• Alaska Mining and Water Quality: Proceedings of the Symposium

      University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979-04
      Very little information on Alaska mining activities and resulting environmental changes has been available. The objectives of this research were to: 1) review the literature pertinent to water quality deterioration resulting from mining activities, and 2) conduct a symposium, "Alaska Mining and Water Quality," in Fairbanks, Alaska. Alaska Mining and Water Quality (IWR Report 74) was published in June 1976. The report covers effluent limitations and water quality standards, physical parameters, chemical/biological parameters, and effects of Alaska mining on water quality. Over 300 references are cited, and a description of settling pond theory is appended. The literature review Focused primarily on mining activities in Canada and the contiguous portion of the United States. The main emphasis of the literature review was directed at gold mining and coal mining operations; however, other mining activities relevant to Alaska were examined. The April 9, 1976, symposium was meant to achieve: 1) information dissemination, 2) increased and more effective communication, 3) env1ronmental awareness, and 4) identification of environmental problems and potential solutions associated with mining activities in Alaska. Although there was good attendance and an exchange of information, the other objectives of the symposium were not attained. With few exceptions, both speakers and participants were aligned in extreme positions, and they presented little actual data to support their conclusions. The purpose of this publication is to present differing viewpoints on important and controversial issues in Alaskan water resources with the hope that effective solutions can be achieved through consideration of all facets of the problems.
    • Alaska Road Weather Project | Technical Performance Assessment Report | Fairbanks Field Demonstration 2013-2014

      Chapman, Mike; Linden, Seth; Burghardt, Crystal (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2014)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2007 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2007)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2008 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2008)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2009 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2009)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2010 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2010)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2011 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2011)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2012 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2012)
    • Alaska University Transportation Center 2013 Annual Report

      Alaska University Transportation Center; University of Alaska Fairbanks (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2013)
    • Alaska Wastewater Treatment Technology

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-01)
      This report is intended to be an assessment of wastewater treatment technology in Alaska today. It is not a study of the politics of environmentalists vs. industry, the environmental laws now existing, nor of the design of utilidors in the Arctic. These and other important topics have been dealt with elsewhere. The study is subdivided into three major areas: 1) individual home treatment systems, 2) municipal and military systems, and 3) industrial wastewater treatment. With each category, the existing situation in Alaska is summarized and examples of technology currently being used are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are discussed with suggestions made for methodologies particularly appropriate to Alaska. Although the bulk of the report is drawn from the "Alaskan experience," results obtained in other parts of the world are cited where appropriate.
    • Alaska Water Resources Research Needs for the 70's: A seminar, Oct. 27-28 Anchorage, Alaska

      Carlson, Robert F.; Butler, Jacqueline (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-09)
    • Alaska's Water: A Critical Resource

      Bredthauer, Stephen R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1984-11)
    • Alaska-Canada Rail Link Economic Benefits

      Watts, Teresa; Peter Wallis Consulting Limited; Metz, Paul A. (2019-07)
      Construction of the 1,740 km Alaska-Canada Rail Link (ACRL) between Fort Nelson, BC and Delta Junction, Alaska to join the North American rail system to the Alaska Railroad will result in tremendous economic benefits for Canada and the US. The ACRL will provide valuable additional east-west rail capacity and tidewater access to the Pacific, hugely benefitting not only the Yukon and Eastern Alaska regions, into which it will introduce rail transport for the first time, but throughout both countries. The economic benefits of ACRL construction are consistent with Canadian government’s desire to promote Northern development and comparable in significance to those of Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880’s and the St. Lawrence Seaway in the 1950’s. Construction of the ACRL alone will bring unprecedented economic stimulus to the region in terms of job creation, wages and income tax revenue over multiple years. Table 7-1 below summarizes the benefits from ACRL construction for the Yukon, BC and Canada as a whole. However, these estimates are conservative as they exclude benefits associated with pre-construction activities, railway operation post-construction, sales taxes and corporate taxes as well as all such benefits that will accrue to Alaska and the US.
    • Alaskan water resources: Selected abstracts, 1974

      Hartman, Charles; Finch, Sheila (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-02)
      As one of the 51 Water Resources Research Institutes administered under the Water Resources Research Act of 1964, IWR receives a semimonthly journal entitled Selected Water Resources Abstracts. The bulletin, published by the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC) of the Office of Water Research and Technology, includes abstracts of documents covering the water-related aspects of the life, physical, and social sciences as well as related engineering and legal aspects of the characteristics, conservation, control, use, or management of water. Each abstract in the bulletin is classified into 10 fields and 60 groups of water research categories (see page iii). In addition, the journal contains a subject, author, and organizational index. In an attempt to keep interested parties abreast of the research being done in water resources in Alaska, the Institute of Water Resources is planning to publish yearly all abstracts listed under the subject index "Alaska." This report covers all citations for 1974.
    • Alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding - potential and simulation for Alaskan North Slope reservoir

