• Ground-water capture-zone delineation: method comparison in synthetic case studies and a field example on Fort Wainwright, Alaska

      Ahern, Julie Anne (2005-05)
      Ground-water capture zone delineation is an integral part of the recent Source Water Assessments performed nation-wide. Delineations are used to identify where protection from contamination is critical. The objectives of our study were to compare commonly-used methods by quantifying the differences in capture-zone areas and evaluating whether the differences increase with system complexity. We delineated capture zones of hypothetical case studies. We began with a very simple hydrogeologic system and gradually added complexity. Four methods were applied to each case: Calculated fixed-radius (CFR), two analytical solutions (WHPA and UFE-Thiem), and a numerical model (MODFLOW). Area comparisons revealed that, in comparison to the numerical model, CFR consistently overestimated, WHP A underestimated, and UFE- Thiem was variable and the most similar. We then compared the methods in a field case on Fort Wainwright, Alaska. As our numerical method, we used a sub-regional ground-water flow model. Area comparisons were similar to case-study results. Surface-water features were the most influential complexity in the field case. We concluded that each method is only as accurate as its assumptions. Any added margin of error must be appropriate for both the aquifer complexities and required assumptions specific to a given ground-water system.
    • Groundwater dynamics in degrading, discontinuous permafrost

      Barnes, Michelle L.; Barnes, David L.; Shur, Yuri L.; Schnabel, William E.; Leigh, Mary Beth (2014-12)
      In regions impacted by permafrost, discontinuities are areas of possible connection between the supra- and sub-permafrost portions of an aquifer. Permafrost discontinuities influence the transport of contaminants in an aquifer, necessitating delineation of these discontinuities and their influence on groundwater flow. Means of identifying the locations of permafrost discontinuities have previously been limited to geophysical methods and the evaluation of well logs. In this study we use groundwater elevation trends and environmental tracers (e.g., stable isotopes and temperature) to evaluate the dynamics in a sulfolane-contaminated aquifer located in a region of discontinuous permafrost in the Interior of Alaska. Using tracers to identify areas of discontinuities in the permafrost should help us locate thawed through-taliks and may also improve our understanding of the interaction between the supra- and sub-permafrost groundwater in discontinuous permafrost. With this approach we identified at least three discontinuities within the study area. The locations of these discontinuities coincide with transport of the contaminant found in this aquifer. The primary source of recharge for this aquifer is the Tanana River, a major tributary to the Yukon River. The source of water for the Tanana River is glacial melt in the summer and groundwater during the winter. Through the isotopic composition of the supra-permafrost groundwater we show the occurrence of additional recharge to the supra-permafrost groundwater from sub-permafrost groundwater and precipitation. Understanding these dynamics is paramount to characterizing the contaminant transport in permafrost impacted aquifers.
    • Groundwater flow in a vertical plane at the interface of permafrost

      Paturi, Sairavichand; Barnes, David L.; Leigh, Mary Beth; Shur, Yuri (2017-08)
      Groundwater dynamics in discontinuous permafrost aquifers are complex. The topography of permafrost redirects flow in difficult-to-predict directions that can be tens of degrees off from the regional flow direction. Large zones of permafrost vertically separate aquifers into supra and sub-permafrost portions. The flow dynamics in each portion of the aquifer may be dissimilar due to different controlling boundary conditions. In areas of discontinuities in permafrost, known as open taliks, groundwater in the two portions of the aquifer may mix. These areas of mixing are the focus of this study, in particular, the groundwater dynamics in taliks located in the floodplain of lower reaches of rivers. The study hypothesizes that groundwater flow in floodplain taliks of lower reaches of rivers will bifurcate between the supra and sub-permafrost portions of a discontinuous permafrost aquifer. To test this hypothesis gradient, magnitudes and flow directions were determined at several depths ranging from the water table to 150 ft. (45.7 m) below ground surface, using a linear interpolation scheme in various locations in a floodplain talik. Errors in water level measurements due to instrument errors as well as vertically moving wells were propagated into the gradient calculations by Monte Carlo analysis. Results from this research show that a vertical divide in groundwater flow forms a short distance below the top of permafrost. Groundwater flow above the divide routes into the unconfined supra-permafrost portion of the aquifer. Water below the divide flows into the confined portion of the aquifer below permafrost. The position of the vertical groundwater divide may adjust in relation to the water table position. Additionally, a methodology is presented for stochastically propagating measurement errors into gradient analyses by Monte Carlo analysis. Understanding the flow dynamics in discontinuous permafrost aquifers is key to the understanding of contaminant transport, aquifer recharge, and resource development in subarctic environments.
    • Guidelines for the Use of Synthetic Fluid Dust Control Palliatives on Unpaved Roads

