reflects a 20-50% increase in the cost of supplies, food and salaries over those "outside" but also some additional costs that are characteristic of most Alaskan exploration efforts. Transportation in particular often represents half of the exploration budget and is a major cost of almost all programs. Helicopters commonly are used as the basic mode of field transportation; their cost is high (about $125 to $300 per hour) and increasing, and their availability is becoming less certain with the accelerating demand for them. Salaries for field personnel are also considerably higher than those paid to personnel "outside". And the demand, both from within and without the mining industry, for those with Alaskan experience is so great as to drive those salaries even higher. Fuel and communication costs not only show the usual Alaskan mark-up but are also subject to local scarcity and almost unavoidable problems. Fuel will probably continue to be available in the major population centers but there have always been difficulties in providing or obtaining fuel in the bush; these will undoubtedly be magnified with the booming development of Alaska's petroleum resources and national scarcity. Communications with the field will undoubtedly continue to be uncertain at times and will frequently present major problems that money along cannot solve and result in much frustration and delay. Contract services such as drilling, geophysical work, and geochemical analyses are available within the state in varying degree or can be obtained "outside" at rates that do not seem to be unduly expensive. However, the cost of transportation, mobilization, and demobilization of the personnel and equipment used in performing these services may result in unusually high costs for projects of short duration. Early logistical planning has always been considered wise in Alaskan field work and it will undoubtedly continue to be important, if not essential. The lack of it may be alleviated in some cases with copious applications of money but with Alaska's present booming development, the lack of planning may lead to an uncertain ability to work in the field at all. The cost of Alaskan exploration programs vary greatly. Many of the reconnaissance geologic and geochemical programs are strikingly expensive chiefly because of the need for helicopter support. Other types of programs such as prospect evaluations are not nearly so expensive and Alaskan costs for projects of limited area or duration are nor necessarily prohibitive. In almost all cases, experience, imagination, and prior planning can reduce costs significantly.
    • Cost of exploration for metallic minerals in Alaska - 1982

      Metz, P.A.; Campbell, B.W. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1982)
      This report prepared by the professional staff of the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory (M.I.R.L.), is a contemporary and detailed source of information relating to the costs of conducting mineral exploration for metallics in Alaska with commentary on the availability of essential services. As such it will serve the needs of established mining companies engaged in exploration ventures as well as newcomers to the Alaskan scene.
    • Cost-Effective Use of Sustainable Cementitious Materials as Reactive Filter Media (Phase I)

      Li, Wenbing; Shi, Xianming (2019-08-31)
      This report presents a laboratory study on the use of nano SiO2 as modifier in crushed fines recycled concrete (CFRCs), coupled with thermal treatment, with the goal of fabricating a sustainable reactive medium to capture the chloride anions in deicer-laden stormwater runoff. A uniform design (UD) scheme was employed for the statistical design of experiments. Predictive models were developed based on the experimental data to quantify the influence of each design parameter on the effectiveness of removing Cl- ions from simulated stormwater. The models were verified, and then employed for predictions. Finally, the samples of different CFRCs modified by nano SiO2 and heating regimes were prepared under the optimal parameters identified via the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The optimal processing of CRFCs include the use of admixing nano SiO2 at 0.3% (by mass), then heating the material at 525oC for 3h. The structure and properties of these CFRCs materials were characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET, SEM and EDS. These advanced characterization tools revealed that the modified CFRCs achieved great potential to chemically bind chloride anions. This work is expected to produce substantial benefits for highway agencies and other stakeholders of deicer stormwater runoff, through enhanced understanding of the efficacy and appropriateness of cementitious filter media in passive reactive systems for decreasing contaminant loading in stormwater runoff. The use of CRFCs as a low-cost sorbent will be economically attractive and environmentally sustainable, diverting them from waste stream and landfill and towards sustainable stormwater management.