      Ghorpade, Tejas S. (2014-09)
      Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is essential to recover bypassed oil and improve recovery factor. Alkaline-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding is a chemical EOR method that can be used to recover heavy oil containing organic acids from sandstone formations. It involves injection of alkali to generate in situ surfactants, improve sweep efficiency, and reduce interfacial tension (IFT) between displacing and displaced phase, and injection of a polymer to improve mobility ratio; typically, it is followed by extended waterflooding. The concentration of alkali, surfactant, and polymer used in the process depends on oil type, salinity of solution, pressure, temperature of the reservoir, and injection water quality. This project evaluates the effect of waterflooding on recovery, calculates the recovery factor for ASP flooding, and optimum concentration of alkali, surfactant, and polymer for an Alaskan reservoir. Also, the effects of waterflooding and improvement with ASP flooding are evaluated and compared. Studies of these effects on oil recovery were analyzed with a Computer Modeling Group (CMG)-generated model for the Alaskan North Slope (ANS) reservoir. Based on a literature review and screening criteria, the Western North Slope (WNS) 1 reservoir was selected for the ASP process. A CMG - WinProp simulator was used to create a fluid model and regression was carried out with the help of actual field data. The CMG - WinProp model was prepared with a 5 spot well injection pattern using the CMG STARS simulator. Simulation runs conducted for primary and waterflooding processes showed that the recovery factor increased from 3% due to primary recovery to 45% due to waterflooding at 500 psi drawdown for 60 years with a constant producing gas oil ratio (GOR). ASP flooding was conducted to increase recovery further, and optimum ASP parameters were calculated for maximum recovery. Also, effect of alkali, surfactant and polymer on recovery was observed and compared with ASP flood. If proved effective, the use of ASP chemicals for ANS reservoirs to increase the recovery factor could replace current miscible gas injection with chemical EOR. It will help to develop chemical flooding processes for heavier crude oil produced in harsh environments and create new horizons for chemical industries in Alaska.
    • Altering the thermal regime of soils below heated buildings in the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones of Alaska

      Perreault, Paul Vincent; Shur, Yuri; Hulsey, J. Leroy; Barnes, David; Ahn, Il Sang (2016-05)
      This research investigates the impacts of thermal insulation on the thermal regime of soils below heated buildings in seasonally and perennially frozen soils. The research provides practical answers (A) for designing frost‐protected shallow foundations in unfrozen soils of the discontinuous permafrost zone in Alaska and (B) shows that applying seasonal thermal insulation can reduce the risk of permafrost thawing under buildings with open crawl spaces, even in warming climatic conditions. At seasonal frost sites, this research extends frost‐protected shallow foundation applications by providing design suggestions that account for colder Interior Alaska’s air freezing indices down to 4 400 °C∙d (8,000 °F∙d). This research includes field studies at six Fairbanks sites, mathematical analyses, and finite element modeling. An appendix includes frost‐protected shallow foundation design recommendations. Pivotal findings include the discovery of more pronounced impacts from horizontal frost heaving forces than are likely in warmer climates. At permafrost sites, this research investigates the application of manufactured thermal insulation to buildings with open crawl spaces as a method to preserve soils in the frozen state. This research reports the findings from using insulation to reduce permafrost temperature, and increase the bearing capacity of permafrost soils. Findings include the differing thermal results of applying insulation on the ground surface in an open crawl space either permanently (i.e., left in place), or seasonally (i.e., applied in warm months and removed in cold months). Research includes fieldwork in Fairbanks, and finite element analyses for Fairbanks, Kotzebue, and Barrow. Pivotal findings show that seasonal thermal insulation effectively cools the permafrost. By contrast, Fairbanks, Kotzebue, and Barrow investigations show that permanently applied thermal insulation decreases the active layer, while also increasing (not decreasing) the permafrost temperature. Using seasonal thermal insulation, in a controlled manner, satisfactorily alters the thermal regime of soils below heated buildings and provides additional foundation alternatives for arctic buildings.
    • Alternative project delivery in rural Alaska: experiences, quality and claims

