• Developing Guidelines for Two-Dimensional Model Review and Acceptance

      Toniolo, Horacio; Homan, Joel (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-01-31)
      Two independent modelers ran two hydraulic models, SRH-2D and HEC-RAS 2D. The models were applied to the Lakina River (MP 44 McCarthy Road) and to Quartz Creek (MP 0.7 Quartz Creek Road), which approximately represent straight and bend flow conditions, respectively. We compared the results, including water depth, depth averaged velocity, and bed shear stress, from the two models for both modelers. We found that the extent and density of survey data were insufficient for Quartz Creek. Neither model was calibrated due to the lack of basic field data (i.e., discharge, water surface elevation, and sediment characteristics). Consequently, we were unable to draw any conclusion about the accuracy of the models. Concerning the time step and the equations used (simplified or full) to solve the momentum equation in the HEC-RAS 2D model, we found that the minimum time step allowed by the model must be used if the diffusion wave equation is used in the simulations. A greater time step can be used if the full momentum equation is used in the simulations. We developed a set of guidelines for reviewing model results, and developed and provided a two-day training workshop on the two models for ADOT&PF hydraulic engineers.
    • Developing Locally Sourced Brine Additive for Anti-Icing

      Jungwirth, Scott; Cao, Ling; Shi, Xianming (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2014)
    • Development and control of a remotely accessible hardware-in-the-loop simulator (HILS) for PUMA 560

      Singaraju, Trivikram Srinivas (2007-05)
      In this thesis a novel Hardware-In-the-Loop-Simulator (HILS) system is developed for the real-time simulation of the PUMA 560 robot arm. The developed HILS structure is different from those used in the literature, as it involves the emulation of both the actuation and load effects of the actual system with use of Permanent Magnet DC (PMDC) motor and Direct-Drive motor (DDM) and not just by computer simulations as is common in the literature. A HILS system typically utilizes hardware with different hardware ratings and time constants than the actual manipulator, and yet is required to replicate the output of the actual system exactly. In this thesis, system dynamics matching and controller scaling approach is developed to match the HILS response of any given system to the output response of any given manipulator. The HILS of the PUMA 560 (HILS-PUMA) is conducted for both PD and PD+ controllers. The HILS-PUMA is done on a joint-by-joint basis, in which one joint is simulated at a time on the HILS setup, while the other five are produced by computer simulations. Experiments are conducted on HILS-PUMA and the actual PUMA 560 via the Internet. The data collected from the HILS setup are also accompanied by an animation developed with the use of V-Realm software. Inspecting the plotted responses of the HILS-PUMA and PUMA 560, it has been noted that the developed HILS test-bed and the generalized scaling/matching approach yield a very similar performance to the actual system. Synchronized animations using the HILS results and snapshots of the actual PUMA 560 performance taken under the same control and reference trajectories demonstrate successful performance.
    • Development and economic appraisal of a lightweight zeolite cement blend for high temperature - high pressure oil and geothermal wells

      Misra, Jyotishka; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish; Dandekar, Abhijit (2015-12)
      With ever-increasing global energy demand, it is of vital importance that technology consistently meets industry requirements. As high temperature-high pressure reservoirs become more and more profitable, the energy industry can be expected to exploit them. Hence, a versatile cement system that can be used in such reservoirs would need to be capable of ensuring well integrity under such conditions. However, in order to overcome most of these challenges, cement systems are often too dense to pump into a formation without damaging it. Therefore, a lightweight cement is needed. One promising means of delivering a lightweight cement that meets these rigorous demands is to replace a portion of the API cement with a natural pozzolan such as a zeolite. The zeolite cement blend developed in this project has a density of 13.5 ppg, far lower than the 17 to 18 ppg cements that would otherwise be used. Through a trial and error process of replacing portions of API class H or G cement with six different zeolites, an acceptable zeolite cement blend was found, along with the necessary system of additives to ensure that it performed within existing specifications for oil well cements. Each of the cement blends was subjected to high temperature-high pressure testing of consistency behavior, fluid loss, and compressive strength, along with studies of modification with carbonation. This study also endeavored to show that such a cement system was economically viable. This was done using a number of case studies including both oil and geothermal wells. The cement costs of the cement were found by studying each component. The associated costs associated with the cement were subjected to a Monte Carlo simulation to reflect better the variability expected in a well job. By adding the two, and comparing the cost with a similar job carried out with a standard class H cement, the economic viability of the cement was established. In addition, the cost per kilowatt-hour and projected revenues for the geothermal projects were calculated to show that it made financial sense to use the zeolite cement blend.
    • Development and optimization of a reconfigurable telemetry system for sounding rocket payloads

