• Laboratory investigation of infiltration process of nonnewtonian fluids through porous media in a non-isothermal flow regime for effective remediation of adsorbed contaminants

      Naseer, Fawad; Misra, Debasmita; Metz, Paul; Awoleke, Obadare; Najm, Majdi Abou (2019-12)
      Contamination of soil and groundwater have serious health implications for man and environment. The overall goal of this research is to study a methodology of using nonNewtonian fluids for effective remediation of adsorbed contaminants in porous media under nonisothermal flow regimes. Non-Newtonian fluids (Guar gum and Xanthan gum solutions) provide a high viscous solution at low concentration and these fluids adjust their viscosities with applied shear rate and change in temperature. Adjustment of viscosity with an applied rate of shear is vital for contaminant remediation because non-Newtonian shear thinning fluids can penetrate to low permeability zones in subsurface by decreasing their viscosities due to high shear rates offered by low permeability zones. The application of non-Newtonian shear thinning fluids for contaminant remediation required the improvement in understanding of rheology and how the factors such as concentration, temperature and change in shear rate impacted the rheology of fluids. In order to study the rheology, we studied the changes in rheological characteristics (viscosity and contact angle) of non-Newtonian fluids of different concentrations (i.e., 0.5g/l, 1g/l, 3g/l, 6g/l and 7g/l) at different temperatures ranging from 0 ºC to 30 ºC. OFITE model 900 viscometer and Tantec contact angle meter were used to record the changes in viscosity of fluids for an applied range of shear rate (i.e., 17.02 s⁻¹ to 1021.38 s⁻¹) and contact angles, respectively, for different concentrations of non-Newtonian fluids. Understanding the flow characteristic of non-Newtonian fluids under low temperature conditions could help in developing methods to effectively remediate contaminants from soils. Results of rheological tests manifested an increase in the viscosity of both polymers with concentration and decrease in temperature. Mid (i.e., 3g/l) to high (i.e., 6g/l and 7g/l) concentrations of polymers manifested higher viscosities compared to 0.5g/l for both polymers. Flow of high viscous solutions required more force to pass through a glass-tube-bundle setup which represented a synthetic porous media to study the flow characteristic and effectiveness of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids for contaminant remediation. Low concentrations of 0.5g/l were selected for flow and remediation experiments because this concentration can flow through porous media easily without application of force. The 0.5g/l of Xanthan gum and de-ionized water were used to conduct the infiltration experiments to study the flow characteristics of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids at 0.6°C, 5°C and 19°C in synthetic porous media. Infiltration depth of both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids would decrease with the decrease in temperature because of the change in their properties like dynamic viscosity, density and angle of contact. The result of comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids showed water to be more effective in remediating a surrogate adsorbent contaminant (Dichlobenil) from the synthetic porous media at 19°C. This result was counter-intuitive to what we began with as our hypothesis. However, it was also observed later that 0.5 g/l concentration of Guar gum behaved more like a Newtonian fluid and 0.5 g/l concentration of Xanthan gum had not shown strong non-Newtonian behavior compared to higher concentrations of Xanthan gum. Hence more analysis needs to be done to determine what concentration of non-Newtonian fluid should be more effective for remediation.
    • Laboratory Performance of Wicking Fabric H2Ri in Silty Gravel, Sand and Organic Silt

      Connor, Billy; Zhang, Xiong (16-05)
      The use of wicking fabric, H2Ri, is growing in its use to remove water from roadway and airport embankments. Past research has shown H2Ri to be effective in sands and fine grained materials in roadways up to 32 feet in width. However, there is a desire to use H2Ri for airports which require a minimum width of 75 ft. This project tested H2Ri in a 73-foot flume in a crushed surface course with 14 % fines. In addition, the fabric was tested in a 22-foot flume with a sand and with an organic clay. The intent was to bracket the material for which the H2Ri will work. The study showed that the fabric will easily move water 73 feet in a silty gravel. The study showed that the fabric was also able to readily remove water in sand. However, the fabric blinded when used in organic silt and proved ineffective. The study also showed that using simple overlap of the H2Ri as a splice, while effective, was not as efficient at moving water as the fabric itself. Consequently, moisture tended to build up around the splice.
    • Laboratory Procedure for Measuring the Effectiveness of Dust Control Palliatives