      Barnes, David; Connor, Billy (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2017-07-06)
      The amount of small soil particles, dust, lost from typical unpaved roads to fugitive dust is staggering. A 1 km stretch of unpaved road can contribute over 2400 kg of dust to the atmosphere (4.2 ton/mile) in a typical 3-month summer season. Road managers typically manage dust from unpaved roads with various dust-control palliatives, which are effective for up to 1 year. Synthetic fluids are a relatively new category of dust-control palliatives. Unlike the more commonly used dust-control palliatives, such as salts, engineering guidelines do not exist for the application and maintenance of synthetic fluids on unpaved roads. To fill this void, we present through this document guidelines for road design and maintenance, palliative selection, application, and care of synthetic fluid-treated roadways.
    • Handbook for the Alaskan Prospector

      Wolff, Ernest (Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1969)
      It is hoped that this book will be of value to many different classes of men engaged in the search for mineral deposits. These classes might include the experienced practical prospector who would like to learn something of geology; the young geologist who needs information on practical prospecting; the novice who needs a comprehensive reference; and the all around experienced exploration engineer or geologist who might need to refer to some specialized technique, look up a reference in the bibliography, or read a resume of the geology of a particular area, Because this book is aimed at so many different classes, different chapters are written assuming different levels of learning and experience. This, no doubt, will prove troublesome at times, but it is believed to be the best way to insure that the information contained in each chapter will reach with maximum effectiveness the group for whom it is intended.
    • Handbook of geophysical prospecting methods for the Alaskan prospector

      Heiner, L.E. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      This Handbook has been compiled to acquaint the Alaskan prospector with the more recent application of geophysics for locating economic metallic minerals. For this reason, well documented subjects such as the use of the dip needle and mineral detectors have been excluded.
    • Handheld stand-alone microfluidics compatible field use fluorimeter for analyzing the concentration of analytes in a sample

      Anctil, Matthew B.; Chen, Cheng-fu; Drew, Kelly; Podlutsky, Andrej; Rasley, Brian (2015-12)
      This thesis presents the work performed to produce a handheld fluorometric tool for the analysis of microfluidics lab chips. The first section of this thesis describes the methods used for the design and development of this fluorometric tool. Each of the major components was tested individually to determine how effectively it would perform under different circumstances and configurations. Compensations were made for the weaknesses identified in each of the major components. The second section describes the laboratory testing of the developed photofluorimeter. Initial testing was carried out using a photo fluorescent tracer dye known as fluorescein sodium salt. Additional testing was performed using D-glutamic acid as a target chemical and 2,3-naphthalenedicarboxaldehyde (NDA) as the marker fluorophore. The resulting fluorimeter was capable of reading fluorescein and NDA labeled D-glutamic acid at the single μM concentration level. The data show a linear relationship between sample concentrations and the readings provided by the sensor.
    • Hardware and software implementation of a low power attitude control and determination system for CubeSats

      Frey, Jesse; Hawkins, Joseph; Raskovic, Dejan; Thorsen, Denise (2014-12)
      In recent years there has been a growing interest in smaller satellites. Smaller satellites are cheaper to build and launch than larger satellites. One form factor, the CubeSat, is especially popular with universities and is a 10 cm cube. Being smaller means that the mass and power budgets are tighter and as such new ways must be developed to cope with these constraints. Traditional attitude control systems often use reaction wheels with gas thrusters which present challenges on a CubeSat. Many CubeSats use magnetic attitude control which uses the Earth's magnetic field to torque the satellite into the proper orientation. Magnetic attitude control systems fall into two main categories: active and passive. Active control is often achieved by running current through a coil to produce a dipole moment, while passive control uses the dipole moment from permanent magnets that consume no power. This thesis describes a system that uses twelve hard magnetic torquers along with a magnetometer. The torquers only consume current when their dipole moment is flipped, thereby significantly reducing power requirements compared with traditional active control. The main focus of this thesis is on the design, testing and fabrication of CubeSat hardware and software in preparation for launch.
    • Heat and Mass Transfer in Cold Regions Soils

      Kane, Douglas L.; Luthin, James N.; Taylor, George S. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-06)
    • Heat Loss Factors for Insulated Building Foundations

      Zarling, J. P.; Braley, W. A. (1984-05)
      Steady-state and nonsteady-state finite element analyses of the heat loss occurring from basement and slab-on-grade constructions have been performed. The amount of rigid foam insulation was varied on the perimeter of the walls and slab to determine the effectiveness of various insulation configurations. Annual heat losses per linear foot of wall or slab are reported for weather conditions and soil types of both Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska.
    • Heavy minerals in Alaskan beach sand deposits