      Si, Niladri (2007-12)
      This thesis addresses the development of a flight-ready telemetry encoder for the Alaska Student Rocket Project (ASRP) sounding rocket payload. The Frame Oriented eXpandable Integrated circuit Encoder-2007 (FOXIE-07) was developed to resolve crosstalk, timing, and thermal issues in the original FOXIE-03 encoder prototype. A pre-modulation low-pass filter was implemented between the encoder and the FM transmitter to minimize undesired sidebands from the transmitted signal. Complete testing of the FOXIE-07 encoder and pre-modulation filter was performed to certify them as flight-ready components for the SRP5 payload launch from Poker Flat Research Range in 2009.
    • Development of Landslide Warning System

      Riad, Beshoy; Zhang, Xiong (2019-11)
      Landslides cause approximately 25 to 50 deaths and US$1 - 2 billion worth of damage in the United States annually. They can be triggered by humans or by nature. It has been widely recognized that rainfall is one of the major causes of slope instability and failure. Slope remediation and stabilization efforts can be costly. An early warning system is a suitable alternative and can save human lives. In this project, an early warning system was developed for a 40-foot-high cut slope on the island of Hawaii. To achieve the objective, subsurface investigations were performed and undisturbed samples were collected. For the purpose of unsaturated soil testing, new testing apparatuses were developed by modifying the conventional oedometer and direct shear cells. The unsaturated soil was characterized using two separate approaches and, later, the results were discussed and compared. The slope site was instrumented for the measurement of suction, water content, displacement, and precipitation. The collected climatic data along with the calibrated hydraulic parameters were used to build an infiltration-evapotranspiration numerical model. The model estimations were compared with the field measurements and showed good agreement. The verified model was used to determine the pore-water pressure distribution during and after a 500-years return storm. Later, the pore-water pressure distribution was transferred to a slope stability software and used to study the slope stability during and after the storm. Based on a 2D slope stability analysis, the slope can survive the 500-year storm with a factor of safety of 1.20. Instrument threshold values were established for water content sensors and tensiometers using a traffic-light-based trigger criterion.
    • Development of a Computer Vision-Based Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Method for Volume-Change Measurement of Unsaturated Soils during Triaxial Testing

      Zhang, Xiong; Xia, Xiaolong (2019-10)
      Problems associated with unsaturated soils are ubiquitous in the U.S., where expansive and collapsible soils are some of the most widely distributed and costly geologic hazards. Solving these widespread geohazards requires a fundamental understanding of the constitutive behavior of unsaturated soils. In the past six decades, the suction-controlled triaxial test has been established as a standard approach to characterizing constitutive behavior for unsaturated soils. However, this type of test requires costly test equipment and time-consuming testing processes. To overcome these limitations, a photogrammetry-based method has been developed recently to measure the global and localized volume-changes of unsaturated soils during triaxial test. However, this method relies on software to detect coded targets, which often requires tedious manual correction of incorrectly coded target detection information. To address the limitation of the photogrammetry-based method, this study developed a photogrammetric computer vision-based approach for automatic target recognition and 3D reconstruction for volume-changes measurement of unsaturated soils in triaxial tests. Deep learning method was used to improve the accuracy and efficiency of coded target recognition. A photogrammetric computer vision method and ray tracing technique were then developed and validated to reconstruct the three-dimensional models of soil specimen.
    • Development of a Conceptual Hydrologic Model for a Sub-Arctic Watershed