      Barnes, David; Connor, Billy (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2017-06)
      Creation of fugitive dust on unpaved roads results in the loss of up to 25 mm (one inch) of surface aggregate annually (FHWA, 1998). On these roads, shearing forces created by vehicles dislodge the fine aggregate fraction (silt and clay) that binds the coarse aggregate. Turbulent airflow created by vehicles loft these fine particles in plumes of fugitive dust that impact health, safety, and quality of life. The loss of these particles results in raveling of the road surface, culminating in large annual losses of surface aggregate. Chemical dust control (palliatives) is an attractive option. However, there are currently no accepted field or laboratory performance testing procedures for chemical road dust palliatives. The lack of a method to predict palliative performance forces engineers and road managers into a trial-and-error methodology or reliance on personal judgment and supplier claims to determine what will work best on their unpaved road or runway surfaces. The overall objective of this research was to finalize the development of a laboratory test procedure for evaluating different dust control formulations and application rates required to effectively control the airborne suspension of dust particles in the size range (aerodynamic diameter) of 10 μm or less.
    • Laboratory Rearing Experiments on Artificially Propagated Inconnu (Stenodus leucichthys)

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-06)
    • Land Application of Domestic Sludge in Cold Climates

      Johnson, Ronald A. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1979)
      Aerobically digested sludge from the Fairbanks sewage treatment plant was worked into the soil on several plots at the University of Alaska in the summer of 1978. Some of the sludge had been air dried for up to six months prior to application while some was taken directly from the thickener. Applications varied from 12 to 100 tons of solids/acre. For sludge applied in July and August, the fecal coliform count decayed by several orders of magnitude by the middle of September.. There was no significant movement of fecal coliform bacteria either vertically or laterally. Lime was used to raise the pH of one plot to 12, completely killing the fecal coliform bacteria within several days. The nutrient distribution demonstrated the potential for enriching soils by sludge addition. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of this concept for remote military sites. Air drying followed by land application may represent a viable means of sludge disposal.
    • Land Disposal of Secondary Lagoon Effluents (Pilot Project)

      Smith, Daniel W. (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1975-01)
      The principle objective of this effort was to assist the US Army, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, in conducting a pilot land disposal project in the interior region of Alaska. This project was a preliminary investigation of the feasibility of land disposal of secondary effluent from an aerated lagoon during the summer months. The hope was to examine the possible use of this technique to meet 1977 standards for the quality of secondary effluents.
    • Landsat linear features and mineral occurrences in Alaska

      Metz, P.A. (University of Alaska Mineral Industry Research Laboratory, 1983)
      In order to develop and better understanding of the regional structural controls of the metallic mineral deposits of Alaska, a detailed examination was made of the linear features and trends interpreted from Landsat imagery. In addition, local structural features and alteration zones were examined by ratio analysis of selected Landsat images. The linear trend analysis provided new regional structural data for previously proposed mineral deposit models and also provided new evidence for the extension of the existing models. Preliminary evidence also suggests linear intersection control of some types of mineral occurrences and that trend analysis may result in the definition of areas favorable for future mineral exploration. Ratio image analysis indicates that alteration zones and local structural features can be identified by use of Landsat imagery. Ratio image analysis for the definition of alteration zones must be used with caution, however, since the alteration associated with the various mineral deposits may not be differentiated by the technique.
    • Latching mechanism between UAV and UGV team for mine rescue