      Cook, D.J. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1969)
      Beach sand deposits along Alaska's shoreline have been prospected and worked for their precious metal content since the time of Russian occupation. Areas such as the Nome Beaches of the Seward Peninsula have been very productive, and in recent years exploration has proceded to include off shore extensions of these deposits. Evaluation of associated heavy mineral contents of these deposits, however, have been cursory and in most cases neglected entirely. In view of the thousands of miles of Alaskan coastline with known mineral provinces on adjacent land; much information is needed concerning the origin of mineral constituents, evaluation of past and present beach deposits and possibilities of off shore extensions of tho continental shelf. This report is concerned with samples of beach sand material submitted to the Mineral Industry Research Laboratory by individuals. These samples, taken from various locations, cannot be viewed as programs designed to delineate reserves from the respective areas. They should be considered as reconnaissance samples to indicate the mineral constituents present and the need for more comprehensive evaluation. Systematic and complete evaluation of all mineral constituents, including precious materials, is a major undertaking because of the erratic nature of the deposits. Special studies are required concerning sampling techniques, mining methods, recovery systems and marketing procedures. It is, therefore, beyond the financial capabilities of most individuals and requires the involvement of government agencies or corporations to obtain the necessary data to determine economic feasibility .
    • A high performance neural network javascript library

      Payton, Travis Michael; Lawlor, Orion; Genetti, Jon; Chappell, Glenn (2015)
      This report covers Intellect.js, a new high-performance Artificial Neural Network (ANN) library written in JavaScript and intended for use within a web browser. The library is designed to be easy to use, whilst remaining highly customizable and flexible. A brief history of JavaScript and ANNs is presented, along with decisions made while developing Intellectjs. Lastly, performance benchmarks are provided, including comparisons with existing ANN libraries written in JavaScript. Appendices include a code listing, usage examples, and complete performance data. Intellect.js is available on GitHub under the MIT License. https://github.com/sutekidayo/intellect.js
    • High-Mast Light Poles Anchor Nut Loosening In Alaska - An Investigation Using Field Monitoring and Finite-Element Analysis

      Hamel, Scott; Hoisington, David (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, Pacific Northwest Transportation Consortium (PACTRANS), 2014)
    • Highly Abrasion-resistant and Long-lasting Concrete

      Liu, Jenny; Murph, Diane (2019-08)
      Studded tire usage in Alaska contributes to rutting damage on pavements resulting in high maintenance costs and safety issues. In this study binary, ternary, and quaternary highly-abrasion resistant concrete mix designs, using supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), were developed. The fresh, mechanical and durability properties of these mix designs were then tested to determine an optimum highly-abrasion resistant concrete mix that could be placed in cold climates to reduce rutting damage. SCMs used included silica fume, ground granulated blast furnace slag, and type F fly ash. Tests conducted measured workability, air content, drying shrinkage, compressive strength, flexural strength, and chloride ion permeability. Resistance to freeze-thaw cycles, scaling due to deicers, and abrasion resistance were also measured. A survey and literature review on concrete pavement practices in Alaska and other cold climates was also conducted. A preliminary construction cost analysis comparing the concrete mix designs developed was also completed.
    • Highway Right-of-Way Sludge Disposal

      Tilsworth, T.; Manning, D. (1986-05)
      This report encompasses a proposal to consider application of wastewater sludge to highway right-of-way. Conventional disposal of this sludge is a complex and expensive process and in some areas is severely restricted by land use and regulations. The report includes a literature review, a national survey of highway organizations and a hypothetical design analysis. Application of sludge to highway ROW can be beneficial by supplying nutrients required for plant growth, subsequent erosion stabilization and ultimate disposal of a waste resource. Disadvantages include negative public reaction, potential for contamination of ground and surface water, aesthetics, and relatively high costs. Preliminary findings of the report indicate the process is marginally feasible and recommends that a small pilot project should be conducted prior to full-scale consideration
    • A Historical Survey of Water Utilization in the Cook Inlet - Susitna Basin, Alaska