      Carlson, Robert F. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1972-06)
      The Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed began as an Alaskan inter-agency effort in 1969. As more data becomes accumulated, as more hydrologic analysis is accomplished and as a greater variety of activities are carried out on the watershed, there is a need to understand the complete hydrologic system of the watershed. This report describes the development of a general hydrologic system model which describes the runoff occurrence on the watershed. The model will provide a basis upon which to make comparative observations, to suggest changes in·the model structure and to point out further measurement needs. A conceptual model study such as this work should not be thought of as a final answer to all systems analysis within the watershed or even the most desirable answer in many cases. There is a definite need, however, for a conceptual model because of the variety of activities and investigators, many of which do not have a complete understanding of the whole system. A complete and flexible conceptual model provides a convenient focal point for all types of investigators, regardless of their background and interest in the overall system. The Caribou-Poker Creek Research Watershed is located approximately 25 miles northwest of Fairbanks, Alaska. It is about 40 square miles in size and covers a variety of terrain which is typical of Interior Alaska. Other details concerning this watershed may be found in Slaughter (1971). Results of hydrologic data to date has been primarily data collection and reporting (Slaughter, 1972). The model as it is offered in this report is not intended to be a complete study of conceptual watershed modeling. Rather, the intention is to illustrate the derivation of a conceptual model and illustrate how it is applied to a particular watershed.
    • Development of a Design Method for H2Ri Wicking Fabric in Pavement Structures

      Lin, Chuang; Zhang, Xiong; Han, Jie (2016-11)
      A new roadway drainage design concept is proposed to reduce the roadway water content and enhance the overall pavement performance by implementing H2Ri geotextile with lateral wicking ability. Compared with conventional drainage materials, this type of geotextile has high tensile strength and higher specific surface area, which enable to continuously transport water under unsaturated conditions. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) images indicated that the geotextile functions effectively for soils with particle size larger than 12 microns. A series of tests were performed to establish the relationships among different parameters, including resilient modulus test, large-scale direct shear test, salt concentration test and pressure plate test. Test results indicated that the soil-geotextile system can work effectively to reduce the water content within the pavement structure by 2%. By doing so, the corresponding resilient modulus can be increased by 3 times and the permanent deformation can be reduced to half of that value. Meanwhile, the interface frictional strength between geotextile and soil was not sensitive to water content change.
    • Development of a differential GPS tracking system for sounding rocket payloads

      Helmericks, Jay Gregory (2001-08)
      The purpose of this thesis was to develop a system that could track a sounding rocket payload with a commercial GPS receiver. A GPS receiver was chosen that still outputs raw data when the COCOM limits are exceeded. All the hardware to support the OEM GPS receiver in a reverse differential system was designed and built, including both a ground system and two flight systems to support both on-board storage and telemetry. A software program was developed to archive and compute positions from the raw data. The GPS system has been ground tested and flown on an Orion sounding rocket. The testing shows that the system works and the expected accuracy is 10-50 ft. depending on the distance between the ground station and the rocket, satellite geometry and other sources of error.
    • Development of a light-weight low cost self potential unit

      Zonge, K.L. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1968)
      A lightweight, low cost self-potential unit has been developed using solid state components. The parts for the basic unit including batteries, copper sulfate pots, and hookup wire costs approximately $70.00. The device is instant reading and weighs two pounds. The batteries used have a shelf life of ten years and an estimated operation life (based on continuous use for ten hours per day) of sixty days. This instrument was developed specifically for the Alaskan prospector who is concerned with weight and cost of field instrumentation.
    • Development of a methodology for the characterization of mafic rocks with respect to their use for mineral carbonation: the mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry of the Portage Lake Volcanics in the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan

      Bolz, Patrizia; Metz, Paul; Darrow, Margaret; Newberry, Rainer (2014-05)
      Mineral carbonation of basalt has been proposed by various researchers to reduce anthropogenic CO₂ output without necessitating considerable reduction of fossil fuel usage. The feasibility of any mafic rock for mineral carbonation depends on the present mineralogy, texture, grain size, and alteration. The purpose of this research is the development of a methodology for the characterization of mafic rocks regarding their susceptibility for mineral carbonation, based on samples from mine tailings in the Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan. Samples were characterized using petrographic examination, microprobe analyses, whole rock data, and thermodynamic modeling. Thin section analyses revealed several alteration assemblages ranging from relatively fresh samples to extremely altered samples. End-members of minerals present in the study area were used for thermodynamic modeling. Based on thermodynamics, anorthite, prehnite, and diopside are the most feasible minerals for carbonation, minerals potentially viable include forsterite, enstatite, talc, clinochlore, and phengite. To determine feasible minerals for carbonation, kinetic modeling should be conducted to establish minerals with realistic reaction rates. The approach outlined in this study can be used as an inexpensive and expeditious method to determine mafic samples most feasible for mineral carbonation based on thermodynamic modeling. Not all mafic rocks should be treated as basalts, nor are all mafic rocks equally feasible for mineral carbonation.
    • Development of a thermodynamic model for CH₄, CO₂, CH₄-CO₂ gas hydrate systems

      Kulkarni, Abhijeet S.; Zhu, Tao; McGrail, B. P.; Chen, Gang; Patil, Shirish L.; Ogbe, David O. (2005-05)
      An equation of state (EOS) software module was developed for CH4, CO2, and CH4-CO2 gas hydrates using the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. The model is based on classical thermodynamics and is used to predict the thermodynamic behavior of gas hydrates including the pressure and temperature at which gas hydrates form. A numerical scheme was developed for solving I-H-V, Lw-H-V, and Lw-H-Lhc equilibrium conditions for bulk hydrate formation from pure water and hydrocarbon. The model was further extended to determine hydrate equilibrium conditions in the presence of porous media of different radii. The numerical scheme was modified to account for the effect of salt on hydrate phase equilibrium. The results obtained from the model were in close agreement with the experimental data reported in literature. The main contribution of this work is that the proposed model can predict hydrate dissociation pressures at temperatures above 285 K more accurately than any of the available models.
    • Development of Ambient PM 2.5 Management Strategies

      Johnson, Ron; Marsik, Tom; Cahill, Cathy; Lee, Ming (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2009)
    • Development of an Operational Northern Aquatic Ecosystem Model: Completion Report

      Carlson, Robert F.; Fox, Patricia M.; LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1977-06)
    • Development of durable “green” concrete exposed to deicing chemicals via synergistic use of locally available recycled materials and multi-scale modifiers

      Xie, Ning; Cui, Na (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-02)
      From the economic and social perspectives, the use of waste materials would not be attractive until their costs and quality can satisfy the construction requirements. In this study, a pure fly ash paste (PFAP) was developed in place of ordinary Portland cement paste (OPCP). This PFAP was prepared at room temperature and without direct alkali activation. The samples were prepared using only the as-received class C coal fly ash, water, and a very small amount of borax (Na2B4O7). On average, the PFAP featured 28-d compressive strength of about 36 MPa, and micro-nano hardness and elastic modulus 29% and 5%, higher than the OPCP, respectively. These mechanical and other properties of the PFAP make it a viable “green” construction binder suitable for a host of structural and non-structural applications. Advanced characterization of the raw material and PFAP pastes was employed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms of this “green” binder. The obtained knowledge sheds light on the role of class C CFA in the hydration process and may benefit the expanded use of various CFAs in cementitious materials.
    • Development of high spectral resolution iron Boltzmann lidar