      Monta, Katrina L.; Pehrson, Gerald S.; Cryer, Matthew N. (2015-12)
      The popularity of alternative project delivery systems has expanded beyond the private sector and into the public sector. Alaska embodies unique challenges that may present obstacles while using alternative project delivery systems. This analysis will provide an understanding of alternative project delivery systems in Alaska and how local experiences, quality and claims are affected. Alaska's unique characteristics present both challenges and opportunities for implementing alternative project delivery systems. This report begins with a discussion of experiences from several rural Alaska projects, and how alternative project delivery systems can be utilized. Some impacts that alternative project delivery systems have on quality are then presented, including a perspective on quality and recommendations for achieving customer satisfaction. A treatment of construction claims is then provided, followed by conclusions and recommendations for stakeholders in selecting an appropriate project delivery system. Alternative project delivery systems were researched by means of scholarly literature reviews, professional interviews and seminars. The report of these findings is intended to provide owners and contractors with a concise presentation of the challenges and advantages for using alternative project delivery systems in Alaska.
    • An Evalulation Of Variables Affecting Gold Extraction At A Mineral Processing Plant Operated In A Sub-Arctic Environment

      Hollow, John T.; Lin, Hsing Kuang (2006)
      The Fort Knox Mine, located 25 miles northeast of Fairbanks, Alaska, is operated in a sub-Antic environment. Since process slurry temperatures cycle seasonally with air temperature, the mine presents a unique opportunity to measure the impact of slurry temperature on process performance under full scale plant, conditions. This thesis analyzes an energy balance approach to model the seasonal variations in slurry temperature throughout the Fort Knox mill. The mill utilizes both gravity concentration and cyanidation for gold recovery. Models were developed to accurately predict the impact of slurry temperature on cyanide leach, carbon adsorption and cyanide destruction kinetics. The energy balance model, combined with the kinetics models, was used to accurately predict the gold recovery and subsequently to justify the installation of a tailings wash thickener to recovery heat from the mill tailings. A substantial portion of this thesis is dedicated to the development of these models, analysis of the post expansion plant performance, and summarizing project economics. Gold in the Fort Knox deposit is generally less than 100 microns in size and contained in quartz veins and along shears within the host granite, at an average gold grade of 0.8 g/metric ton. In April 2001, the mill began processing ore from a satellite ore deposit, the True North Mine, as a blend with Fort Knox ore. The gold grade in the True North deposit averages 1.5 g/metric ton and can be associated with pyrite, arsenopyrite and stibnite. An unexpected drop in gold recovery resulted from processing the blended ore and was the subject of an extensive laboratory evaluation. Laboratory results suggested that the leach kinetics of the coarse gold particles were significantly impacted, when the blended ore was processed, and that the impact could be reduced, or eliminated, with the addition of lead nitrate. Subsequently, a lead nitrate addition scheme was implemented at the Fort Knox mill. A portion of this thesis is dedicated to a review of the laboratory program, an evaluation of the environmental impacts and a summary of plant performance, when utilizing lead nitrate at the Fort Knox Mine.
    • An investigation of digital forensic concepts in an international environment: the U.S., South Africa, and Namibia

      Phillips, Amelia; Nance, Kara; Bhatt, Uma; Hay, Brian; Genetti, Jon; Blurton, David (2013-08)
      Digital forensic investigations are growing in number not only in the United States but in nations around the world. The activities of multinational corporations and cybercrime cross jurisdictional boundaries on a daily basis. This investigation sets out to perform a qualitative analysis of the requirements needed for acceptance of digital evidence in multiple jurisdictions and the qualifications of digital forensic examiners by focusing on three case studies. The countries chosen are the United States, South Africa and Namibia. The research lays the foundation by examining existing international laws and treaties, and then uses the three case studies to address constitutional issues, civil and criminal law as they pertain to digital evidence. By ascertaining where the similarities and differences lie, a grounded theory approach is used to provide digital forensic examiners, legal staff and investigators a basis that can be used to approach digital cases that come from or must be presented in foreign jurisdictions. As more countries struggle to establish their digital laws regarding investigations, the resulting approach will serve as a guide and reference.
    • Analysis and control of time-periodic systems with time delay via chebyshev polynomials

      Ma, Haitao (2003-08)
      A technique for studying the transient response and the stability properties of dynamic systems modeled by delay-differential equations (DDEs) with time-periodic parameters is presented in this thesis. The approach is based on an orthogonal polynomial expansion (shifted Chebyshev approximation). In each time interval with length equal to the delay period, the dynamic system can be reduced to a set of linear difference equations for the Chebyshev expansion coefficients of the state vector in the previous and current intervals. In this way, the transient response of the dynamic system can be directly obtained and the stability properties are found to be determined by a linear map which is the "infinite-dimensional Floquet transition matrix". The technique is then used to study the stability of an elastic system subjected to periodically-varying retarded follower forces, solve a finite horizon optimal control problem via quadratic cost function, and design a delayed feedback controller by using both numerical and symbolic approaches to control the chaotic behavior of a nonlinear delay differential equation.