      Hunt, William R. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1978-06)
      The objectives of the study encompassed a scholarly investigation of the appropriate archival and published literature on the Cook-Inlet-Susitna Basin, and the publication of the articles and a book-length history of the utilization of water resources. There are many aspects of Alaskan history to which historians have not given serious attention. Certainly there has been no historical consideration of the importance of water resources in Alaska. Issues that have involved water use have either been treated journalistically or have been the subject of scientific monographs. The understanding of the public can sometimes be confused by the journalistic treatment of events while scientific reports are seldom read. There is a definite need for a well-researched, lively survey of an important spect of Alaska's history. Many years passed before systematic scientific work was carried out in the Cook Inlet-Susitna region but the uses of its water resources for sanitation, transport, food, and power were intensified as time passed. The region has had significance for well over 200 years to the western peoples who settled there and, of course, for much longer to its aboriginal inhabitants. There has never been a substantial history written of the region, although some aspects of its past have been surveyed in a few pub1ished works, and there has never been a historical survey of water utilization for any region of Alaska. Increasingly, the development of the region will involve political decision. The public scrutiny of the environmental impact of new dam and other construction is not likely to decline. Further petroleum leasing in the outer continental shelf areas will raise questions of the best uses which can be made of the water and other resources. The wisdom of these decisions depends upon our knowledge of all of the factors involved. An understanding of what has happened in the past as people have made use of the water resources could contribute to the effectiveness of judgments made in the future.
    • History of Alaskan Operations of United States Smelting, Refining and Mining Company

      Boswell, John C. (Mineral Industries Research Laboratory, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 1979-03)
    • How chemical differences in dissolved organic matter relate to vegetation

      Seelen, Sarah Jean (2004-12)
      The purpose of this study was to better understand the link between dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soil leachate and different vegetation attributes. Soil cores were collected from the Caribou Poker Creeks Research Watershed (CPCRW) and subjected to a laboratory leaching procedure. The leachates were then subjected to a number of analytical tests, including pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Py-GC/MS is a 'molecular fingerprinting' technique that was used to help determine similarities and differences in organic matter leached from soils with different vegetation attributes. Numerous statistical tests were performed including Student-t, analysis of variance, principal components analysis, and partial least squares regression (PLS). Results from Student-t tests indicated that local vegetation plays an important role in the character of the DOM in soil leachate. Additionally, a principal components test revealed relationships between soil leachates and vegetation attributes. A prediction model was created using PLS to predict components of leachate DOM based on vegetation attributes. This model, while in its early development, was able to predict 70% of the total molecular fingerprint of leachate DOM based on cover vegetation.
    • Human social dynamics multi agent system

      Nudson, Oralee N.; Nance, Kara; Hay, Brian; Newman, David (2009-05)
      Current political and economic events are placing an emphasis on energy production and consumption more than ever before. This leads to the necessity for continued research with power distribution systems and factors influencing system operation. The Human Social Dynamics Multi Agent System (HSDMAS) is a project contributing to the study of power distribution networks. By examining power failures as a string of related events while incorporating intelligent learning agents representing human factors, the HSDMAS takes a unique approach towards the understanding and prevention of large scale power failures by coupling a probabilistic model of load-dependent cascading failure, CASCADE, with a dynamic power systems model, OPA. The HSDMAS project focuses on improving and optimizing the performance of the CASCADE and OPA models individually, then develops an interactive multi- layer, multi-agent system modeling power transmission and human factors represented by utility optimization.
    • Hybrid Electric Power Systems In Remote Arctic Villages: Economic And Environmental Analysis For Monitoring, Optimization, And Control

      Agrawal, Ashish N.; Wies, Richard (2006)
      The need for energy-efficient and reliable electric power in remote arctic communities of Alaska is a driving force for research in this work. Increasing oil prices, high transportation costs for fuels, and new environmental standards have forced many utilities to explore hybrid energy systems in an attempt to reduce the cost of electricity (COE). This research involves the development of a stand-alone hybrid power system model using MATLABRTM SimulinkRTM for synthesizing the power system data and performing the economic and environmental analysis of remote arctic power systems. The hybrid model consists of diesel electric generators (DEGs), a battery bank, a photovoltaic (PV) array, and wind turbine generators (WTGs). The economic part of the model is used to study the sensitivity analysis of fuel cost and the investment rate on the COE, the life cycle cost (LCC) of the system, and the payback time of the system. The environmental part of the model calculates the level of various pollutants including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and the particulate matter (PM10). The environmental analyses part of the model also calculates the avoided cost of various pollutants. The developed model was used to study the economics and environmental impacts of a stand-alone DEG system installed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks Energy Center, the wind-diesel-battery hybrid power system installed at Wales Village, Alaska, and the PV-diesel-battery hybrid power system installed at Lime Village, Alaska. The model was also used to predict the performance of a designed PV-wind-diesel-battery system for Kongiganak Village. The results obtained from the SimulinkRTM model were in close agreement with those predicted by the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) software developed at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).