      Hou, Tao (2002-12)
      An initial iron (Fe) Boltzmann lidar was developed in winter 2000-2001 at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR). This resonance lidar system supported Fe concentration measurements. An initial Fe Boltzmann temperature measurement was made in December 2000. This initial system was fundamentally limited by the 1 pm tuning resolution of the laser. During the winter of 2001-2002, a control system was developed to increase the resolution of the laser tuning to 0.09 pm. Fe cooncentration and Fe Boltzmann temperature measurements were made and an experimental analysis of the measurements was developed. This thesis presents lidar observations of the mesospheric Fe layer over these two winters, the principle of Boltzmann Fe lidar, the design and validation of the new laser tuning capability and the new temperature measurements. A complete error analysis is also presented. This full engineering analysis demonstrates that the tuning control system yields significant improvements in both the Fe concentration and temperature measurements.
    • Development Of Resonance Fluorescence Lidar For Studies Of The Aurora

      Su, Liguo; Collins, Richard L. (2007)
      In this thesis I present resonance fluorescence lidar studies of the middle and upper atmosphere. I focus on two specific applications; lidar measurements of heat fluxes in the mesosphere, and lidar measurements of auroral nitrogen ions in the thermosphere. In the heat flux study, I determine the limitations in state-of-the-art sodium Doppler wind-temperature lidar measurements. I conduct statistical analysis of current lidar measurements using analytical and Monte Carlo techniques and extend them to consider future measurements. I find that the expected biases for summertime flux measurements in polar regions will be larger than the geophysical values of the fluxes. In the nitrogen resonance lidar study, I conduct a simulation of the measurements under realistic auroral conditions and found that current lidar systems should be able to make statistically significant measurements of the nitrogen profile at a resolution of 6 km and 300 s. I develop a prototype nitrogen resonance lidar system operating at 390 nm. This lidar system is based on an existing dye laser-based iron resonance lidar system that operates at 372 nm. I designed and implemented a tuning control system that allows 1 pm resolution in the laser tuning. I made a set of field measurements and found that the performance of the prototype lidar was less than expected. I conduct an engineering analysis of the measurements and conclude that the lower than expected performance is due to the lasing characteristics of the dye laser.
    • Diagnostics of magnetospheric electron density and ion composition using whistler mode sounding data from the image satellite

      Proddaturi, Radha Krishna (2007-08)
      This thesis reports the observations of the Magnetospherically Reflected (MR) Whistler Mode (WM) echoes on the IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration) satellite. These observations and interpretations were first reported in Sonwalkar et at. [2006]. MR-WM echoes were observed when RPI (Radio Plasma Imager) onboard the IMAGE satellite transmitted 3.2 ms pulses in the 6 kHz to 63 kHz frequency band. These echoes occurred at frequencies less than ~12 kHz with time delays ranging from 40 ms to 130 ms. MR-WM echoes were recorded when the satellite was at altitudes ranging from 700 km to 4000 km, geomagnetic latitudes from -30° to 50°, and magnetic local times 3 to 17. Ray tracing simulations confirmed that MR- WM echoes are a result of WM waves propagating along the geomagnetic field line and reflecting at an altitude where local flh [almost equal] f, where flh is the lower hybrid frequency and f is the wave frequency. In this interpretation, the lower and upper cutoff frequencies of the MR- WM echoes are equal to the flh at the satellite and the maximum flh along the geomagnetic field line passing through the satellite, respectively. These echoes were frequently accompanied by discrete WM echoes at frequencies greater than the maximum frequency of the MR- WM echoes. By matching the measured dispersions of the MR- WM and discrete WM echoes with that calculated from ray tracing simulations, remote estimates of electron density and ion effective mass were obtained along the geomagnetic field line passing through the satellite.
    • Diesel Fuel Additives: Use and Efficacy for Alaska's Diesel Generators

      Kemp, Chandler; Williams, Frank; Holdmann, Gwen; Witmer, Dennis (2013-05)