      Hoffman, Sarah; Peterson, Rorik; Hatfield, Michael; Lin, Chuen-Sen (2017-08)
      Safety is a concern in the mining industry when a tunnel collapse could result in the casualties and deaths of workers and rescuers due to the hazards posed to them. The Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) is working on a project to increase mine safety by sending an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) fit with LiDAR sensors and an Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) to map the tunnels and to find a collapsed tunnel in an effort to determine the location and condition of trapped workers. The UGV will drive to the collapsed tunnel, at which point the U AV will launch to find any gap in the tunnel that it could fly through to assess the damage. This overall project requires a releasing and latching system to secure the UAV, allow it to launch at the appropriate location, and dock the UAV when its mission is complete or its battery needs recharging. A simple pin-through design was adopted to latch and release the UAV by implementing a Scotch yoke and servo as the actuator. All necessary components were analyzed for stress using two forces, 16 N (maximum takeoff weight of the potential UAV) and 150 N (im pact force of the maximum w eight of the potential UAV from 0.15 m or just under 6 inches). Three sets of properties for PLA were applied in the stress analyses to thoroughly investigate the feasibility of creating the parts out of PLA, a commonly used plastic for 3D printing. These three property sets were found in literature and consisted of bulk values of PLA, empirically determined values of 3D printed PLA, and values calculated using porosity equations. It was found that most components would function satisfactorily without risking fracture except in extreme conditions. The stress analyses for the landing gear illustrated its weaknesses, revealing a potential need for a different material or redesign. The landing gear as it is could be utilized under nominal operation, but it could not withstand any significant impact such as one that might occur in the event of a hard landing. The latching mechanism itself succeeded in securing the UAV. Future work includes redesigning the landing gear, another design concept for a latching mechanism that may prove more reliable, and adjusting the landing pad in the event a different UAV is selected.
    • Late-Pleistocene Syngenetic Permafrost in the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel, Fox, Alaska

      Kanevskiy, M.Z.; French, H.M.; Shur, Y.L. (Institute of Northern Engineering, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2008)
      Late-Pleistocene syngenetic permafrost exposed in the walls and ceiling of the CRREL permafrost tunnel consists of ice-and organic-rich silty sediments penetrated by ice wedges. Evidence of long-continued syngenetic freezing under cold-climate conditions includes the dominance of lenticular and micro-lenticular cryostructures throughout the walls, ice veins and wedges at many levels, the presence of undecomposed rootlets, and organic-rich layers that reflect the former positions of the ground surface. Fluvio-thermal modifications are indicated by bodies ofthermokarst-cave ('pool') ice, by soil and ice pseudomorphs, and by reticulate-chaotic cryostructures associated with freezing ofsaturated sediments trapped in underground channels.
    • Launch environment data logger design and implementation for CubeSats

      Johnson, Morgan; Thorsen, Denise; Hawkins, Joe; Raskovic, Dejan (2016-12)
      Designing to the CubeSat standard has allowed many universities the ability to launch satellites missions to space. These small satellites are secondary, or even tertiary, payloads on launch vehicles. In fact, these ride-share payloads are frequently used as ballast for weight and balance of the launch vehicle and are often mounted near the engines. The environment experienced by these CubeSats is not well known. The Launch Environment Data Logger was designed to measure temperature and vibrations of the launch vehicle to better understand what kind of environment these small satellites must survive on their ride to space. Through this thesis the requirements of the Launch Environment Data Logger system are established and the initial design developed.
    • Layout and fabrication process from generic to high speed printed circuit boards (PCBS)

      Reddy, Indrani (2005-12)
      Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are exceeding the limits of the classic board design. The goal of this thesis is to inform the reader about the layout and fabrication of PCBs from generic to high speed designs. In chapter 2, Basic Design and Layout, I provide the generic PCB design that will give a basic understanding of board layout and fabrication using Cadence® software tools, which will simplify understanding of the high speed PCB design. Cadence® provides a path to designing PCBs, but to rapidly prototype the design we need to implement simulations. We accomplished the simulations using the Advanced Design System (ADS) tool which is used for designing high frequency PCBs. In this thesis the reader will see examples developed to illustrate high speed issues in digital designs using ADS and correlated simulated and measured values.
    • LED Street Lights in Alaska

      Wies, Richard; Ellingson, Dalton; Elbert, Michael (Alaska University Transportation Center, 2010)
    • Leveraging Alaska North Slope satellite oil field design with networked instrumentation and control systems architecture - Foundation Feldbus

      Chouinard, Brian A. (2000-05)
      Since 1988, oil production rates on Alaska's North Slope have faded. The West Sak oil field in the Greater Kuparuk Area was a satellite field targeted to help slow the production decline. The nature of West Sak oil made it prohibitively expensive to produce using conventional methods. Drastic changes in field production design and operational philosophy were required to make West Sak oil economically viable. The instrumentation and controls network architecture leveraged the implementation of this new design and philosophy. This paper examines the technological requirements, establishes evaluation criteria, compares competing options, outlines the design and implementation, and discusses future prospects. In addition, a functional description of the selected technology, Foundation Fieldbus, is presented from the users perspective.
    • Life after CHOPS: the Alaskan heavy oil reservoir perspective

      Mathur, Bakul; Dandekar, Abhijit; Khataniar, Santanu; Patil, Shirish (2017-05)
      The heavy oil reservoirs in Alaska offer major production challenges, including proximity to the permafrost layer, very high viscosity oil and low mechanical strength pay zones. The Ugnu deposits of the Alaska North Slope (ANS) hold more than 6 billion barrels of oil. The dead oil viscosity at reservoir temperature ranges from 1,000 to 1,000,000 cp1. In an effort to sustain well life, this research focuses on the unique set of challenges occurring in the Ugnu reservoir and presents the best possible way to maximize production. The present research accentuates observations derived from the field data, which shows that deliberate sand production with the hydrocarbon stream while employing a Progressive Cavity Pump (PCP) as an artificial lift method has a favorable effect on primary oil recovery. The developments have led to the advent of a technique called Cold Heavy Oil Production with Sand (CHOPS) as an initial production method for shallow heavy oil reservoirs. Sand production leads to the formation of high porosity channels or wormholes that can range up to hundreds of meters. The co-mingling of heavy oil and sand develops foamy oil by creating a bubbly flow inside the reservoir. The combination of these wormholes with the foamy oil behavior are the primary factors that result in enhanced production during CHOPS. One of the major hindrances to its successful application is the selection of the post-CHOPS production method, which is addressed in this study with the help of modeling and simulation. Alternative recovery techniques following the primary cold production include water flooding, polymer injection, miscible gas injection and thermal recovery methods. Water flooding is unviable because of the mobility contrast between the highly viscous oil and water. The high permeability zones provide a bypass for water, consequently producing elevated water cuts. Another aspect unique to Alaskan heavy oil reservoirs is the proximity to the permafrost layer, with the hydrocarbon bearing zone making thermal recovery methods unappealing. Polymer injection and miscible gas injection become the favorable non-thermal secondary and tertiary recovery methods in this case. This study is based on modeling one of the wells drilled into the M80 sands of the Ugnu formation followed by the analysis of post-CHOPS recovery for the well. The CHOPS well modeling is done with the help of a wormhole fractal pattern and a foamy oil model. Simulation of the polymer injection is then employed from a nearby well. The results indicate almost 12% increment in recovery with polymer flooding as compared to the natural depletion. The recovery obtained from the simulations have been analyzed to provide a basis for designing the polymer injection job as an Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) method after CHOPS. With the promising results of this study, it can be determined that the Ugnu reservoir sands can be exploited for heavy oil with the help of polymer flooding. It can also be combined with miscible gas flooding or alkali-surfactant flooding to obtain even higher hydrocarbon recoveries.
    • Life Cycle Costs for Alaska Bridges

      Hulsey, J. Leroy; Connor, Billy; Metzger, Andrew; Pitts, Donald J. (Alaska University Transportation Center, Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities, 2015)
    • Lime treatment of Interior and South-Central Alaskan soils

      Billings, Matthew E.; Metz, Paul; Darrow, Margaret; Huang, Scott (2013-08)
      Lime treatment of soil is the practice of introducing lime to soil to improve subgrade conditions or to improve a soil's properties to meet construction aggregate qualifications. Lime treated soils commonly exhibit improvements in moisture-density, strength, and thaw performance. Although lime treatment has been practiced in many regions of the United States and Canada for several decades, it is not practiced in Alaska. The purpose of this study was to determine potential of improving commonly encountered Alaskan soils with lime treatment. The two soils analyzed during this study were a silt from the Fairbanks area and a silty gravel from the Anchorage area. These soils were analyzed due to their similarity with soils encountered within regions of Alaska that are currently developed, and have potential for future development. Several laboratory tests were conducted to analyze the effect lime has on the engineering properties of both studied soils. The properties analyzed included moisture-density, strength, frost susceptibility, and thaw strength. The results of this study show lime treatment has potential to improve the engineering properties of commonly encountered Alaskan soils. The results of this study also show potential to improve Alaskan soil with low concentrations of lime during cool and short construction seasons.
    • The Limnology of Two Dissimilar Subarctic Streams and Implications of Resource Development

      LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Nyquist, David (University of Alaska, Institute of Water Resources, 1973-03)
      Because of the relatively undeveloped condition of arctic and subarctic Alaska, an opportunity is presented to draw up water quality management plans before extensive perturbation. These plans cannot, unfortunately , be based upon those drawn up for more temperate regions where much is known about natural stream conditions, for in these Alaskan areas, little is known about the natural physical, chemical, and biological cycles of streams or about their ability to handle the stresses that will be exerted on them should development take place. The Chena River, in subarctic, interior Alaska, near the city of Fairbanks, has been studied to evaluate the impact of pending construction and operation of flood control structures (Frey, Mueller and Berry, 1970). This river however has already been developed, especially along its lower reaches where the city of Fairbanks is situated. The watersheds of the two streams chosen for this study roughly parallel each other, although the Chatanika River watershed is about twice as long as that of Goldstream Creek. In addition to the dissimilarity in size, these two streams also differ in regard to terrain, at least along the respective stretches that were studied. The Goldstream Creek study area runs through a bog and extensive muskeg. The Chatanika River, however, was for the most part sampled in the area of mountainous terrain. The intent of this study was to obtain comprehensive physical and chemical data, to survey the resident invertebrates, and to evaluate the assimilative capabilities of both streams.
    • Long term evaporation pan data to estimate potential evaporation during the warm season on the Alaskan North Slope: Imnavait Creek basin

      Mumm, John Paul; Kane, Douglas L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Schnabel, William (2017-12)
      Evapotranspiration plays a significant role in the hydrologic cycle of all basins, yet is only ccasionally measured in the Arctic. One simple index method to evaluate evapotranspiration is the evaporation pan. The energy environment surrounding the simple evaporation pan varies considerably from that of the natural environment. Yet, an evaporation pan is a sound way to determine and estimate the potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration can be estimated from evaporation pan data by determining and employing a pan coefficient. An evaporation pan was initially installed in 1986 in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range on the North Slope of Alaska in Imnavait Creek Basin, collecting data for 22 years. The total summer maximum, average, minimum and standard deviation of pan evaporation were 34.9 cm, 29.9 cm, 19.7 cm and 9.3 cm, respectively from 1986 to 2008 (1989 missing). Both, the seasonal water balance and the Priestley-Taylor method for the 2.2 km² Imnavait Creek catchment were used to produce seasonal estimates of actual evapotranspiration. When used in conjunction with the evaporation pan measurements, an average pan coefficient of 0.58 was found in both cases, which was very similar to what was found in an earlier study on Imnavait Creek Basin. The evaporation pan results can also be correlated effectively with other measured variables (such as thawing degree days, air temperature, net radiation, vapor pressure deficit, precipitation, wind speed, and wind direction); this is a method that allows one to predict potential evapotranspiration in areas where it is not measured at broader spatial scales.
    • Long-term Stabilization of Disturbed Slopes Resulting from Construction Operations

      Perkins, Robert (Center for Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Cold Climates, 2018-03)
      Highway construction disturbs soil, which must be stabilized to prevent migration of soil particles into water bodies. Stabilization is enforced by law, regulation, and a permit system. Stabilization is most efficiently attained by reestablishment of vegetation, and permits sometimes specify this method of stabilization. Revegetation is difficult in northern Alaska, and seeded grasses often die in a year or two, while reestablishment with native vegetation takes several years. A literature search and interviews with experts indicates that simply extending this “establishment period” has many practical difficulties. Field investigations and interviews indicate that in northern Alaska little erosion occurs at slopes with failed vegetation, which implies that vegetation was not critical to reducing contamination and the expense of revegetation was unnecessary. However, when revegetation is specified in standard permit language, and contractor, owner, and regulator must close out projects, grasses are utilized. This research supports the recommendation that the Alaska Department of Transportation and Public Facilities work with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources and the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation to develop special standards for projects north of the Brooks Range and between the Brooks and Alaska ranges, that recognize the low erosion potential of clean road fill – embankments.
    • Low Data Rate Digital Transmission Techniques for Alaskan Applications

      Roberts, Thomas; Merritt, Robert; Kokjer, Kenneth (1981-02)